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^Q,(rrO 77^.6" /6 

Harvard College 


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By F. W. smith, 


W. H. GREER, No. 43, Donegall Place. 


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Printed at "The Northern Whig" Office. 

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The President and Council 


t §tlfut ([;lsiim}stx of (H^ammtxct 


The Irish Linen Trade 


(by permission) 
Respectfully Dedicated 



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This little work, which does not pretend to do more than give an 
outline of the origin and progress of the Linen Manufacture, 
particularly in connection with the Irish branch, it is hoped may 
prove useful, and repay the labour of perusal. 

I am aware that other and abler pens have already dealt 
with the subject ; but there are some matters referred to in this 
work which have not been previously touched upon, and, as furnish- 
ing a historic epitome of our staple industry, carried down to the 
present date, this will be found a handy book for reference. 

In the preparation of the work — which occupied a considerable 
time — I was indebted to several friends for the use of books Of 
reference, and for information on many points ; and, for his kind- 
ness in this respect, my acknowledgments are especially due to the 
author of " Ireland and her Staple Manufactures." 

To a considerable number of our local Manufacturers and 
Merchants I feel indebted for the encouragement I received from 
the time I commenced the work, and I trust the result of my 
labours may not fall very far short of their expectations. 

In a future edition I shall have a better opportunity of rendering 
the Directory a more complete guide to the trade than it was • 
possible to make it in the present one. I feel much obliged to 
several correspondents in various places for furnishing information 
to enable me to compile this section. 

I have omitted referring to the Legislative control of Factories, 
and also to some other matters which would have possessed 
interest, but these I hope to deal- with on a future occasion. 

This work has been published at my own risk, and, it is but 
right to add, that for the matter itself I am also solely responsible. 

F. W. S. 
Belfast, February i, 1876. 

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Manufacture of Linen in Ancient Times. 

Manufactures in Patriarchal times— Beferences thereto in the Old Testament-<}rowth 
of Flax in Egypt— Spinning and Weaylng in that countrj— Besearches of 
travellers in ancient and modem times— Catacombs at Thebes— Mummy cloth- 
Process of linen manufacture described by Pliny— Clommerce of Egypt with 
surrounding nations— The Phoenician cities, and their respectiye trades, Ac- 
Enterprise of these people— Decline of the manufacture in ancient Egypt- 
Description of the operations carried on, and of the cloth made, &o., - I 


Historical Sketch of Flax Spinning and Linen Manufacturing 
in Ireland, from the earliest period. 

Traditional accounts on this subject— Ck>lonization of Country— Phoenicians and other 
early settlers— Ancient laws— Mission of St. Patrick— Manners and Customs— 
Beferences to spinning and weaving in Brehon laws— Dyeing of cloths— Lectures 
by Professor O'Curry on Dress and Ornaments of ancient Irish— Embroidery 
in olden times, &C., 12 


Position of the Trade from the Fifth to the Seventeenth 

Textile Manufactures in England at Roman Conquest— Same on the Continent 
—Long period of obscurity respecting Irish manufactures— Conquest of 
Ireland in 1172— Earliest record of exportation of Irish manufactures — Woollen 
trade in France and Belgium— Manufacture of Cambric cloth— Woollen Manu- 
factures in Ireland— Unimprored condition of Ireland for seyeral centuries- 
Changes effected in reign of James I.— Dress of various classes at this time, 
&c.— Lord Strafford's administration— Efforts made to improve growth of 
Flax— Spinning of yam, and manufacture of linen cloth— Prejudice against 
changes— Compact between Parliaments of England, and Ireland respecting 
linen and woollen manufactures— Petitions to William III. by English House 
of Conunons- The King's reply— Taxes imposed on woollen manufactures, and 
consequent destruction of the trade— Bevocation of Edict of Nantes— The 
Huguenot settlement in Ireland— Colony at Lisbum- Crommelin's report on 
the linen trade— Encouragement of the trade by English Parliament— Appoint- 
ment of Board of Trustees— Names of Ulster representatives, • - . 3 T 

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From the formation of the Irish Linen Trade Board to the 
Legislative Union with Great Britain. 

Organisation of Linen Board in Dublin-^Steps taken to improve cnltivation of Flax— 
Also of yam and cloth— Regulations respecting sealing of white linens- 
Improvement of the trade in 1741— Protection of same— Cambric factory at 
Dundalk— Sealing of brown linen— Opposition on part of the weavers— De- 
scription of the manufacture carried on in 1776 at Armagh, Lurgan, Warings- 
town, &c.— Sketch of Belfast at this date— Improvement of linen manufac- 
tures on Continent, and competition with Irish trade— Removal of commercial 
restrictions, and position of trade immediately after— Proceedings of Linen 
Board— Applications for grants of money, &c.— Punishment of sealmasters, 
&c.— Rebellion of '98— Union with Great Britain, &c., 3" 


From the Legislative Union with Great Britain — covering 
the period of the Dissolution of the Irish Linen Trade 
Board— to end of 1840. 

Invention of M. Jacquard— Bounties for saving of flaxseed— Also for erection cl 
spindles— Notice of those earliest set up— Statistics of Drogheda trade in 
1808-1809— Report of Audit Commissioners on transactions of Linen Board- 
Increase of spindles— Tour of Secretary of Board through Ulster in 1816 — 
Description of the country markets at this period— Hand spinning in Con- 
naught— Value of goods sold at sevraal markets throughout province of Ulster- 
Particulars of the various goods made — ^Tour of Secretary in 1821— Ballymena 
market at this date— General return of value of linen goods sold in Ireland 
this year— Introduction of wet spinning system— Steps taken by the Govern- 
ment to reduce Parliamentary grant— Dissolution of the Linen Board— Progress 
of wet spinning— York Street mill— State of trade down to end of 1840, - -53 


From the formation of the Flax Improvement Society until 
its Dissolution. 

Organisation of an Association to promote the cultivation of Flax— Free trade policy 
adopted by the trade— Deputation from Flax Society to H.M. the Queen- 
Royal patronage obtained— Famine years— Position of the trade during this 
period, and general condition of the country— Recovery in 1848-49— Visit 
of the Queen to Belfast— Exhibition of flax products at Linen Hall— Report of 
Factory Oonmiissioners 1850— Flax spinning mills in United Kingdom at this 
date— Great Exhibition of 1861— Irish linen fabrics, and report of jury thereon— 
Introduction of power-loom weaving— Dublin Exhibition of 1853— List of 
esdiibitors of Irish linen manufactures — United States tariff on linens, and 
steps taken to obtain a remission of these— Russian war, its effects on the 
trade— Paris Exhibition of 1855— Report of Belfast deputation on linen 
machinery and manufactures— Reports of Royal Flax Society— Return of flax 
spinning mills and power-loom factories in 1859— Dissolution of Flax Society, 7 7 

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From the formation of the Indian Flax Company in 1859 
to present year. 

CtatiTation of Flax in India— Fonnation of a company in Belfiist— Reports from seat of 
operations— International Exhibition in London in 1862^Li8t of Irish exhibi- 
tors of linen goods— Further reports from India respecting progress of flax 
cultivation— OiTil war in America— Its effect on the linen trade— Progress of 
Indian Flax Ck)mpany— Betums of flax mills and factories in 1861— Bxhibi- 
tion in Dublin— List of exhibitors of linen goodft— Betums respecting mills in 
1866— Suitability of climate and soil of Ireland for growing flax— Prosperous 
condition of the linen trade at this period— Formation of Flax Extension 
Association— Paris Exhibition of 1867— Beport on linen manufactures, home 
and foreign— Medals obtained by Irish firms— Depression in 1867 and following 
years— Betums of mills and factories in 1868— Dissolution of Indian Flax 
Company— Franco-German war— Its effect upon the trade— Becovery of trade 
in 1871— Prosperity during that year and the following— Strikes in various 
parts of the country— Vienna Exhibition— Names of Irish firms who obtained 
medals— State of trade in 1874 and 1876— Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876— 
Names of Irish firms who purpose sending goods to this Exhibition, &c. .101 


An account of linen cloth (plain; and linen yam exported from Ireland between 1728 

and 1821 ^47 

Betum of linen yams and linen manufactures exported from the United Kingdom 
from 1881 to 1876 . . . . ^ 



Parliamentary report on factories for the spinning and weaving of textile fabrics 
abroad — Belgium — Prussia— Austria— Wurtemberg— Saxony— Switserland— 
Netherlands— Province of North Brabant— Sweden- Bussia— United States of 
America .-. 149 


Bates of import duties levied by foreign countries on the linen manufactures of iSie 

United Kingdom, compiled from returns presented to Parliament in 1860 - 1 65 

Directory of the Irish Linen Trade 171 

Names and Addresses of some Continental Firms - - - 199 


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Linen Trade Hand Book. 


Manufacture of Linen in Ancient Times. 

HE cultivation of the flax plant and manufacture of 
linen cloth must have been carried on in times 
of the most remote antiquity. In fact, so far as 
investigators have pursued their researches there can 
hardly be a doubt that the art was practised anterior 
to the deluge ; as the incidental circumstances re- 
garding the mode of life and habits of Eastern nations, 
referred to in the Book of Genesis, indirectly tell us that 
the people of these early days had some knowledge of the manu- 
facture of material for clothing and other purposes. Animal fibres, 
such as wool and hair, we are told, were originally used in those 
early periods of human history, which succeeded the more primitive 
form of clothing — the skins of animals — which to this day form the 
usual material for such rude garments as are worn in savage life. 
After manufactures of wool and hair, the discovery of fibrous 
materials, in those plants indigenous to the soil, would engage 
attention, and from that most ancient of historical records — the 
Bible — we find ample evidence of the extensive consumption of 
linen in patriarchal times. 

Some of the most studious men of later times entertained 
strong opinions on the question. The late Dr. Guthrie, one of the 
most eloquent of modern divines, in alluding to Jabal, said " he felt 
pretty certain that the founder of tent making must have had 
coarse cloth of some description as coverings for his work/' Jabal 
lived long before Noah laid the timbers of his great ship, and as 
fibrous plants of all descriptions abounded in the land occupied 

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by Adam's more immediate descendants, there can be little doubt 
that he soon found out the value of such material for the make of 
coarse canvas. If Cain was able to design and build a city we 
do not see why Jabal should not have exliibited equal ingenuity in 
the manipulation and manufacture of hemp. The article produced 
was probably the roughest of textiles, still it would have been a 
great improvement on the sun-tanned hides. 

Granting, however, that manufactures in their rudest state were 
known thus early, it is quite certain that until the chosen people 
arrived at Palestine they had made but little way as producers of 
linen. Egypt was the cradle of the textile arts— Joseph's sojourn 
in the land of the Pharaohs led to the Israelites making that 
country their home, and ultimately to their captivity ; and there it 
was that the sons of Jacob were taught in some of the higher 
branches of the trade. Still they never equalled their taskmasters 
in either the fine arts or manufactures, and for more than seven 
hundred years after the Israelites left Egypt they were in the 
habit of sending buyers to that country to purchase cloth and yarn. 

To trace through Bible history the various references to this 
important textile would doubtless prove interesting, but we can 
only glance at some of the more remarkable ones, and these may 
form the ground work of a closer investigation, in which those 
desirous of tracing the records of this ancient art may wish to 

The first allusion to the flax plant occurs in connection with 
the records of the plagues of Egypt — where it is stated that " the 
flax and the barley were smitten ; for the barley was in the ear, 
and the flax was boiled." In the Book of Job, that patriarch 
compares his life to "a weaver's shuttle," and in Proverbs the 
virtuous woman is spoken of as one that " seeketh wool and flax, 
and worketh willingly with her hands," and as " laying her hands 
to the spindle and her hands hold the distaff. . . . She 
maketh fine linen and selleth it, and delivereth girdles unto the 
merchant." In many other places reference is made to the process 
of weaving. 

During their captivity the children of Israel learned the art 
of spinning flax and weaving it into cloth, and in the Tabernacle 
in the wilderness, and afterwards in the Temple services, the use 
of linen garments was prescribed for the Priests, as well for 
ordinary as for special seasons. The outer covering of the Taber- 
nacle was formed of a plain hanging of fine twined linen, which, 
according to Josephus, seemed to be wrought in an open or 
net-work texture, so as to permit the people without to see the 
interior. The veil of the Holy of Holies was also of linen, 
embroidered with many designs of the most beautiful flowers, and 

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interwoven with various ornamental figures, except the forms 
of animals, which was doubtless with a view to avoid all 
temptation to idolatrous worship. 

From other books of the Old Testament, in which reference is 
made to the habits and customs of Eastern nations, it would 
appear that in those early times, Egypt, the ancient emporium of 
this textile, held the foremost rank among the nations. Its linen 
yarn was purchased by King Solomon, and Ezekiel speaks of the 
embroidered linen from Egypt ; whilst artificers of the highest 
skill were brought from that country to Jerusalem, for the purpose 
of working the most costly and beautiful designs for the adornment 
of the Temple. 

Besides the Israelites, the Babylonians and other Orientals 
were famed for their textile products, but none ever rose 
to the rank and importance maintained by the people of Egypt. . 
In the book of Esther, we find a description of some of these in 
the palace of King Ahasuerus, " where were white, green, and blue 
hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple, to silver 
rings, and pillars of marble ; " whilst Mordecai is described as 
being clad " in blue and white, with a great crown of gold, and 
with a garment of fine linen and purple." In the New Testament 
Scriptures as well as in the Old, many allusions are made to the 
article linen, and it is also referred to as typical of spotlessness 
and purity. Heathen and idolatrous nations, in their religious 
ceremonies, used this material as the most suitable for clothing 
and decorative purposes, as well as being a cleaner and purer 
article than woollen garments. 

That the manufacture of linen owes its development to ancient 
Egypt is beyond dispute, and to its people, who were skilled in 
many arts, we, in modern times, stand indebted to an extent of 
which little estimate has yet been taken. The Egyptians derived 
many advantages from their soil and climate, but to their sacred 
and noble river — the Nile — they owed all these elements of success. 
The rich alluvial deposit, formed by the periodical overflow of that 
river, possessed fertilising properties which gave the farmers 
peculiar facilities for the raising of crops for food, and for furnish- 
ing them with material for carrying on an industry which placed 
them in the first rank as a manufacturing people. 

With the natural advantages which their country possessed, it 
is not surprising that they arrived at a very high degree of civilisa- 
tion, and possessing all the necessaries, and many of the luxuries 
of life, they became self-reliant, and very much isolated from 
surrounding nations. 

The soil being well adapted for the cultivation of the flax plant, 
it was extensively grown, and the mode in which this ancient 

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4 Irish linen TkADk 

peoJ)le treated it corresponds very closely with that adopted in our 
own time. From the words inscribed on monuments and tombs 
we trace the various stages through which the raw material passed, 
until it was spun into thread, and passed through the subsequent 
processes of weaving and finishing. These details are noted with 
an accuracy and faithfulness which is truly wonderful. The pulling 
of the flax, the steeping, drying, breaking, scutching, and dressing 
of the fibre for spinning, are minutely described, and may still be 
seen on those imperishable tablets found in the rock tombs of 
ancient Thebes. 

Sir J. G. Wilkinson, in his researches into the history of this 
people, has very fully described and illustrated the mode of treat- 
ment, and the stages through which this fibre passed till the cloth 
was produced ; and it is interesting to note what very little 
deviations have been made in modern times from the process of 
manipulation practised some 3,500 years ago. 

Pliny -^ the naturalist — explains these different processes, 
which form the subject of so many of those old paintings, whose 
brilliant colouring to this day retains much of its original freshness. 
Speaking of the steeping process, he says " the stalks themselves 
are immersed in water, warmed by the heat of the sun, and are 
kept down by weights placed upon them, for nothing is lighter 
than flax. The membrane or rind becoming loose is a sign of its 
being sufficiently macerated. The stalks are then taken out, and 
repeatedly turned over in the sun, until perfectly dried, and are 
afterwards beaten with mallets on stone slabs. That which is 
nearest the rind is called tow, inferior to the inner fibre, and fit 
only for the wicks of lamps. It is combed out with iron hooks 
until all the rind is removed ; the inner part is of a whiter and 
finer quality. After this process it is made up into yarn, and it is 
polished by striking it frequently on a hard stone moistened with 
water." Wilkinson illustrates these processes, his work showing 
the steeping ponds at Beni Hassan, beating the stalks, making of 
ropes, and the weaving of cloth. In the finishing processes, which 
are shown in other paintings, the beating of the cloth with clubs 
and the smoothing of it with wooden instruments to give it a polish 
evidences the perfection to which this manufacture was brought.* 

As regards the mode of spinning the fibre, the universal plan, 
and one which was adopted and practised by all nations down to 
comparatively modem times, was by the spindle and distaff! 
Around the latter, which was a piece of wood, the prepared flax 
was wound, and was held either in the left hand or fastened to the 

* Pliny speaks of four descrlptloDs of linen which the Egyptians manufactured ; and 
states that the quantity of flax cultiyated in Egypt was acoounted for by their exporting 
Uaen to Arabia and also to India. 

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belt in some manner. The spindles — several illustrations of which 
are given by Wilkinson — were 12 to 15 inches long, made of wood, 
in a bulbous form ; some were of lighter material, such as rushes, 
stained in various colours, they tapered to a point, which was 
rendered heavy for the purpose of spinning on the ground, and 
increasing the impetus ; to the other end or handle the flax thread 
was attached, and by drawing the hand quickly across the spindle, 
as it lay on the knee, it was made to spin rapidly in the au: or on 
the ground, whilst the flax fibre was drawn from the distaff". 

Some of these spindles have been found in the ruins at Thebes, 
and are now in the British Museum. Wilkinson himself found one 
which had some thread wound on it. 

The occupation of spinning was practised in all ages by women, 
and as designating the art we have the word "spinner" or "spinster" 
applied to females, who doubtless devoted more time to this occu- 
pation before domestic affairs connected with married life took 
the place of these lighter duties. 

Herodotus — who has been called the father of history — in 
speaking of Egypt, says — " It claims our admiration beyond all 
other countries, and the wonderful things which it exhibits demand 
a very copious description. 'J'he Egyptians, bom under a climate 
to which no other can compare, possessing a river, different in its 
nature and properties from all other rivers in the world, aire them- 
selves distinguished from the rest of mankind by the singularity of 
their institutions and their manners. In this country the women 
leave to the men the management of the loom, in the retirement 
of the house, whilst they themselves are engaged abroad in the 
business of commerce. Other nations in weaving shoot the woef 
above, the Egyptians beneath." 

The historian, however, had fallen into error regarding the 
relative duties of the sexes, for the paintings give many examples 
of women as well as men engaged in weaving ; and the statement 
regarding commercial business being confined to women is also 

From the catacombs at Thebes, immense quantities of linen 
cloth have in latter times been brought to light. It was the 
universal practice among this people, who were so skilful in the 
process of embalming bodies — whose wonderful preservation to this 
day attests, in no small degree, the extent of their civilization 
and knowledge of the art — that they were to be enveloped in 
linen, the reason being its known purity, as resisting the deve- 
lopment of animal life, which would destroy, in a short time 
these bodies, which it was their belief, should be carefully 
preserved. From these mummy clothes we gain much of the 
knowledge we possess regarding the linen manufacture as practised 

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by this people. According to the rank which the person occupied, 
there was a corresponding amount of cloth used, varying in texture 
from the coarsest up to that of the very finest ; in fact some 
samples of the latter have been discovered which in beauty of 
texture rival the production of our hand-loom cambric linen. 
Some of these linens, when first discovered, were believed 
to be mixtures of silk, cotton, or some other fibre than flax, so 
doubtful were investigators in believing that the spinning and 
weaving of flax had attained to such perfection as was subsequently 
admitted, but after careful miscroscopical and chemical analysis, 
scientists have affirmed the purity of these textiles, as being free 
from admixture of every description. Under the microscope, the 
flax fibre shows a peculiar transparency, is cylindrical in form, and 
has a jointed appearance resembling the sugar cane. Cotton fibre 
has a flat ribband like appearance, and shows what might be 
described as a selvage at each side.* 

Not only did the Egyptians attain to great perfection in the 
treatment of the flax plant, and the art of manufacturing it, but 
they were likewise acquainted with processes by which it could be 
dyed to various shades, and though they had not the knowledge 
we possess of bringing the cloth to that snowy whiteness which 
distinguishes our productions, they were, nevertheless, able to 
produce a very fair bleach. . 

We have again to refer to the writings of Pliny in proof of this. 
He states — " In Egypt they stain clothes in a wonderful manner. 
They take them in their original state, quite white, and imbrue 
them, not with a dye, but with certain -drugs, which have the* power 
of absorbing and taking colour. When this is done there is still no 
appearance of change in the cloth, but as soon as they are dipped in 
a bath of the pigment which has been prepared for the purpose, they 
are taken out properly coloured. The singular thing is that, though 
the bath contains only one colour, several hues are imparted to tSe 
piece, these changes depending on the nature of the drug 
employed, nor can the colour be afterwards washed off^ and surely 
if the bath had many colours in it they must have presented a 
confiised appearance on the cloth." 

In the finishing of their linens, the Egyptians had not the skill or 
knowledge which we possess. Beetling engines and calenders were 

* We think that the microscope, which is every day coming more and more mto popular 
nse, as a means of inyestigating the wonders of the animal, vegetable, and mineral creation, 
might be tamed to greater practical account than it is ; and, in connection with the analysis 
of textile materials, would be useful to merchants and manufacturers, for testing the fibres 
of various nmterials, and ascertaining their component parts. To find an instrument suitable 
for such purposes, sufficiently simple in its mechanism to be readily used, was a matter into 
which the author inquired, and he believes he has succeeded in getting one, which, for all 
practical purposes, may be found to an&wer. For a detailed description the reader is referred 
to the advertising pages of this work. 

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unknown to them, and whatever degree of fineness of texture or 
glossiness the linen showed, it was imparted in a very laborious, 
imperfect, and clumsy manner. In the paintings, various tools for 
smoothing and polishing linen are shown, and it is a matter of 
surprise that with such rude instruments they were able to give so 
good a finish to their cloth. 

The Egyptians not only manufactured linen cloth on an ex- 
tensive scale for their own use, but the fame of their art having 
spread among surrounding nations a very extensive trade was 
carried on among them, and though we have no statistical records 
to quote regarding this foreign traffic, from all that can be gathered 
respecting it, it was very considerable. To Persia, Arabia, Palestine, 
Greece, and all along the shores of the Mediterranean their manu- 
factures were sent. To Tyre, that ancient city, famous for its rich 
dyes, it is probable a large quantity of cloth was exported, and after 
being dyed was sold in the various markets with which the Phoeni- 
cians traded. In the 27 th chapter of Ezekiel a description is given of 
the riches and commerce of Tyre, in connection with the judgments 
impending over it (and which were executed by Nebuchadnezzar 
572 B.C.), reference is therein made to the fine linen which thfey 
brought from Egypt. Besides plain linen for clothing and domestic 
purposes, and tor shrouding, the Egyptians manufactured sail cloth 
for the galleys of the Mediterranean. One of the paintings repre- 
sents a ship in full sail, and the cloth has the appearance of having 
been made from hemp, a fibre which also extensively grew in that 

Thus we see that this great people, renowned in fine arts and 
architecture, were equally skilled in textile manufactures, and as 
their temples and monuments have excited the wonder and ad- 
miration of all ages, in no less degree have their industrial pursuits 
marked them out as a truly original and ingenious race. 

It is not our intention to follow up the history of this people 
in reference to the special branch of industry in which they have 
been our teachers, but merely to glance at the origin of the manu- 
facture in this its cradle, and from that to trace its future develop- 

After remaining a monopoly in Egypt for many centuries, 
owing to the oppression of rulers in subsequent times, who were 
less disposed to cultivate the peaceful arts, this great enterprise 
gradually decayed, and with other traces of its former glory 
became more and more obscured, until finally it might be con- 
sidered as lost, or buried in their rock tombs, only to be brought 
to light in modem days, to bear testimony to their civilisation and 
industry in dark and barbarous ages. Within the present century 
efforts have been made by the Government of the Pasha to re- 

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establish the flax industry, and to a limited extent this has been 
successful ; still the total value of the exports is only of very 
small amount, and the manufacture is almost sblely confined to 
coarse cloth. 

The value and importance of a manufacture so great as this, 
was thoroughly appreciated by that famous race of navigators — 
the Phoenicians — who at one time carried on an extensive trade 
not only with the surrounding countries, but all along the shores 
of the Mediterranean, and who some 2,800 years ago are said to 
have pushed beyond the Straits of Gibraltar, and landing on the 
poast of Spain, founded a city called Gadir, 896 B.C., subsequently 
called Cadiz. To Spain they appear to have traded regularly, and 
doubtless, among other articles, bartered for the metals of that 
country Egyptian linen. 

That surrounding nations had probably at different times 
learned the art of flax culture, and linen manufacturing there is 
abundant evidence, but none in ancient times bore any comparison 
to the Egyptians. Other nations excelled in woollen, silk, and 
cotton fabrics, but the seat of the linen industry was essentially 
located in Egj'pt, and her commerce in that textile placed her in 
the front rank of nations for wealth and intelligence. 

The Egyptians were not inclined to push in any vigorous 
manner an export trade in their own goods, and being indifferent 
navigators, and entertaining a great dislike to the sea, they yielded 
to others what would have largely contributed to the maintenance 
of their greatness as a manufacturing people— the traffic in their 
own products. It is recorded that though at one time they had 
carried on a desert trade as far as the western coast of India, they 
had ultimately to relinquish it to a people less actuated by nationsd 
prejudices and superstitions, and of more friendly and sociable 
tendencies than the Egyptians. The Phoenicians on the contrary 
entertained none of the scruples or prejudices peculiar to the 
Egyptians, and readily seized the advantages thus thrown in theu: 
way, for pushing a lucrative trade in merchandise of such essential 
importance as linen, and they are said to have taken possession of 
the harbours on the Red Sea and elsewhere, which had been 
abandoned by the Egyptians. 

The chief cities of the Phoenicians were Tyre, Sidon, and 
Biblus, and in these ports they built their ships, and traded to all 
parts of the then known world. The Phoenicians, or Canaanites 
of Scripture, have sometimes been confounded with the Arabians, 
who were a different people. 

Sidon, which is said to have been founded 2,200 B.C., was a 
great naval port. The mountains of Lebanon afforded an inex- 
haustible supply of cedar for shipbuilding and other purposes. 

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Tyre was founded in later times, about 1250 B.C., and ultimately 
rose to such greatness and wealth as to eclipse Sidon. Tyre was 
long famous for and held an important rank in ancient history for 
having discovered, and long retained, the secret by which those 
beautiful purple dyes were imparted to various fabrics. 

RawHnson writing on Phoenicia, says, about 800-900 B.C. 
" The commercial spirit of the Phoenicians was largely exemplified 
by the fact of their establishing colonies along the coast of the 
Mediterranean, which were rapidly covered with settlements and 
cities, built on the shores of the ocean. Factories were established 
on the Persian Gulf, and conjointly with the Jews on the Red Sea. 
Phoenicia had at this time no serious commercial rival, and the 
trade of the world was in her hands. Her commerce was chiefly 
a carrying trade, but there were also a few productions of their 
own in which their traffic was considerable. The most common of 
these was the purple dye, which they obtained from two shell-fish, 
the Buccirum and the Murix, and by which they gave a high value 

to their textile fabrics Industry and enterprise 

reaped their usual harvest of success. The Phoenicians grew in 
wealth, and their towns became great and magnificent cities. In 
the time when the Babylonian Empire came into being, the narrow 
tract of Phoenicia — smaller than many an English county —was 
among the most valuable countries of Asia ; and its possession 
was far more coveted than that of many a land whose area was 
ten or twenty times as great." 

In proof of the intrepidity of these ancient navigators we have 
a statement by Herodotus, who visited Egypt, that an exploring 
expedition was fitted out by Necho, King of Egypt (the Pharoah 
Necho of Scripture), by which the Phoenicians were said to have 
circumnavigated the coast of Africa about 600 B.C. 

The most important colony which this people founded was 
Carthage. For about six centuries the Phoenicians held almost 
undisputed sovereignty of the sea.; until the time of the Romans, 
a people who speedily eclipsed the Phoenicians in their zeal for 
discovery and conquest. 

The dynasty of the Pharoahs, under whose rule the linen 
manufacture was extended and perfected, was overthrown by the 
Persians, 525 B.C., to whom it became subjected. Next Egypt 
fell under the sway of Alexander the Great, then of Ptolemy 
323 B.C., till finally it became subject to imperial Rome B.C. 
30. The Romans held the country till seized by the Saracens, 
A.D. 640. Under their control, its ancient glory, which had long 
been obscured, crumbled away, and became finally extinct, and all 
that remained, to attest a once prosperous and distinguished race, 
fell under the rule of the Turks in 151 7. 

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The mode of manufacture, which is so graphically described 
and illustrated by Wilkinson, may prove interesting if more 
minutely described in this place. 

In one painting, a weaver is represented as sitting on the 
ground, and interlacing the warp by throwing through the weft 
with his hand, driving the weft home with a kind of lath, which, 
like the Irish weavers' "sleys," ran across the warp, and in this case 
was placed in the horizontal position. Another painting shows the 
warp as upright, and the weft thrown in with a long needle. 
Again we have the picture of a woman putting in the weft, whilst 
a second female operative strikes it home. As they appeared 
unacquainted with the shuttle used in later times, the difficulty 
of filling in the weft must have been very great, and as the 
operation was necessarily tedious, it is not surprising to find that 
the webs were often much below the square, seldom equal to the 
warp, and in some descriptions of cloth so low in weft as to be 
only about one shot to every four of warp. 

But whilst the bulk of their manufactures ranged from low to 
medium sets, the Egyptians were likewise adepts in the production 
of the finest fabrics, which compare favourably with specimens of 
our own cambric looms. In the mummies which have been unrolled 
immense quantities of linen cloth have been recovered, and from 
the bodies of some as much as 300 hundred yards of material have 
been taken, varying in quality, from the coarsest description on the 
inside, to the finest towards the outside. The bodies of the kings, 
nobles, and priests were enveloped in some of these finest cloths. 

Mr. Thompson, writing on the mummy cloth of Egypt, states 
that in Belzoni's mummy cloth the warp counted 90 to an inch, and 
the weft about half of this ; but specimens have been found with 
152 threads of warp to 75 threads of weft ; but even this was not 
the finest specimen found. One was discovered at Memphis 
which counted 540, or 270 double threads to the inch in the warp, 
but only a no in the weft The width varied from about a yard 
down to a few inches. 

Not only were the Egyptians skilled in the bleaching and 
dyeing of cloth, but specimens of cloth dyed in the yarn, and 
some very beautiful bordered, coloured, and fringed cloths have 
been found, and some of the paintings represent fabrics of these 
different descriptions. They were also skilled in embroidering, and 
working devices of various kinds in gold thread, at a very early 
period, and from them the Israelites learned this art, and after- 
wards turned it to account in working the draperies connected 
with the Tabernacle, for it is stated, " they did beat the gold into 
thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work in the blue, and in the 
purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen." The knowledge 

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of dyeing cloths to various colours necessarily implied a knowledge 
of mordants, and the mode in \yhich this process was carried out 
has been described by Pliny. 

The foregoing will convey but a very imperfect idea of the 
ancient linen manufacture, and the great perfection to which it 
had been brought by the Egyptians. We are so apt in the present 
day, owing to the proud position we occupy as manufacturers 
of this textile, to forget that much of the knowledge we possess 
regarding it is derived from this ancient people, whose special 
industry had attained to a high degree of excellence when the 
patriarch Abraham first visited the country ; and when his descen- 
dents, in a subsequent age, left it to carve for themselves an im- 
perishable name, the manufacture had attained a high degree of 

Those who wish to obtain a more extended description of 
ancient linen, and of the various countries where this manufacture 
was carried on in olden times, are referred to the exhaustive work 
on the linen trade, by Mr. A. J. Warden, of Dundee, who, as the 
result of muc'h painstaking investigation, has produced a valuable 
and interesting book on the subject. 

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Historical Sketch of Flax Spinning and Linen Manufacturing in 
Ireland, from the earliest period. 

5 ERY little of a precise or authentic character is known 
respecting the cultivation of the flax plant in Ireland 
in ancient times, or of the period in which the art of 
weaving was introduced. As a matter of course the 
traditional theories handed down to us have been the 
subject of much controversy, and like the previous 
question regarding the original settlement of people in the 
country, have afforded ample scope for debate ; and upon 
the materials within our reach, many fanciful histories have been 
written. Much of the early annals of Ireland may be regarded as 
traditional, and these are embodied in those manuscripts which 
date from the fifth to the fifteenth century, in which ancient history 
is interwoven with the poetical fancies and mythological creations 
of those early settlers in the kingdom. It is true we have archaeo- 
logical remains, and works of art, which relate to their true history ; 
and it is from these, as well as from the merits of these MSS. 
themselves we can gather much to interest, and collect sufficient 
material, which disentangled from the web of fiction surrounding 
it, remains as imperishable testimony to the great genius and 
power of the ancient Irish race. 

For the earliest records of our people we have then to trust 
largely to the biographies of the saints ; and it is through these 
writings we get those glimpses, incidentally thrown in, which form 
the historic chain that connects the people of ancient Erin with 
those of modern times, as engaged in various handicrafts, carrying 
on — amongst others — the manufacture of which this chapter 

As the descendants of Ham have been traced among the 

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tiAND Book, Id 

Egyptians and neighbouring nations, and those of Shem among 
the more eastern portion of Asia ; so the posterity of Japhet are 
believed to have migrated towards' the west of Europe, and, as 
before stated, many theories have been projected respecting the 
first colonisers of our own green Isle. 

The researches of Irish scholars of late years, and to whose 
works we shall refer, have thrown a flood of light upon the historic 
associations of our country, and will well repay a careful study. 

Notably among these stand the works of Drs. O'Donovan, 
O'Curry, Todd, Graves, and ma,ny others, which supply a collection 
of the tnost varied and inexhaustible antiquarian treasure. 

To the admirable lectures delivered by the late Dr. O'Curry, in 
Dublin, in i860, we propose to make free reference, as in 
some of these we have detailed from those ancient MSS., and 
from the collection of antiques in the Irish Academy, a most 
interesting view of the habits and customs of the people, their 
arts and manufactures. 

The Phoenicians, to whom reference has been made in the 
previous chapter — those intrepid navigators of the high seas — are, 
by Bochart and other writers, believed to have traded to Cornwall 
for tin as early as A.M. 3,100, or 904 years before the birth of 
Christ. This people are credited with having colonised Ireland, 
but the question is still involved in much doubt. The Druids 
(Rees Cycl) are said to have been a tribe of the ancient Celt, who 
emigrated, as Herodotus tells us, from the Danube towards the 
more westerly parts of Europe, and settled in Gaul and Britain at 
a very early period. The origin of the Druids in Erin (O'Curry 
says) is carried back by our ancient writings to the earliest 
colonisers of the country, who were all, be it remembered, traced 
to the race of Japhet. The Milesian colony — also Japhetians — 
passed in their migrations from Scythia into Greece, out of which 
they had previously come; thence into Egypt, then into Spain, 
and so from Spain into Erin, which they reached about 200 years 
after the conquest of the Tuatha de Danann, that is in the year of 
the world 3,500, or about 1,700 before Christ, according to the 
chronology of the Four Masters.* 

* In the Annals of the Four Masters it is recorded— The age of the world was 2,620 when 
Parthalon, with his three sons and their four wives, came to Ireland. A foot-note says— 
This date wotQd correspond with the 2l8t year of the age of the patriarch Abraham, or 818 
years after the deluge. . . . In age of the world 8,500— The fleet of the sons of Milidh 
came to Ireland, at the end of this year, to take it from the Tuatha de Dananns. And a foot- 
note states —Mageogh^an in his translation of the Annals of Olonmacnoise adds— That the 
sons of Miletus (Milesians) arrived in Ireland on 17th May, 1029 years before the birth of 
Christ. Another authority states they arrived 1,842 B.O. The chronology of the Fonr 
Masters reckons 5,200 years from the creation of the world to the birth of Christ. 

Many of these dates are purely apocryphal, and our belief in the accuracy of them is 
much shaken by finding the chronological records betrin with the startling statement (recorded 
in the ** Book of Leinster ") that OsB^air, the granddaughter of Noah, with a band of fifty girls 
and three men, came to Ireland on the Sabbath day, the lAth day of the mocm'a Age, and 
/Qr<y dayi b^or€ the Flood* 

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" In any case the time has scarcely come for dissecting and 
analysing the curious tissues of legends of Uraorians, Fomorians, 
Nemidians, Firbolgs, Tuatha de Danann, Milesians, and others, 
which constitute the mythical part of Irish history. As in the case 
of the other nations of middle and north Europe, true chrono- 
logical history began in Ireland either by contact with the Romans 
or with the introduction of Christianity. And, like the mediaeval 
chronicles of everywhere else, the early Irish Christian chroniclers 
and genealogists tacked on the pedigrees of Irish kings and chief- 
tains to those of Genesis."* 

Whatever doubts exist regarding the early colonisation of Ire- 
land, from all that can be gleaned, we find that the manufactures, 
of which we at this day are justly proud, can be traced back through 
the middle and dark ages ; and in the dim twilight of remote 
antiquity, unmistakable traces are found of their existence among 
those Celtic tribes, who, no doubt, brought from the East, not 
only the seed, but the skill to treat and manufacture the fibre. 

From the ancient MSS. before referred to, indubitable evidence 
•exists that for centuries anterior to the birth of our Saviour the 
inhabitants of this country were acquainted with the art of spinning 
and weaving; possibly woollen materials were originally more 
extensively used than linen, for in many descriptions given us 
respecting the dress of the ancient Celts we are left in doubt as to 
the material of which it was composed, but enough may be gleaned 
from these writings to justify the claim as to the great antiquity of 
the textile upon which we treat. 

Among those ancient MSS., tlie Senchus Mor— translated by Dr. 
O'Donavan — supplies most interesting particulars. From this we 
learn that not only were the ancient Irish acquainted with spinning 
and weaving, but with bleaching and dyeing, and the mode of 
treating the flax plant, and its manipulation through all after stages 
resembled that of Egypt, from which all knowledge of the art is 
believed to have come. 

The English laws, for long after the conquest of Ireland, being 
inoperative beyond the Pale, which comprised the counties of 
Louth, East and West Meath, Kildare, Dublin, and Wicklow, all 
through the rest of Ireland, down to Elizabeth's reign, the Brehon, 
or ancient Irish laws, administered by the Irish judges, called 
Brehons, was the recognised code of administration so long as the 
sway of the Irish chieftains remained. The proclamation issued 
in the reign of James I. set aside those ancient statutes, and in their 
place English law was substituted, the entire country being then 
completely divided, as at present, ihto its respective counties. 

• O'Cuxry^Intro. by O'SnlllTan toL I. 

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It is impossible to assign a correct period to these ancient 
laws, or learn their origin, but so far as can be gathered from the 
Senchus tliese laws had been recognised and acted upon long 
before the Christian era. 

Writers upon the religious history of the country ascribe to the 
ancient Irish a high degree of Christianity, and from the records 
which have come down to us, chiefly in connection with the mission 
of St Patrick, we find the people were brought, at a very early 
period, under the influence of the Gospel ; and that, on account of 
the readiness with which Christianity was embraced, it has not 
inaptly been described as the ** Isle of Saints/' 

In the annals of the Four Masters — compiled in 1632 — it is 
mentioned. " The age of Christ 438. The Senchus and 
Feinechus were purified and written ; the writings, and old books 
of Ireland, having been collected and brought to one place, at the 
request of St. Patrick. '* 

''These were the nine supporting props by which this was 
done. Laeghairie, i.e, the King of Ireland, Core and Daire, the 
three kings : Patrick, Benen, Caimeach, the three saints : Ross, 
Dubhthach, and Fergus, the three antiquaries." This council 
appears to have collected and revised the traditionary laws by 
which the Island had been governed, and we are told that after 
Patrick had preached the Gospel to the natives they then set 
about this judicial work. These laws, " founded on the laws of 
nature, interpreted by coi^cience, were (instead of ascribing what 
was good in the judgment of the Pagan Brehons to direct instruc- 
tion in the law of Moses in Egypt) attributed to the influence 
of the Holy Spirit upon the just men who before their conversion 
to Christianity were in the Island of Erin,*' the reason added, 
" for the law of nature had prevailed where the written law did 
not reach ; " and, it is further stated, " what did not clash with 
the Word of God in the written law, and in the New Testament, 
and with the consciences of the believers, was confirmed in the 
law of the Brehons by Patrick, and by the Ecclesiastics, and 
the Chieftains of Erin ; for the law of nature had been quite right, 
except the faith and its obligations, and the harmony of the 
church and people. And this is the Senchus.*' 

Having briefly alluded to these ancient Irish laws, we shall 
refer to such portions as throw light upon the manners and customs 
of the people of ancient Erin, especially in reference to their 
industrial pursuits. 

In the law relating to " Distress" we find many interesting 
allusions to manufactures. Under this law, which regulated the 
recovery of debt, the creditor was empowered, under certain 
conditions laid down, to make a seizure, or distress, upon the 

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property of the debtor, which, however, for a period, varying from 
one to fifteen days, though legally seized, was under stay of 
execution, to afford time to the debtor to discharge the 
obligation. As regards seizures made on behalf of women, for 
either the value of their work or materials, two days appears to 
have been the extent of stay allowed. 

With this explanation we quote the law as specially applicable 
to such cases as illustrate the subject. 

** Distress of two days for the price of the produce of the 
hand ; for wages for weaving ; for the blessing of one woman on 
the work of another ; for every material which is on the spindles ; 
for the flax spinning stick ; for the wool spinning stick ; for the wool 
bag ; for the weaver's reed ; for all the implements of weaving ; 
for the flax scutching stick; for the distaff ; for the spool stick; 
for the flyers of the spinning wheel ; for the yam ; for the reel of 
the spinner ; for the border ; for the pattern of her handy work ; 
for the wallet with its contents ; fox the basket ; for the leather 
scoop ; for the rods ; for the hoops ; for the needle ; for the 
ornamental thread, &c.'' 

The lawful right of the pledged needle of the embroideress is 
laid down in the law — ** She is paid the value of an ounce of silver, 
in ornamentation, for every needle which she has pledged." 

In laws of a similar kind reference is made to spinning, weaving, 
and dyeing. 

The following are some items, for the recovery of which women 
had recourse to the law : — 

1. The price [or wages] of hand produce [labour] that is the 
price of what she has produced with her hand — namely, teasing 
and colouring and weaving (wool), the price or pay being one- 
tenth part of each work [/.^., the value of the woven piece]. Also 
for napping [or sleeking] the cloth, half the wages of the weaving 
women, /.<?., the wages given [/>., the price of weaving]. 

2. For materials such as grey flax and grey woollen yarn when 
upon the spindles, 

3. For a flax spinning spindle. 

4. For a spindle, /.^., a wool spinning spindle or a spindle of 

5. For a foot bag [that is a bag that contains the sorted wool], 
and which is placed under {or at) the woman's feet, out of which 
she combs (or cards) her materials, that is the combing (or carding) 

6. For a Feith geir, which puts a sharp (smooth) face upon 
her weaving. [This, O'Curry adds, was probably the sleeking stick 
or bone which weavers still use to close and flatten linen cloth on 
the breast beam of the loom while in process of being woven.] 

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7. For all the weaving implements, />., for all the instruments 
used in weaving, including beams and heddles, />., weaving rods. 

8. For the flax scutching stick, /.^., by which the flax is scutched. 
For the distaff", or flax rock, or for the spindle for spinning wool. 

9. For a rolling beam, i.e,^ the beam without the radiating 
head, without sharp points. 

10. For a border (or fringe) sword, that is the sword or lath 
upon which the border or fringe is woven. 

11. For materials, />., for the finished material, the material 
which wants only to be woven, />., the white balls, the white 
(bleached) thread. 

12. For the instruments of the manufacturing women — namely, 
the winding bars, />., the tree upon which she prepares the yam ; 
the winding reel 

13. For a border fringe upon itself, /.^., cloth having a border 
edge or fringe made of its own warp, and not sewed on.* 

In the annals of the Four Masters (p. 43), age of the world 
3,656, it is stated that by Tigheammas clothes were dyed purple, 
blue, and green. 

O'Curry, in his interesting lectiures on the " Dress and Orna- 
ments of Ancient Erin,'* says — " The introduction of diversity of 
colours in dress is attributed to the monarch Tighearnmas, who is 
said to have reigned at the remote period referred to. To the 
monarch Eochaidt Edgerdach (or Eochaidt, the * cloth designer*) 
is attributed the extension and complete establishment of a 
sumptuary law, regulating the colours to be worn in dress, such a 
law implying considerable advance in the arts connected with 
weaving and dyeing." 

The " Book of Leinster," which is the oldest authority, says :-:- 
" Tighearnmas, the son of OUaig, then assumed the sovereignty, 
and he broke three times nine battles, before the end of the year, 
upon the descendants of Eber. It was by him that drinking 
horns (or cups) were first introduced into Erin. It was by him 
that gold was first smelted (^e word used means literally boiled) 
in Erin, and that colours were first put into clothes, namely, brown, 
red, and crimson, and ornamental borders." 

" We are told by Keating, on the authority of a similar ancient 
record, in existence in his time, but now lost, that cloth was first 
coloured crimson, blue, and green in Erin, in reign of Eochaidt It 
• was by him that various colours were introduced into the wearing 
clothes of Erin — namely, one colour in the clothes of servants, two 
colours in the clothes of rent paying farmers, three colours in the 
clothes of officers, five colours in the clothes of chiefs, six colours 

• SenchOB Mor. Harleian MSS., 482, Brit. Mens. 

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in die clothes of ollamhs and poets, seven colours in the clothes 
of kings and queens. It is from this (says the old book) the 
custom has grown this day that all these colours are in the clothes 
of a bishop/' 

** Although the number of colours which are here mentioned 
as having distinguished each of the seven classes into which the 
people of Erin at so early a period had been divided by the 
Milesian colonists, we have no description signifying what these 
colours were exactly which were then employed in dress excepting 
brown, red, and crimson, which Tighernmas is stated to have 
previously established." 

. In reference to the war of the Tain Bo Chuailgne* the following 
is a description of the chiefs who answered the summons of 
Queen Madbh. " The first party came had black hair, they wore 
green cloaks with silver brooches, the shirts which they wore next 
their skins were interwoven with threads of gold. The second 
company had closely cut hair, light grey cloaks and pure white 
shirts next their skin. The third and last party had broad cut, 
fair yellow golden, loose flowing hair upon them ; they wore crimson 
embroidered cloaks with stone set brooches over their breasts 
(in their cloaks) and fine long silken shirts falling to the insteps of 
their feet." 

" It does not appear from the passage in question what the 
materials of the robes alluded to were, but we may presume they 
were native wool and flax, and probably imported silk * seriac,' as 
it is called in some of our ancient tracts." 

Loeghairi Buadach, that is Loeghairi, the victorious, the chief 
of Immail in Ulster, he had a yellow fringed shirt next his skin. 
Seneha, the orator, is described as having a white shirt, with a 
collar, next his skin. Other chiefs are "described as having shirts 
of striped silk, shirts of kingly silk, turned up with a red hem of 
gold, next the skin ; another as having a cloak mottled with the 
splendour of all the most beautiful colours. All Ulster chiefs of 
various clans — Fergna, the son of Findconna, King of Burach in 
Ulster, is described as having a long red cloak, with a clasp 
of white silver in it, over his breast, and a linen shirt next his 

These descriptions (says 0*Curry) are surely specific enough to 
afiford us a very vivid glimpse of the dress and accoutrements, as well 
as the personal appearance, of the Gaedhelic warriors of two thou- 
sand years ago. 

•An ancient tale (referred to in the *» Book of Leinster") respecting a battle, between the 
Queen of Oonnanght and King of Ulster, said to hare be^ fought about 100 years B.O., in 
which the extnundinary valour of the Bed branch knights of Ulster and Firbolgs of Con- 
naught is narrated with poetic exaggeration. 

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" In the extracts from the laws, as well as from the * Book of 
Rights/ we have the processes of dyeing, carding, spinning wool, 
and weaving it into cloth. The process of preparing flax, the 
pulling of it out of the ground, the tying of it in bundles ; the 
retting or steeping of it in water, tiie taking of it up, and drying and 
tying into bundles again ; the breaking of it with a mallet, and the 
scutching of it (the combing and hackling are omitted, unless we 
take the combing of the wool to be the hackling of the flax). 
" We have it put on the rock or distaff", spun upon the spindles, 
formed into cuts from off" the spindles, put upon the vertical reel, 
broken off" the vertical reel into skeins (boiled with home-made 
potash, and put out on the grass to bleach, which is omitted here, 
although the bleached thread is spoken of) We have next the skein 
when bleached laid on the horizontal reel, and wound into balls 
for warping, as well as for weft (warped upon the wooden pins 
either driven into the walls of the house or on a frame specially 
made for the purpose), and then into the loom and woven.*' 

" No sooner did Christianity raise her heavenly banner over 
Ireland than the charming ingenuity of woman was put into 
requisition to adorn, with befitting dignity and splendour, the 
glorious and devoted soldiers of the cross. St. Patrick kept three 
embroideresses constantly at work, with, we may be sure, a 
sufficient staff" of assistants. These were Lupait, his own sister, 
and Eric, the daughter of King Daire, and Cruimthoris of 
Cenngoba. St. Columb Kille had also his embroideresses. . . . 
All our ancient histories and romantic tales abound in reference to 
splendid vesture and personal ornaments of gold, silver, precious 
stones, and fine bronze, from the first battle of Magh-Tuireadh 
(said to have been fought more than 1,700 B.C.), down to the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. . . . The ancient Irish goldsmith 
appears to have worked at, or near, the mine, and there fabricated 
those splendid articles, the delicate mechanism of which puzzles 
and astonishes expert workmen of the present day. A goldsmith, 
named Len, worked at Loch Lein (now the celebrated lake of 
Killamey), 'with his many hammers,' and made all kinds of 
ornaments, &c. Len [according to the Four Masters], flourished 
about 300 B.C., and far within the sway of the Milesian dynasty." 

The foregoing are extracts, from lectures of this able scholar 
and antiquarian, who has illustrated, by reference to ancient records 
and antiques, the skill and ingenuity of the inhabitants of ancient 
Erin, and though these MSB. are interwoven with the poetic 
creations for which the native race has ever been famous, there 
still remains much of a deeply interesting nature bearing upon 
their knowledge of various handicrafts, and especially regarding 
the manufacture in which we are concerned. 

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The popular belief respecting the origin of our lin en manufacture — 
which did not attain to any great importance till the seventeenth 
centiuy — is that it can only be traced back to about the thirteenth. 
The researches, however, of late years have quite dispelled this 
notion, arid we now learn that long before "her faithless sons 
betrayed her " the inhabitants of the green Isle were skilled in this 
maniiacture ; and far beyond the dark ages, and centuries before 
the Christian era, we trace its origin, and link its history with the 
founders of the art in the East. 

It will be recollected that some thirty years ago, when the sewed muslin 
trade gave employment to many thousands of females in different parts of Ire- 
land, we had writers on the subject alluding to embroidery work as something 
new in Ireland. But all such statements were incorrect, and showed what 
imperfect knowledgje existed regarding this handicraft. The art of producing 
pictorial designs with the needle on fine linen was practised in this island in 
ages over which the mists of time have long cast their shadows. Even in still 
later periods of history, when robes for the higher order of the Catholic priest- 
hood were elaborately decorated with purple and gold, needlewomen itinerated 
Jrom one diocese to another, and found regular employment in furnishing new 
robes or repairing old ones. Indeed it is very doubtful that the embroiderers 
of modem times surpass or even equal the needlewomen of olden times, 
who worked those splendid vestments which adorned the kings and chieftains, 
and even St Patrick himself, when that apostle won over the ancient race to 
the Christian faith. 

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Position of the Trade from the Fifth to the Seventeenth Century. 

^ AVING got a glimpse of the flax industry as carried on 
in ancient times in Ireland, the present section is 
devoted to a sketch of the period between the intro- 
duction of Christianity to the close of the seventeenth 
century, a very long one, no doubt, to grasp, but as 
the materials which throw light upon it are few, and the 
facts relating to the history of the trade mere specks in 
this long vista of time, our labour in supplying details 
will be correspondingly light 

We have seen that centvuies before the birth of Christ the 
inhabitants of ancient Erin were skilled in various arts and manu- 
factures, which were carried on down to the advent of St. Patrick, 
and no doubt for long after his death, though traces of them were 
all but lost subsequently; we have now to refer to English history to 
supply the connecting link between that period and modern times. 
The Phoenicians, who for thirteen centuries navigated the high 
seas, held a long intercourse with Britain, to which they traded for 
tin ; in exchange they doubtless bartered much Egyptian linen, 
together with other articles which the natives required. 

Whether the early inhabitants of England were acquainted with 
the art of weaving previous to the Christian era is a matter of some 
doubt, and if either woollen or flaxen manufactures were carried 
on they must have been on a very small scale, for when the Roman 
Empire extended as far westward as Britain, we are informed that 
Julius Csesar in B.C., 54, found the inhabitants of the interior 
clothed in the skins of animals, and with their bodies painted, a 
practicje, which Pliny remarks, they continued long after continental 
nations had abandoned it. 

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The history of every race furnishes similar evidence of 
progress. In the lowest state of civilised life, as already stated, 
skins were used; then clothing material made of hair and wool, 
and lastly the products of fibrous plants, the rarest of these being 
regarded as the greatest luxury. 

So far as Britain is concerned, it is probable then that 
previous to the Roman conquest very little manufacturing was 
carried on, the inhabitants being content to exchange the natural 
products of the country for the manufactures of other nations ; 
accordingly we find that these nations attained to a considerable 
degree of excellence in textile products long before Britain took 
any steps to vigorously carry them on. 

Skill in the manufactures of wool and flax was acquired 
by the Belgic race at an early period, and by them these in- 
dustries were actively prosecuted, so that for ages the Britons 
received from the north-western parts of ICurope supplies of the 
greater portion of the clothing material which they used. From 
what formerly constituted the Netherlands, the finest products of 
wool and flax used in England were imported, and it is conjectured 
that the Belgians, who were experts in weaving, on coming to 
England prior to the Romans, spread the knowledge of cultivating 
the flax plant, which is indigenous to these islands, and probably 
whatever manufactures of the kind were carried on at the Roman 
conquest were done by these colonists. 

The Romans doubtless used their power and influence to extend 
these infantile manufactures, and train their subjects in them, as they 
did in improved modes of agriculture; but, besides this, the Roman 
army appears to have estabhshed a manufactory of woollen and 
linen cloth at Winchester, and from this centre, no doubt, the 
knowledge of manufacturing would be extended. 

The Druids are described as clothed in white, and as linen 
garments were prescribed for the use of the priests of Israel, and 
were also worn by pagan priests, it is concluded that the Druids' 
clothing was also linen, but whether of native or eastern manufac- 
ture is involved in doubt. In all probability it was the latter. 

Macpherson, in his annals of commerce, states that about A.D. 
500 " cloaks or plaids of wool were commonly worn both in Eng- 
land and in Ireland, and that they were adorned with a variety of 
colours, and probably of home manufacture. They had also fine 
linen at this period, which, with other sumptuous articles of 
dress, may be presumed to have been imported. The bodies of 
the dead, at least those of rank, were wrapped in fine linen.*' 

Whatever knowledge may have been possessed by the people 
of Britain in these times, certain it is that the traces of native 
manufacture arc so few, we are led to conclude that, for the greater 

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part of their clothing material they had to depend upon continental 
and eastern countries. With the irruption of the northern hordes 
which overran Europe in the fifth century, and ultimately led to 
the withdrawal of the Roman power from the west, and its final 
overthrow, progress in commerce and manufactures was arrested, 
and for some centuries a withering blight was cast over southern 
and western Europe, firom which it began but slowly to emerge in 
the thirteenth century. During this period our information is 
scant, and the records which have come down to our time afford 
but little insight into tlie state of commercial intercourse among 
the nations, especially in reference to our subject -Such historic 
evidence as we possess, for the greater portion of this time, refers 
chiefly to wars and pillage, to massacres on sea and land, burnings 
and laying waste, oppressive taxation and levies by those tribes of 
Scandinavians, who were constantly making incursions into these 
islands, and impoverishing its inhabitants. 

A long hiatus must, therefore, occur in the historic records of 
those peaceful arts, which are fostered and extended only where 
protection from external rapine is afforded. 

Speaking of the antiquity and remains of the city of Winchester, 
Cambden says — " That there the Roman Emperors seem to have 
had their imperial weaving houses for cloths of both woollen and 
linen, for the Emperors and the army, and most probably that 
necessary art was preserved in Britain after the Romans quitted it, 
though perhaps in a plainer kind, till the fourteenth century, when 
Edward III. introduced the fine manufactures firom the Nether- 

About the opening of the ninth century, Voltaire, in his history 
of Europe, states that **at Lyons, Aries, and Tours, in France, 
and at Rome, Ravenna, <fec., they manufacture woollen stuffs, but 
that silk was not then woven in any town in the Western Empire 
till nearly 400 years afterwards." The same author alludes to the 
scarcity of linen, in mentioning that St Boniface, in a letter to a 
German bishop, desires the bishop to send him a cloth (woollen it 
is supposed), with a large nap in it, to use when washing his 
feet. ** Probably," adds Voltaire, " this want of linen was the cause 
of all the diseases of the skin known by the name of leprosy, so 
common at that time." The same author also writes that " nothing 
but poverty, confusion, and barbarism were to be seen in France 
both in the tenth and eleventh centuries, the fine manufactures 
being still confined to Greece and Italy — tie French towns being 
poor, and almost depopulated." 

In the latter part of the tenth century we find that woollen 
manufacturing had taken the lead in Flanders. The city of Y'pres, 
said to have been built A.D. 960, was long fiimous for its linen 

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and woollen products, tke former being called cloth dVpres ; from 
which place we obtained the knowledge of manufacturing what is 
now known by the name of Diaper. 

For 400 years the famous manufactures Qjf the Netherlands 
were used by France, Germany, and England, and from that part 
of the Continent was imported the finer descriptions of linen, for 
whatever manufactures of the latter were carried on in England or 
Ireland at this period, were, only of the coarser descriptions. 

1253. — According to Maddox (Hist. Exch. Chap, x.), "Henry 
III. in the 37th year of his reign directed the sheriffs of Wilts and 
Sussex, to buy for him, each of his respective county, 1,000 ells 
of fine linen, and to send it to his wardrobe at Westminster." 
The fine linen here referred to we would probably consider very 
coarse now. 

The position of Ireland, with regard to her manufactures, had 
been exceedingly low for a very long time. Incursions of piratical 
hordes, and civil feuds had so impoverished it for centuries, that 
from the conquest by the English, in 1172, and for a hundred 
years after, it offered but little temptation to the English to develop 
its resources, or encourage industrial or agricultural pursuits. 

The people were of warlike tendencies, and looking with 
distrust and disrelish upon their new masters, were but little 
inclined to do more than maintain a guerilla-like existence, regarding 
with suspicion every overture of friendship, and resenting, with 
four-fold vengeance, every act of oppression and wrong. 

The traditionary recollections of these bitter strifes are kept 
alive to the present day. The light of Christianity, which at pne 
time shone so brightly in our Island, became dim in after times, 
and with the departure of the native race from the simple faith of 
their forefathers, their arts and letters decayed, and the polish of 
earlier days as well as their religion gave place to gross superstition 
and barbarity, so that the country was an easy prey to the handful 
of adventurers who claimed it as a dependency of the crown of 

From the conquest of the country until the close of the 
thirteenth century, Ireland was in an unimproved condition, as 
England took but little interest in its affairs, and though it 
garrisoned the country, it did not for a long period of time take 
steps to reduce it to entire subjection. 

Mr. M*Call, in his interesting work on " Ireland and her Staple 
Manufactures," mentions that " during the time of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion the city of Armagh, then considered very rich in 
ecclesiastical property, was ruthlessly pillaged ; and so maddened 
did the natives become at seeing the sacred edifices swept of their 
contents by the ruthless marauders that, in order to disappoint the 

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further ravages of their avaricious enemies, they actually set their 
own houses on fire, and in that self-sacrifice vast quantities of 
private property, and * much linen, yam, and cloth,' shared the fate 
ot the libraries of the monks, and many records of the ancient 
cathedral. Walter de Burgo, Earl of Ulster, had large parcels of 
linen woven for the use of his household in Bally-lis-nevan about 
the year 1245, and it is certain that considerable quantities of 
flaxen goods had been made in the venerable seat of education 
called Beann-char at a much earlier period. The famous monastery 
erected there was opened in the sixth century, and it is recorded 
that the abbots were most anxious to encourage local enterprise. 
Seeing, therefore, that the robes worn by the higher order of the 
clergy were all made of Irish linen, there can be no doubt that 
the distaff and loom were amongst the most popular sources of 
industry in the households of the farmers. When Bangor was 
plundered by the Danes, the sacredness of the abbey did not 
protect it from becoming common spoil; every comer of the 
building was ransacked, and among the property carried off there 
were many vessels of gold and silver, and vast quantities of fine 
linen and scarlet robes." 

1272. — It is recorded by Macpherson that cloth of Ireland 
is mentioned as being stolen at Winchester, with cloth of Abindon 
& Burrell, of London, and, he adds, " I beHeve this is the earUest 
notice we have of any exportation of Irish manufacture." It is 
not certain what description of cloth this was, but in all probability 
it was wool, as the manufacture of cloth of that description had 
taken a lead in Ireland, and for a considerable period was her chief 

1299. — ^Table linen is stated to have been very scarce in Eng- 
land at this time. 

1360. — About this period the woollen manufacture in Ireland 
had attained to a position of comparative importance. Macpherson 
states that stuffs called Fays, made in that country, were in such 
request that they had been imitated by the manufacturers of 
Catalonia, who were in the habit of making the finest woollen goods 
of every kind ; they were also esteemed in Italy, and were worn 
by ladies of Florence, a city abounding with the richest manufac- 
tures, in which the luxury of dress was carried to the greatest height. 

1375. — ParHament encouraged the manufacture of Irish fiieze 
by passing an Act this year relieving it from subsidy and aulnage, 
and also from the operations of the stat. 50 Edward III., c. 8, for 
regulating the length and breadth of the cloth. 

1382. — The agent of the Pope, we are told, collected this year, 
among other things, five mantles of Irish cloth, one of them bound 
with green cloth ; one mantle of mixed coloured cloth, also lined 

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with green ; one gannent of rasset, lined with Irish cloth, and other 
articles, which were probably of Irish manufacture, though not 
exactly so specified. 

1386, — In the ninth year of Richard II. a company of linen 
weavers appears to have been established in London. They were 
formed of the most part of those weavers who had been brought 
over from the Netherlands by Edward III. 

In this year a rebellion broke out in Ireland, which retarded, 
for a time, the prosecution of the peaceful arts. 

1399. — The manufacture of woollen fabrics is recorded as 
having been brought to great perfection in England at this date. 

14T0. — Irish cloth (Macpherson states) must have been pretty 
common in England at this period, as we find it charged equally 
with worsted stuffs, canvas, and some other articles, 2d. per hundred. 

1429. — ^Whilst France at this period is represented as being in 
an impoverished and wretched condition, Flanders and Brabant, 
owing to the development of their splendid woollen and linen 
manufactures, abounded in riches and plenty, so that during the 
reign of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, their cities and towns had 
risen to a position of great wealth. It was chiefly owing to these 
woollen manufactures they acquired this position, and on the 
occasion of the marriage of that monarch, to mark the great value 
attached to them, a new mihtary order was created, called " the 
Golden Fleece." 

1430. — ^Among the commercial commodities described in 
Hakluts (I. vol., p. 187), brought to England at this time, we 
have enumeiated. " From Flanders the Spanish ships trade home- 
wards with fine cloth of Y'pres and of Courtray, of all colours ; 

much furniture, and also linen cloth Bretagne supplies 

Flanders with salt, wines, linens, and canvass Scot- 
land's commodities are wool, woolsels, and hides. Their wool is 
sent to Flanders to be draped, though not so good as the English 

wool, with which it is there worked up Ireland's 

commodities are hides and fish, as salmon, herrings, and hake ; 
wool, Unen cloth, and skins of wild beasts." 

1448. — England had, however, not been indifferent to the 
proud position occupied by the manufacturers of the Netherlands, 
for we find that the latter, taking alarm at the great and rapid 
improvements effected by the English in their manufactures, passed 
certain Acts which virtually prohibited the imports of English cloth 
to Brabant, Holland, and Zealand ; so that, as a retributary mea- 
sure, we find an Act in the 27th of King Henry VI. excluded the 
merchandise of the Netherlands from being sent to England under 
pain of forfeiture. 

1467. — The Netherlands province (Anderson states), and more 

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especially Flanders and Brabant, were at this time in their meridian 
of glory, having prospered extremely in their vast manufactures 
of woollen and linen. For although by the increase of English 
woollen manufactures they had lost to a great extent their trade 
therein, they extended it to other parts of Europe, as they did also 
their linen manufactures ; but twenty years after this (viz., 1487) a 
quarrel arose with the Archduke Maximilian, King of the Romans, 
which led to the ruin of the famous and wealthy city of Bruges. 

1506. — A treaty was made at this period, by virtue of which 
EngUsh merchants were free to sell their commodities in Flanders, 
provided they did not do so by retail or smaller quantities than an 
entire piece of cloth. 

1560. — From an old record of this period it appears the exports 
from Ireland, so far as textile manufactures were concerned, were 
not of much importance, in all probability nearly all the cloth 
made in this country, whether of flax or wool, was consumed at 
home. Antwerp is stated to have taken from Ireland skins and 
leather of divers sorts, some low-priced cloths, and other gross 
things of little value. Antwerp sent to Ireland much the same 
commodities as sent to Scotland, which were, among other things, 
serges, linen, and mercery. Wool does not appear to have been 
exported to any extent at this time, so that it is inferred that frieze 
cloth and other clothing made from wool consumed the greater 
portion of the raw material. It was not until more than 60 years 
after this that the exportation of Irish wool had been of such im- 
portance as to arouse the jealousy of England, but we find that in 
1627 an Act was passed prohibiting the exportation of wool from 
Ireland except by license. 

1588. — ^The production of cambric linen, so called from the 
city of Cambrai, rose to such a degree of importance at this time, 
it is stated that 60,000 webs were annually manufactured in that 
city, representing about ;^24o,ooo, a very large sum at this period. 
The manufacture of woollen and linen cloth was also much 
extended in France. 

16 1 2.— The position of Ireland for a very long time had been 
exceedingly unfortunate. The English having taken no trouble to 
reduce the entire country to subjection, so that even within the Pale 
the old race of EngHsh settlers had become degenerated. As 
little interest was taken in its internal affairs, opportunity was 
afforded for the constant outbreak of feuds and animosities, which 
kept the country in a ferment, impeding agricultural and 
manufacturing industry^. The* native inhabitants are represented 
as being extremely wild and unsettled in their habits, and with little 
disposition to do more than engage in those pursuits of hunting, 
fishing, and rearing of cattle, as sufficed to meet their necessities. 

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Sir James Ware states that in Elizabeth's reign, " within a period of 
fifteen years, the money sent to Ireland amounted to ;£^497,779 
7s 6d, whereas all the revenue Ireland produced during that period 
was ;^i 20,000. But in the reign of James I. Ireland had 
become very much reduced in population by former wars and 
rebellions, and the King, now finding it at peace, appointed regular 
circuits of judges, and divided the country into counties. The 
benefit and protection of English laws were extended to all, 
whereby the Irish were reclaimed from their wildncss, induced to 
cut oflf their glibbs or long hair, and to make their mantles into 
cloaks.* Encouragement was also given to trade, &c., so that until 
this reign Ireland was never entirely subdued to the Crown of 

Those inhabitants of Ulster who had been of a rebellious 
disposition were all transplanted into Connaught, and the London 
corporations, which had obtained royal grants of land in Ulster, 
sent over, in 161 2, a colony of 300 persons, of different handi- 
crafts and occupations, for the purpose of repeopling Deny (which 
afterwards got the name of Londonderry) and Coleraine, and a 
corporation was established in London called the Irish Society. 

The Lord Lieutenant on 20th May, 161 5, issued an order that 
all persons attending sessions, or term sittings, should use and wear 
English attire and apparel, and that punishment, by fine and im- 

•Walker, in his Hist. Essay on the dress of the ancient and modem Irish (pnb. 1788), says 
— ** Amongst the early Irish the beiu:d was cherished with as much solicitade as formerly 
amongst the Orientals. Nor did the Irish restrain the growth of the hair on the head, bnt 
throwing it back off the forehead allowed it to flow about the neck, calling those suspended 
locks Coluns or Olibbs, and taking an honest pride in them. In the poems of Ossian frequent 

allusion is made to the Gllbb, equally worn by both nations In the reign of 

Elizabeth the men wore linen shirts, exceedingly laiige, stained with saffron ; the sleeves were 
wide, and hanging to the knees ; straight and short trusses, plaited thick on the skirt ; their 
breeches close to their thighs, and mantles most times cast over their heads. The women 
wore their hair plaited in a curious manner, hanging down tiieir backs and shoulders, under 
folden wreaths of fin^ linen, rolled about their heads; rather loading the wearer than 
delighting the beholder." A writer in the reign of James I. said—" That the English-Irish, 
forgetting their own country, are somewhat ixif ected with the Irish rudeness, and, with them, 
are delighted in simple colours, as red and yellow. The Irish gentlemen, or lords of counties, 
wore close breeches, and stockings of the same piece of cloth, of red or such like oolour ; a 
loose coat, and a three-cornered mantle, commonly of coarse light stuff, made at home. 
Their linen was coarse and slovenly. I say slovenly, for they seldom put off a shirt till it is 
worn, and those shirts, in our memory, were made of some 20 or 80 ells, folded in wrinkles, 
and coloured with saffron. The ladies had their heads covered after the Turkish manner, 
with many ells of Unen, only the Turkish heads or turbans are round in the top, but the 
attire of the Irish women's heads is more flat on the top, and broader at the sides, not much 
unlike a cheese, if it had a hole in it to put in the head. The women's ancient head-dress so 
perfectly resembled that of the Egyptian Isis, it cannot be doubted but that the modes of 
Egypt were preserved among the Irish. Crowning the heads with rolls or folds of linen being 
so noted a mark of the Eastern custom that its source cannot be disputed. In the more 
remote parts of the country, where the English laws and manners were unknown, it was 
stated that— the chiefe of the Irish went naked, even in the winter time." Leland disputes 
the accuracy of the statement about the Irish chiefs in the remote districts being naked, and 
says— ** There is no doubt but that in the reign of Elizabeth, even the old natives had 
degenerated, and that the wars of several centuries had reduced them to a state inferior to 
that in which the English found them, in the days of Henry U., yet the fact i« totally incredible 
about their being naked, as the climate of Ireland must at all times have forced the most 
barbarous to some covering, even in their most retired chambers," 

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prisonment, would be inflicted upon all such as would appear 
before the Courts attired in mantles or robes, and not having 
their hair cut. 

1636. — Lord Strafford, who was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at 
this time, did all in his power to discourage the woollen trade, 
which was then beginning to rise into importance, but on the other 
hand he used every means he thought fit to promote and improve 
the linen industry ; and, to assist in developing it, he spent out 
of his own means above ;^5 0,000. His first movement was 
directed towards the improvement of flax in the field, and for this 
purpose he imported seed from Holland, and likewise brought 
over Dutchmen to instruct the Irish farmers in the best mode of 
growing the crop. This led to a largely increased production of 
yarn, and gave a much more extended employment to women and 
children at the spinning wheel ; but though the yarn was more 
plentiful it was found extremely difficult to improve the quality of 
the cloth or much increase its production. The exertions he used 
were in many respects praiseworthy, for besides selling the seed 
(which he imported) to the farmers, at cost price, he is credited with 
having succeeded in bringing the flax from an average of twelve 
inches in length to three feet; the yarn spun being also more 
regular in every respect, and the cloth much better, its breadth 
having been increased from about twelve to twenty inches. But 
the prejudice of an ignorant class, not only against the English- 
man's rule, but also against the ideas he entertained, which were 
so contrary to the long established and conventional system pursued 
by the native population, -stirred up their opposition and produced 
bitter strife, whilst many sad tales of suffering and cruel oppression 
are recorded as having been endured by the poor people who 
refused to comply with his arbitrary commands. Had conciliatory 
measures been adopted, and his agents instructed to temper 
moderation with all their efforts to overcome the deeply-rooted 
prejudices of the people, against innovations of the kind, he would 
doubtless have largely succeeded in bettering their condition, and 
improving still more the linen industry. But his ukases — such as 
this, " any farmer, weaver, or linen draper, who manufactured flax 
fibre by any other mode than that which he prescribed should be 
punished with the severest penalties the law could inflict," — 
administered with Russian severity, provoked their animosity, and 
only produced a more determined resistance to his rule. 

The increased production of yam, therefore, not being worked 
up into a corresponding increase in cloth, it was sought after by 
English buyers, for we find in an account written by one Louis 
Roberts, respecting the trade of the city of Manchester at this 
time, that " Manchester buys lynnen yarne off" the Irish in great 

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quantity^ and weaving it into cloth, returns the same again in lynnen, 
into Ireland to sell.'* 

The rebellion in 1641, and massacre of many thousands of 
Protestants, was followed by the confiscation of two and a half 
million acres of land, and, as the industry of the country had been 
all but destroyed, Ireland was reduced to a very low condition. 

Nine years after this, home and foreign manufactures of all 
kinds had greatly extended, and a glut appears to have occurred 
in many of the markets of the world, for we find Sir Wm. Temple 
mentions that at this time " Sweden and Denmark, France and 
England had more than ever busied themselves about trade, 
that there seemed to have grown too many traders for the trade of 
the world, so that they can hardly live one by another." The 
woollen manufactures of Holland were pushed on vigorously, and 
competed seriously with England, so much so that an attempt was 
made to prevent the supplies of wool being sent from Spain to 

A series of wars between the English and Dutch soon after 
followed, which crippled the resources of the latter ; but though 
the English woollen manufactures were still in a flourishing state 
the Dutch held their own in point of finish ; for the finer descrip- 
tions of English woollen cloth — for many years after peace was 
re-established — were sent over to Holland to be dyed and finished. 

1660. — ^With all the advances towards improvement made in 
Ireland, down to this period it was still very far behind in com- 
merce of all kinds. Sir J. Child mentions that " the people were 
poor, ill-clothed, and their houses worse provided, money 10 to 12 
per cent, and intolerably scarce, notwithstanding the great plenty 
of provisions." Postage on letters from England to Dublin was 
2S per oz., and i6d per oz. for internal postage over forty miles 
distance. But twenty years later, linen .and woollen manufactures 
became greatly extended in Ireland, and the country generally had 
made considerable progress \ the woollen trade in the southern 
districts had been gradually attaining to importance, and the ex- 
portations, year by year, increasing to such an extent as to cause 
great jealousy among the trade in England. Cheaper living and 
lower wages attracted capitalists from England and the Continent, 
so that the Irish woollen trade, especially friezes and coarse cloths, 
for which it had been long celebrated, defied competition, and 
threatened materially to curtail demand for English products. The 
manufacture of linen goods had also made considerable progress, 
and, owing to the reduced cost of production, EngUsh manufac- 
turers complained that their trade was rendered unprofitable. 

A kind of compact was then entered into between the Parlia- 
ments of England and Ireland, by which the latter, in 1698, imposed 

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duties on the exportation of their own woollen manufactures, be- 
lieving, no doubt, that in giving up or reducing this trade, in order 
to promote the linen industry, they were doing the wisest thing 
which the circumstances of the time required, and public policy 
dictated. It is, however, a matter of deep regret that our Legisla- 
ture was so short-sighted as comply with the demands of the 
English Parliament, and, by a suicidal act destroy a great industry, 
to please the manufacturers of Yorkshire, with the vain hope of 
buying a kind of monopoly in the manufacture of linen goods ; 
for one great inducement was that England would give up the 
latter trade. 

This last part of the compact was never observed by the 
manufacturers of England, and had it not been that Irish linens 
could be produced so much cheaper in this country, as to give our 
people a practical advantage, in all probability the fate of the 
woollen trade would have been followed by the destruction of the 
linen industry also. As the native Parliament had voluntarily 
surrendered this one trade, the Imperial Legislature could not, 
with any sense of public justice, pass measures to cripple the 
other \ but many obstacles were thrown in the way of establishing 
it. However, so far as the King was concerned, he did much — 
as we shall presently see — towards extending and improving the 
linen trade. 

It has been alleged that, as the woollen manufacture was chiefly 
confined to the south and west of Ireland, where the inhabitants 
were nearly all Roman Catholics, the policy adopted was to favour 
one party at the expense of the other. Though, no doubt, at the 
time many approved of this course, few at the present day would 
be found to justify such an act of oppression towards a class of 
their countrymen, whose party had been displaced by the revolution, 
which left uncontrolled power in Protestant hands.* 

As it may prove interesting to some of our readers, we here 
insert the proceedings, by petition, at this time, which ultimately 
led to the enactment of those laws which extinguished the 
important woollen industry, that at one time flourished in the 

*Wm. ni., thoTigh yielding to his Parliament, in their attempt to crash the woollen 
trade^^was far from being an intolerant monarch, and it was not until the reign of Queen 
Anne that penal lawR, against the Boman Catholics, were enacted ; and that the linen trade 
came to be regarded as a Protestant industry, and as such deserving of encouragement. 
Arthur Young, commenting on the religion of Ireland at this time, says — "Flushed with 
success, after the victory of the Boyne, and animated with the recollection of recent injuries, 
it would not have been surprising, if the triumphant party had exceeded the bounds of 
moderation towards the Catholics ; but the amazing circumstance is that the great category 
of persecuting laws was not framed during the life of that monarch, who wisely was a 
friend to toleration, but during the next reign, and that such a system should haye beea 
embraced, six or seven years after the King's death, is not easily accounted for." 

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Arthur Young, an English gentleman, who made a tour through Ireland 
between 1776 and 1779, and compiled a large vol. on the state of the country 
at that period, writing on this subject says : — The Earl of Strafford Lord 
Lieutenant in Charles I. reign passed several laws, and took various measures 
to encourage the linen manufacture, insomuch that he has by some authors been 
said to have established it originally. At the end of the last century, in king 
William's reign, it arose to be an object of consequence, but not singly so, for 
it appears from a variety of records, in both kingdoms, that the Irish had then 
a considerable woollen manufacture for exportation, which raised the jealousy 
of the English manufacturers in that commodity so much that they presented so 
many petitions to both lords and commons, as to induce those bodies to enter 
fully into their jealousies and illiberal views ; which occasioned the famous 
compact between the two nations brought on in the following manner. 

On 9th June, 1698, the Earl of Stamford reported from the Lords 
committees (appointed to draw up an address to be presented to his Majesty, 
relating to the woollen manufacture in Ireland) the following address, (z/w. ) 

*WE, the lords spiritual and temporal in parliament assembled, do 
humbly represent unto you*- Majesty, that the growing manufacture of cloth in 
Ireland, both by the cheapness of all sorts of necfessaries of life, and goodness 
of materials for making of all manner of cloth, doth invite your subjects of 
England, with their families and servants, to leave their habitations to settle 
there, to .the increase of the woollen manufacture in Ireland, which makes your 
loyal subjects in this kingdom very apprehensive that the further growth of it 
may greatfy prejudice the said manufacture here ; by which the trade of this 
nation and the value of lands will very much decrease, and the numbers of your 
people be much lessened here ; wherefore, we do most humbly beseech your 
most sacred Majesty, that your Majesty would be pleased, in the most public 
and effectual way, that may be, to declare to all your subjects of Ireland, that 
the growth and increase of the woollen manufacture there, hath long, and will 
ever be looked upon with great jealousy, by all your subjects of this kingdom : 
And if not timely remedied may occasion very strict laws, totally to prohibit 
and suppress the same, and on the other hand, if they turn their industry and 
skill, to the settling and improving the linen manufacture, for which generally 
the lands of the kingdom are very proper, they shall receive, all coimtenance, 
favour and protection from your royal influence, for the encouragement and 
promoting of the said linen manufacture, to all the advantage and profit, that 
kingdom can be capable o€ 

To which the house agreed.' 

** It is ordered by the Lords spiritual and temporal in parliament assembled, 
That the Lords, with white staves, do humbly attend his Majesty with the 
address of this house, concerning the woollen manufacture in Ireland. 

loth June, 1698: — *' The lord Steward reported his Majesty's answer to the 
address, to this effect (viz,) 

THAT his Majesty will take care to do what their lordships have desired. 
Petition from the English House of Commons to Wm. III. 
30^>4 June^ 1698 : — " Most Gracious Sovereign^ 

"WE, your Majesty's most dutifid and loyal subjects, the Commons in 
parliament assembled, being very sensible that the wealth and power of this 
kingdom do, in a great measure, depend on the preserving the woollen 
manufacture, as much as possible entire to this realm, think it becomes us, like 
our ancestors, to be jealous of the establishment and increase thereof elsewhere; 
and to use our utmost endeavours to prevent it. 

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"And, therefore, we cannot without trouble observe, that Ireland, is 
dependent on, and protected by England in the enjoyment of all they have ; 
and which is so proper for the linen manufacture, the establishment and growth 
of which there would be so enriching to themselves, and so profitable to 
England, should of late apply itself to the woollen manufacture, to the great 
prejudice of the trade of this kingdom ; and so unwillingly promote the linen 
trade, which would benefit both them and us. 

" The consequence whereof, will necessitate your parliament of England, to 
inteipose to prevent the mischief that threatens us, unless your Majesty, by your 
authority and great wisdom, shall find means to secure the trade of England, 
by making your subjects of Ireland to pursue the joint interest of both 

"And we do most humbly implore your Majesty's protection and favour in 
this matter ; and that you will make it your royal care, and enjoin all those you 
employ in Ireland, to make it their care, and use their utmost diligence, to 
hinder the exportation of wool from Ireland, except to be imported hither, and 
for the discouraging the woollen manufactures, and encouraging the linen 
manufactures in Ireland, to which we shall always be ready to give our utmost 

Resolved, That the said address be presented' to his Majesty by the whole 

2nd July, 

" Gentlemen, 

"I shall do all that in me lies to discourage the woollen 
manufacture in Ireland, and to encourage the linen manufacture there ; and to 
promote the trade of England." 

Thursday^ 2*jth September^ 1698. 
Part of the Lord Justices Speech to the Irish Parliament. 

" Amongst these bills there is one for the encouragement of the linen and 
hempen manufactures. At our first meeting, we recommended to you that matter, 
and we have now endeavoured to render that bill practical and useful for that 
effect, and as such we now recommend it to you. The settlement of this 
manufacture will contribute much to people the country, and will be found much 
more advantageous to this kingdom than the woollen manufacture, which being 
the settled staple trade of England, from whence all foreign markets are 
supplied, can never be encouraged here for that purpose, whereas the linen 'and 
hempen manufacture will not only be encouraged, as consistent with the trade 
of England, but will render the trade of this kingdom both useful and 
necessary to England. " 

The Commons of Ireland returned the following answer to the speech 
from the throne. 

** WE pray leave to assure your Excellencies that we shall heartily endeavour 
to establish a linen and hempen manufacture here, and to render the same 
useful to England, as well as advantageous to this kingdom, and that we hope 
to find such a temperament in respect to the woollen trade here that the same 
may not be injurious to England." — And they passed a law that session, 
commencing 25th March, 1699, laying 4s. additional duty on every 20s. value 
of broad-cloth exported out of Ireland, and 2s. on every 20s. value of serjges, 
baize, kerseys, stuffs, or any other sort of new drapery made of wool, or mixed 
with wool (friezes only excepted) which was in effect a prohibition. And in the 
same session a law was passed in England, restraining Ireland from exporting 
those woollen manufactures, including frieze to any other parts except England 
and Wales. 

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^ Arthur Young adds: -1* The addresses of the two Houses to the King 
carry the clearest evidence of their source, the jealousy of merchants and 
manufacturers ; I might add their ignorance too. They were dictated upon the 
narrow idea that the prosperity of the woollen fabrics of Ireland was inconsistent 
with the welfare of those of England ; it would at present be fortimate for both 
kingdoms if these errors had been confined to the last century. There is an 
equal mixture of falshood also in the representations ; for they assert that the 
cheapness of necessaries in Ireland drew from England the woollen manufacturers, 
but they forgot the cheapness of labour in Ireland, to which no workman in the 
world ever yet emigrated. The Irish were engaged in various slight fabrics 
not made in England; but had they been employed on broad cloth for 
exportation, the English manufacturers would well have bore it, they did at that 
time and afterwards bear a rapid increase of the French fabrics, yet flourished 
themselves. We have had so long an experience of markets increasing with 
industry and inventions that the time ought to have passed away long ago for 
viewing competitors with the eye of jealousy." 

1699. — The Act, which levied duties on wool and woollen 
goods, having been evaded to a large extent, it was found neces- 
sary to limit the places of export ; accordingly an Act was passed 
this year by which these goods could only be shipped from the 
ports of Dublin, Drogheda, Waterford, Youghal, Kinsale, and 
Cork, to the ports of Bridgewater, Bristol, Bideford, Minehead, 
Milford-haven, Chester, and Liverpool, under forfeiture of ship 
and cargo, and £s^^ penalty." 

The revocation of die Edict of Nantes (in 1685) having driven 
a large number of Protestant families from France at this period, 
very many came to this country; amongst them were skilled work- 
men, and weavers of wool, silk, and flax. The immigration of 
these people was specially advantageous to the linen trade, which 
soon after exhibited a considerable extension by the fresh blood 
thus infused into it. A great many of these weavers, and their 
families, came to the north of Ireland, and settled about Belfast, 
Lurgan, and Lisburn. In this last-named place, which was their 
great centre, they commenced their weaving operations, and soon 
greatly advanced the manufacture of cloth in this country, by the 
improved methods they introduced. 

Louis Crommelin, one of these French settlers,* who afterwards 
became a very distinguished person, owing to the part he took in 
promoting and improving the trade, wrote an account of the 
position in which he found it, and the means he had adopted for 

•Orommelin at first fled from France to Holland, and while there became personally, 
acquainted with WtUiam Prince of Orange. After the latter was raised to the British 
throne a correspondence was kept up by the King with his old friend, and in 1698 Orommelin 
was induced by his Majesty to come to Ireland, and take charge of all the Huguenot coloniest 

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its extension. He stated that having come over to the north of 
Ireland, with his son, after making a survey of various localities he 
selected Lisnagarvey (now Lisburn) as the best. Afterwards, owing 
to the encouragement given him, he brought over from Holland a 
considerable number of the French artisans who had settled there, 
and also a large number of spinning wheels and looms of a better 
description than had been previously in use in Ireland. These 
people founded a colony in Lisburn, where they erected a church of 
their own, and had a French chaplain to conduct the services. The 
Crommelinfamilyhaving removed much of their wealth out of France, 
before the troubles came upon the Protestants of that country, 
were not only skilled in the method of spinning and weaving, 
but were able to bring over a considerable amount of capital, and 
it is stated that Louis Crommelin expended ;£"! 0,000 in pushing 
on the trade. King William granted him a pension of ^200 a 
year, and he not only enjoyed the personal favour of his Majesty, 
but received a vote of thanks from the Irish Parliament in 1707 for 
his exertions in promoting the linen industry. 

1700. — The Commissioners of Trade having recommended 
King William to allow Crommelin ;£'8oo per annum for ten years, 
being interest at 8 per cent, on the ;£"! 0,000 which he had laid 
out, the King complied with the recommendation. A patent was 
also granted this year to those French people who were to settle 
in the kingdom, and instruct the Irish in improving their linen and 
hempen manufactures. 

In Crommelin's essay (published in 1705), we find a sketch 
of the position of the trade, in some of its departments, at the 
time he came to this country. He says — 

"The people are entirely ignorant of the mysteries relating to the manu- 
facture, .... The flax being managed by women altogether ignorant 
as to their choice of the seed or soil, for which reason their flax is too short, 
and unfit for making good yam ; they do not know when or how to pull their 
flax, whereby their seed degenerates, and their flax wants strength and sub- 
stance. .... They have no judgment when or how to water or grass 
their flax, so as to give it a natural colour ; and what is yet worse than all, 
they constantly dry their flax by the fire, which makes it impossible to bleach 
cloth made of their yarns ; for let all the skill and judgment of the world be 
used to bleach cloth made of diffSerent sorts of flax, you can never bring it to a 
good colour ; for till such time as it is woven and bleached, the best artist in 
nature cannot discover the mischief. .... They also use, in cleaning 
their flax, things which they call "breaks," which I can in no Way approve of. 
. . . . They spin tlieir long and short flax athwart, which is extremely 

preposterous, as the flax cannot be spun fine ; so the linen is cottony 

The wheels used in spinning are turned by the foot, and have two cords, one 
going round the wheel, and the whirl of the spindle, and the other going round 
3ie wheel, and whirl of the spool, which overtwists the thread. Tneir manner 
of reeling yam is one of the greatest grievances, as many honest, industrious 
men are undone by the deceitful methods now used by the crafty and unfair 
people in this particular ; as for instance, there is no standard for the measure 

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of reels, and everybody uses such reels as they thmk fit ; for which reason a 
stranger to the market is imposed upon to his ruin* The cuts and hanks are 
reeled by several threads, through laziness or wickedness, to the utter ruin of 
the poor dealers who buy yam, and think they have good and marketable 
goods for their money ; but find that the whole hank ravels altogether, and 
becomes entirely unserviceable, or at the best so troublesome to wind that it 
is as eligible to lose it as it is to spend so much time and pains to wind it. 
They ought to mark each cut, or six score threads, as they reel them, and not 
afterwards, as they now do ; which they might do without difficulty. They do 
likewise intermix, in one and the same hank, yam of several degrees of fineness, 
which is a cheat intolerable to buyers. .... The looms generally em- 
ployed in this kingdom for the making of all sorts of linen cloth (excepting 
diaper and damask) are looms properly disposed, and invented for the making 
of woollen cloth (save only that they changed the gear, and wrought promis- 
cuously linen and woollen therein) ; therefore, it is impossible to use one and 

the same loom to both material with good success The reeds are 

uneven and too thick, .... and they make a stuff, of water and meal, 
without judgment, wherewith they stiffen their warps ; and the cloth is made 

too thin and sleazy; and woven where the weather affects it The 

manner of mixing their ashes and yams together in the keeve, purely through 
ignorance, or laziness, makes their yam fret and cotton for ever." 

Crommelin got up a bleach green at Lisburn on the improved 
plan with which he was acquainted, and he with the small colony 
referred to, in the course of twelve or fourteen years, effected 
considerable improvements in the linen manufacture. 

The patent, however, of William III., granting Crommelin 
;;^8oo a year of a subsidy for ten years, over and above the pension, 
was, owing to the King's death, not carried into effect, and in 
Queen Anne's reign Crommelin complained that the subsidy was 
reduced to ;^40o, which only gave him about four per cent, on 
his capital instead of eight The amount was afterwards increased 
to ;^5oo' per annum. 

A colony of Huguenots settled at Waterford in 1693, and 
carried on tiie manufacture of linen cloth there ; but owing to 
various causes the manufacture did not seem to thrive to any 
extent out of Ulster. 

1 701. — ^At the close of the seventeenth century the English 
Parliament began to show encouragement to the linen trade, and 
in 1701 an Act was passed for this purpose. But as the death of 
William III. took place the following year no steps were taken to 
put this Act into operation. 

1710. — In the reign of Queen Anne a new Act was passed, 
following up the action taken in the previous reign, and with a view 
to promote the growth of flax in Ireland, and improve the manu- 
facture of linen and hemp. By virtue of this Act, certain duties, 
granted by former Acts for the encouragement of the linen manu- 
focture were continued, and certain other and additional duties 
were also granted for the same purpose. The Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland was enabled ''to appoint certain Trustees for the disposal 

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and management of the said duties, according to certain trusts and 
powers ; the Trustees to consist of an equal number of persons in 
each of the four provinces in the kingdom, and to settle and adjust 
such matters as may be most reasonable and conducive to the 
establishing and carrying on the said manufacture in this kingdom, 
and for preventing all abuses that might happen in the same." 

Under the authority of this Act, the Duke of Ormonde, Lord 
Lieutenant, issued a warrant on 6th October, 171 1, appointing a 
number of noblemen and gentlemen in each of the provinces to 
act in the capacity of Trustees. In Leinster, Munster, and Con- 
naught eighteen were appointed in each, and the same number 
also in Ulster, the names of the latter being — The Earl of Mount 
Alexander, Earl of Abercom, Viscount Mountjoy, Viscount 
Masserene, Lord Conway, Edward Southwell, Thomas Coote, 
Charles O'Neill, Joshua Dawson, Dr. Marmaduke Coghill, Wm. 
Brownlow, Samuel Waring, Hawkins Magill, Matthew Forde, 
James Topham, Charles Campbell, Robert Clements, and Michael 

The Board was formed principally from among the Lords and 
Commons of the Parliament of Ireland, their rank and influence 
in the country being the chief guarantee that the trusts would be 
properly administered. 

From this period a new era opened for the trade, and we shall 
take the commencement of it as furnishing fresh material for a new 
chapter on our staple industry. 

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From the formation of the Irish Linen Trade Board to the 
Legislative Union with Great Britain. 

HE creation of the Board of Trustees of the Linen 
and Hempen Manufactures of Ireland, in 1711, 
formed an important land-mark in the history of the 
linen trade ; and as the close of the seventeenth 
century witnessed the extinction of the woollen 
industry, except in a few localities Where it still 
struggled for existence, the flaxen manufacture started 
"^w on a fresh course, acquiring as years rolled on increased 

Whatever opinions may be entertained at the present day, 
regarding the wisdom of granting subsidies or state aid towards 
developing industrial operations, it will scarcely be denied that at 
this particular period in the history of the linen manufacture, the 
fostering care of the state, considering the circumstances of the 
times, was a wise and judicious measure. 

At that time Ireland laboured under great disadvantages, and 
had not material aid been liberally administered, it would have 
been a long and difficult struggle to compete with the manufactu- 
rers of France and Belgium, who for centuries held the leading 
position in the world as producers of the finest linens. 

Ireland's metropolis was constituted the head-quarters of the 
trade, and through it, for a century, the greater portion of all the 
business in finished linens was carried on. Thither buyers from 
the English and Foreign markets resorted, until improvements in 
steam navigation and other facilities for communication had 
grown up, so that this centralization was no longer endurable. 
The Trustees set to work in right earnest, and held their first 

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meeting in October, 171 1, at which the following resolution was 
passed : — " That the seed merchants of the city be sent for, and 
spoken to concerning the importing of hemp and flaxseed." 

The Board, having first of all taken steps regarding the seed, 
imported a large supply from Holland and Russia. Next they 
induced well experienced Dutchmen to come over to Ireland, and 
these were appointed to superintend the culture of flax on the 
most approved method. They also distributed funds to purchase 
implements and weaving utensils ; scutch mills were erected, and 
bounties and premiums were given in various ways, as will be 
afterwards detailed, thus using their extensive powers to encourage 
by every means this industry. 

County workhouses were then in existence in several parts of 
Ireland; some of the masters of these institutions applied for 
situations as itinerant flax and hemp instructors, but the Board did 
not consider it judicious to employ them, especially as the applicants 
expected to get the salary of the new office in addition to the one 
they held. 

The annual revenue which the Board had under their control 
fluctuated a good deal in amount, but between duties appropriated 
to their use, for the benefit of the trade, as well as direct Parlia- 
mentary grants, it appears that from 1711 to 1777 they had 
received over a million and a quarter sterling, and that about the 
last-named year they were disbursing some ;2^33,ooo per annum. 

The formation Of this patriotic Board, at this period of our 
national history, was productive of much benefit to the country, and 
though many abuses subsequently crept in,, and its funds were often 
carelessly administered, there can be no doubt that a considerable 
stimulus was given to the trade. By monetary assistance to men 
of ability, who required capital to carry on their business, it not 
only pulled up in the race with continental countries, but before 
the Board passed out of existence, the Irish linen trade had been 
brought to so important a position that its fabrics were fast 
displacing the products of all other linen-producing countries in 
the markets of the world. 

Another very important power vested in this Board related to 
the appointment of persons to examine all white cloth before 
being offered for sale ; to measure same, and to stamp the webs 
with a seal. White goods were at first dealt with, and the seals 
put upon them were a warrantry as to the genuine character of the 

1 7 19. — Accordingly in this year the act 6 George I., cap. 7, 
was passed ; section 7 related to the appointment of a lapper, 
whose duty it was to measure, examine, stamp, and lap or fold up 
the web. 

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The section ran as follows : — 

** And for the more effectual preventing of frauds and abuses, in making 
and bleaching of linen cloth, and bringing the same into better repute, be it 
enacted, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the Trustees appointed for 
encouraging the hempen and flaxen manufactures of this kingdom, or any five or 
more of them, to licence and appoint such fit and proper person or persons in such 
places of this kingdom as they shall judge most convenient, to view, examine, 
and measure all and every such piece or pieces of linen cloth, as shall be 
produced and offered to him or them ; and if such cloth appears to be 
merchantable, and pursuant to the good laws for regulating the linen 
manufacture, in force in this kingdom, then, and not otherwise, such person or 
persons licensed to be lappers, as aforesaid, shall and may lap, and make up 
the same, and mark thereon the number of yards each piece containeth in 
length ; and seal or stamp both ends thereof with the name of such lapper, 
and the c©unty in* which he resides, or such other impression as the said 
Trustees shall think fit and appoint ; for all which such lapper shall and may 
demand and take the sum of twopence, and no more, unless he beetle the same, 
and then one penny more, oy&c and above the said twopence." 

To cany out the provisions of this Act, the Board drew up a 
code of instructions for these lappers, and divided them into two 
classes — public lappers and private lappers — their regulation with 
regard to the latter being contained in the following minute, passed 
1 6th January, 17x9 :— 

" If anyone who keeps a bleach yard, and gives the Board satisfaction that 

he is qualified to be a lapper, and applies for a stamp and conmiission, they will 

X appoint him ; provided that he lap up and stamp no cloths, but such as are 

bleached in his own bleach yard, except there be no public lapper within six 

miles of him." 

1720. — ^The Board established this year spinning schools in 
each province, and provided wheels and reels for the scholars. 
The mistress of each school had ;^io a year, besides certain profits 
arising from the sale of yarns. She was to pay the spinner four- 
pence for each hank of eight hank yarn ; sevenpence for twelve 
hank yam ; and elevenpence for twenty hank yarn. Hemp spinning 
schools were also started, and as a liberal bounty was paid by the 
State for the encouragement of canvas and sailcloth productions, 
those hemp schools became objects of attention on the part of the 
Trustees. Some matters were carried with a high hand by these 
functionaries, as the following order, given to the County Inspector, 
will show : — " You are to see whe5ier any person, who has not 
served an apprenticeship of five years to the trade, ^YidXi. presume 
io weave linen doth, and when such a person is found, you are to 
bring him before the next justice of the peace, and punish him 
according to law." 

1730. — Macpherson records that during the month of May 
this year, the imports into London of fine linen from Holland 
amounted to 66,286 yards, and Irish linen 179,114 yards. 

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A writer about this time states that the population of Ireland 
was computed to amount to, in 1672, 1,100,000; in 1684, 
1,200,000; but soon after King William reduced the country to 
subjection the population had fallen to about 1,040,000 (occasioned 
doubtless by so many Catholics leaving the country, owing to the 
destruction of the wopllen trade and other causes);, but in 1725 it 
rose to 1,670,000, and about 1733, owing to the encouragement 
given to the Protestant settlers, and by the erection of schools for 
the working classes, the population had grown to about 2,000,000, 
of which it was estimated 600,000 were Protestants. 

1739. — The embargo laid upon woollen manufactures, pre- 
viously alluded to, necessarily left on hand a large quantity of the 
raw material, which could not all be consumed at home ; con- 
siderable quantities were therefore, in contravention of the various 
Acts, clandestinely sent out of Ireland, chiefly to foreign ports. 
An Act was passed this year abolishing the duties which had been 
levied on the export of woollen yams, and increasing the ports to 
fourteen from which woollen goods might be shipped. 

1 741. — The increase in the Irish linen trade appears by this 
time to have greatly alarmed all the foreign linen countries, for it 
appeared that, whilst at the accession of William III. Ireland did 
not export more than the value of ;£"! 2,000, in 1701 the total was 
;^i4,i2o, and in 1706 there were 530,858 yards sent away, valued 
at ioJ^dperyard;andin 1741 7,207,741 yards of linen, and 21,665 
cwts. of yarn, were exported, the value of which was half-a-million 

The observations of Sir William Temple, made sixty years 
previously respecting the linen trade, appear to have been verified 
in a remarkable manner. Writing in 1 681, he says — " No women 
are apter to spin linen thread so well as the Irish, who labouring 
little in any kind with their hands have their fingers more supple 
than other women of the poor condition amongst us, and this may 
certainly be advanced and improved into a great manufacture of 
linen, so as to bear down the trade of both France and Holland ; 
and draw much of the money, which goes from England to those 
parts, into the hands of his Majesty's subjects of Ireland, without 
crossing any interest of trade in England ; for besides what has 
been said of flax and spinning, the soil and climate are proper for 
whitening, both by the frequent brooks and also winds in that 

1742. — The British Parliament this year laid a duty of 2s lod 
on every web of foreign linen imported ; and established a bounty 
of one penny a yard on all British and Irish linen exported. Five 
years afterwards threepence per yard was given as bounty on the ex- 
port of all goods valued fromoneshillingtoone-and-sixpenceperyard. 

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1760. — The writer of an essay at this time thus refers to the 
Irish Board : — " In this reign (Geo. II.), and not before, our linen 
manufacture, in many respects one of the most profitable branches 
of our national comiherce, had received all the encouragement 
from Royal bounty and Parliamentary sanction that could be 
reasonably hoped for. Persons of the highest rank, dignity, and 
fortune were appointed Trustees for the propagation, encourage- 
ment, and diffusion of this beneficial trade throughout the respec- 
tive provinces. The I^inen Hall was erected in Dublin, under as 
just and well arranged a system of regulations as any commercial 
house in Europe. The north of Ireland, which owing to the want 
of industry business and tillage had been almost neglected, now 
began to wear an entirely new aspect. Ulster became a populous 
scene of improvement, traffic, wealth, and plenty ; and is at this 
day a well planted district, considerable for numbers of well 
affected useful and industrious subjects. We no where, abstracted 
from our own country, met with a set of such pious patriots (as 
the ever honourable Dublin Society) who from their funds ad- 
vanced this country in general in every degree and branch of 
industry and improvement, and inspired with sentiments truly 
public and social, munificently rewarding their countrymen of 
whatever denomination without favour or distinction." 

1 76 1. — Scotland in the meantime had progressed considerably 
in her linen manufactures, and through Government assistance 
her trade in this branch had increased about five times what it was 
in 1728. It was assumed that this increase was telling against the 
Irish trade to some extent, for the exports from Ireland showed a 
falling oflf compared with 1757. 

To encourage the manufacture of linen cambric cloth — a species 
of fine linen for which Cambrai, in France, had long been famous 
— the Board granted a sum of ;^ 1,375 to assist in establishing a 
manufactory at Dundalk, but the enterprise was not a successful 

1764. — The provisions of the act of 1719 regarding the sealing 
of white cloth, were subsequently extended to embrace the brown 
or " green cloth," exposed for sale in the country markets, and 
several acts were passed bearing upon this branch of the subject, 
but the one which was finally agreed upon, as embracing all the 
provisions necessary to meet the case, was the act of 3 George III., 
chap. 34, and which received the Royal assent on 12th May, 1764. 

Under this act the Trustees had powers to appoint sealmasters 
of brown linen, the section running as follows : — 

** For the more effectual prevention of all jfrauds and abuses in the said manu- 
fectures, the Trustees, or any five of them may appoint during their pleasure, such 
fit and proper persons, and in such places as they shall judge convenient, to be 

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sealmasters of brown and unbleached Imen appoint rules to 

direct and govern them .... require security by bond from them . . 
. . may administer oath of office . •. . . and punish them for neglect 
of duties .... and recal their seal^, &c." 

The duties of sealmasters were defined as follows : — 

** Every sealmaster of brown linen must carefully view, examine, and 
measure every piece of linen cloth that shall be produced and offered to him ; 
and if merchantable, and in every respect conformable to law, he must fold and 
stamp the said piece as therein directed .... and no sealmaster shall 
buy, or suffer to be bought, in his house, any brown linen that shall be brought 
to him to be sealed .... nor sell, nor lend, nor suffer his seal to be 
used by any other person whatsoever, under pain of forfeiting ;^20. .... 
And he may demand and take for every piece of unbleached Hnen, containing 
twenty-five yards and under, the sum of one penny, and no more, and so in 
proportion for a greater quantity." 

The penalties against selling unsealed linen were contained in 
the following section :< — 

** No person shall sell or expose for sale, or buy any green or unbleached 
linen, or hempen cloth, that shall not at the time thereof be sealed and marked 
as before directed, under pain of forfeiting the sum of ;^5 for every such piece." 

At first 'these acts met with violent opposition on the part of 
the weavers, who assembled in tumultuous mobs chiefly about 
I^isburn, and committed various outrages. They seized the linen 
drapers, who were about to dispose of their webs, and forced many 
of them to swear they would not recognize the sealing of the 
brown goods ; they attacked and maimed many others, even the 
Earl of Hillsborough narrowly escaped the fury of a mob on one 
occasion. They attacked tlie house of Mr. Williamson, the 
proprietor of an extensive bleach green at Lambeg, and only 
desisted from destroying his house on finding it was well defended. 
They then attempted to destroy his bleach green, but were 
prevented by similar precautions. 

This is only a sample of the senseless opposition on the part 
of the weavers, against regulations which were 'intended as much 
for their own protection as anything else. Before this act was 
passed they were entirely at the mercy of the buyers, many of 
whom used no just standard of measurement for their work, and 
very often when a proper yard-stick was not at hand they would 
cut a stick out of the nearest hedge, and which was often an inch . 
or two longer than the statute yard. In measuring, also, it was 
stated that by sleight of hand they could often take from half to a 
whole yard above the just measure, and as the breadth of the thumb 
was allowed in each yard, anyone favoured by nature with an 
exceptionally large one was placed on the hi^ road towards 
attaining a fortune. 

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But in a very short time the weavers, seeing that this opposition 
to the Board was not only fruitless but contrary to their best 
interests, quickly came to a state of repentance for the acts of 
folly and wickedness previously committed. 

We extract from official records of the Board the following 
addresses, which exhibit the penitential frame of mmd they 
afterwards showed. 

One of them is entitled : — " The thankful address of the 
Towns of Banbridge, Loughbrickland, Newry, and counties adja- 
cent, &c." :— . 

** Most worthy Gentlemen, — We beg leave to return you our most hearty 
and sincere thanks for the many good laws and regulations you have made for 
the good of the linen trade, and especially for your late good Act in causing all 
brown linen to be sealed. 

"We indeed confess there were some hot-headed persons amongst us 
who did not at first see the general good the honourable Board designed in this 
good and just law ; but a very short experience has fully convinced us of the 
benefit we now reap by it ; for we find we have been greatly imposed upon by 
too many of the drapers, when they had the measuring of our cloth in their own 
power. In several markets, too, in this and other parts of the country, they 
nad a custom that they would have half a yard, or a yard, or two yards for 
nothing into the piece ; and, having all in their own power, some of them often 
defrauded us as much more by too long measure ; and they would not measure 
our cloth with the statute yard, but in all markets they had a yard considerably 
longer ; thus, in what they took by way of gift, they had a piece or two of 
cloth off us for nothing in every twenty-four pieces they bought. But now, 
thank God, and the honourable Board, and all the worthy members of it, who 
had the interest of their country so much at heart, we are relieved from all these 
heavy and unjust burdens, Sec" 

Another address, from the town and neighbourhood of Lisbum, 
thus proceeds : — 

** May it please your Honours, — ^We should have been amongst the first to 
express our sincerest gratitude and thankfulness for the happy relations you 
have made in our trade, had not grief and shame for the late enormities com- 
mitted in, and about this place, withheld us from presuming to lift up our 
faces before you and the public 

** When we consider that it was here, and here alone, where the laws you 
had ordered to be enadtcd were so madly opposed; when we plainly see (as we 
now do) the benefits intended for us by the same ; but, above all, when we 
reflect on the manner in which a truly noble and right honourable member of 
your Board, the great friend of our trade, was treated amongst us, our faces are 
not only covered with shame, but our hearts are penetrated with concern and 
grief. And when we also consider the great good that was then a-doing, and 
which, notwithstanding our unworthiness, has since been done for us ; and the 
lenity and mercy that has since also been shown, in return for indignities and 
base ingratitude, we are so confounded that we know not what to say, nor how 
to address ourselves to your honours. 

** Suffer us, however, humbly to assure your honours that it was only the 
lowest and most ignorant of our body who,' by being deceived by wicked false- 
hoods propagated amongst us, were brought to be concerned in those shameful 
disturbances, in order, as they weakly believed and imagined, to save themselves 
and their families from oppression and ruin." 

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Owing to the great improvements which, in 1764, a Lurgan 
carpenter, named Thomas Turner (a special protegd of Louis 
Crommelin), made in the old spinning wheel, yams of a higher 
count could now be spun, and a child was able to produce twice 
the quantity which a grown person previously did with the ancient 
Irish machine ; an advantage of no inconsiderable importance in 
these days when all the yarn spun was by hand labour. 

In this year it is also recorded that Dr. Ferguson, of Belfast, 
received from the Linen Board a pension of ;^3oo, for the successful 
application of lime for bleaching purposes, a discovery of very 
considerable importance to the trade. A few years after this, he 
discovered the use of sulphuric acid as an agent in the bleaching 
process, and one which was much more expeditious in its action 
than the butter-milk which previously, and from time immemorial, 
had been employed. 

Whilst it was conceded that the use of lime for bleaching was 
a valuable discovery, much difference of opinion soon after arose 
regarding its use, it having been found in practice too dangerous 
an agent, except in the most skilled hands. Many instances having 
arisen showing the injury which cloth sustained where the manipu- 
lations were not most carefully attended to, an Act of Parliament 
was passed prohibiting the use of this agent altogether. 

It was not until the close of this century, when chlorine, in 
combination with lime, was found a superior chemical, that its 
use was sanctioned, and soon after became the recognised agent 
in the bleaching of cloth and yams. 

Some years before this, *William Coulson, the founder of the 
Lisbum damask factory, commenced work with a small number of 
looms, which he erected in a large building convenient to the 
County Down bridge in that town. Reference is made further on 
to this important branch of the trade. 

1772. — From the records at this time it appears that Irish linen 
to the extent of 2,000,000 yards was during this year sent to 
London, and of this quantity 776,625 yards were sent from Belfast. 
Besides the direct shipments to London, large quantities were sent 
to Chester to be forwarded to London. 

Dulness in trade set in about this time, and a desire to emigrate 
seemed to take possession of the people throughout the north, 
caused by a falling off in demand in the labour market. 

It appears from official returns that the exports of linen manu- 
factures for 1773 were more than a fourth less than what they were 
in 1 77 1. The consequence was that three-fourths, and in some 
places more than this proportion of looms throughout the north 

^Ireland and her staple manufactures. 

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were silent This so alarmed the weavers that a great exodus 
immediately set in. From Belfast alone, it is stated in* the Parlia- 
mentaryreports, that between 1771 and 1773 about 3,541 persons 
left for America ; about 6,000 left the port of Deny, and from 
Ulster alone at least 30,000 people emigrated, about one-third of 
whom were weavers, many of them carrying their utensils of trade 
with them. The depression in the linen trade was, however, not 
confined to Ireland ; England and Scotland came in for their 
share. From evidence given before a committee of the English 
House of Parliament in 1774 it appeared that 600 out of 1,800 
spinners had emigrated from one district in Sutherland. Cloth 
which sold in 1769 for i2^d per yard fell to 9 ^d in 1774, and 
in four shires in Scotland, which included Glasgow and Paisley, 
out of 6,000 looms 2,500 were employed, and in general one-third 
or more of the looms were idle throughout Scotland and the north 
of England. 

This decline of the linen industry has been stated by some 
writers to have arisen from an over-production, which, for several 
years, had previously characterised the trade, and ultimately led to 
a glut of linen goods in all the markets. Whilst these stocks were 
working down, business was seriously curtailed, many and heavy 
losses being sustained. The disputes between England and 
America, which ultimately led to the independence of the United 
States, had also much to do with the depression in trade at this 

1775. — Demand began to revive slowly during this year, and 
Ireland was allowed to clothe and accoutre that portion of the 
army which was paid for by her, though serving out of this country. 
As a further encouragement to grow flax, an additional bounty of 
5s per hhd. was allowed on flaxseed imported into Ireland during 
1776 and 1777, and this bounty was afterwards extended down to 

Before the war with America, flaxseed was imported from that 
country to the extent of about 255,000 bushels annually; but after 
the outbreak of hostilities the necessity of saving the seed of the 
plant was forced on the farmers of this country, and large quantities 
were preserved, which soon proved highly successful. 

Arthur Young in his travels through Ireland in 1776 gives 
passing sketches of the linen trade in the various towns he visited, 
and though he looked with no favourable eye upon the manufacture 
(alleging that it was carried on to such an extent in Ulster that 
agricultural pursuits were seriously neglected), the details he has 
supplied, and of which we make a few extracts, will be interesting, 
in comparing the state of the manufacture now with what it was 
exactly one himdred years ago. 

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In Armagh he says — "The manufacturers are generally Protestants; and 
their wives drink tea for breakfast. The price of cloth woven here is from 
lojd to 11^ a-yard, brown, the state in which they sell it. The fixed price for 

weaving it is 2jd per yard When the weaver has made his piece 

of cloth he goes into the market of Armagh on a Tuesday, and sells it to the 
draper, as he would any other commodity. .... The draper generally 
hafi a bleach green, and the expense to hun of bleaching is £^ ics to ;^5 a pack 
of 30 pieces, or 3s to 3s 2d a piece. After bleaching he either sends it to 
factors in London Or Dublin, or sells it at the Linen-hall in Dublin. Some go 
over to Chester for themselves and dispose of it there. In London he gives 
seven months* credit ; in Dublin two or three, but if he goes himself to the 
Hall he gets part ready money. The London factor has six per cent, for selling 
it and advancing the money as soon as sold, and a half per cent for warehouse 

room and insurance from fire The spinners in this district earn 

from 3d to 4d per day, and weavfers lod to is 4d. 

The weavers in the country on the road to Lurgan keep a pack of hounds ; 
every man has a hound, and joining them together they hunt hares. The pack 
is no sooner heard than all the weavers leave their looms, and away they go 
after them by hundreds. This much amazed me, but I was assured it was very 

At Lurgan Mr. Brownlow walked with me to the market, to show me the 
way the linens were sold. The cambrics are sold early, and through the whole 
morning, but when the clock strikes eleven, the drapers jump upon stone 
standings, and the weavers instantly flock about them with their pieces ; the 
bargains are not struck at a word, but there is a little altercation whether the 
price will be one halfpenny or one penny a yard more or less, which appeared 
to be useless. The draper's clerk stands by him, and writes his master s name 
on the pieces he buys, together with the price ; and giving it back to the seller 
he goes to the draper's quarters and awaits his coming. At twelve it ends, and 
then there is an hour for measuring the pieces and paying the money, for nothing 
but ready money is taken, and this is the way the business is carried on at all 
the markets. 3,000 pieces are sold a week at 35s each on an average, or about 
£^,2<p equal to ;^273,ooo per annum, and this all made in a circumference of 
not many miles. 

At IVaringstowit the linen made is from 8^^ to to 2400, yard wide, and 25 
yards long. 49 hanks of yarn will make a 1400, which sells at 2od per yard — 
brown. The weaver is paid ids for weaving it, and he will weave it in nine 
days. Much done by drapers advancing the yam and paying for the weaving. 
800 2jd a yard ; iqoo 3jd ; 1300 3I ; 1600 yd ; i8op io| ; 2400 i/yjd. When 
weaving fine linen going from it to the plough or spade hurts their hands so 

much that they do not recover it for a week Bleach greens 

sometimes belong to the drapers, and sometimes not. 
The bleaching process is then described :— 

When at Lisburn the Bishop of Down was so obliging as to send for an 
intelligent linen draper to give me such particidars as I wanted about the 
manufacture here. About this place chiefly fine cloth from 1400 to 2100 is 
made. The spinners are generally hired by the quarter, at from ids to I2s, 
with lodging and board, and engaged to spin 5 hanks of 8 hank yam in a week, 
. . . . For 1 800 linen a woman spins 6 hanks a- week, which weigh a 
pound ; at the price of 8d per hank .... The drapers advance the 
yarn, and pay for the weaving by the yard. 

Reached Belfast on 31st July, 1776. The town and trade are described as 
follows : — Belfiist is a very well built town of bricks, thev having no stone 
quarry in the neighbourhood. The streets are broad and straight, and the 
inhabitants amount to 15,000, and make it appear lively and busy. The public 
buildings are not numerous, nor very striking, but over the Exchange Lord 

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Donegall is building an assembly room His Lordship is also 

building a new Church The town entirely belongs to him. Rent 

of it ;^20,ooo a-year. His estate extends from Drumbridge, near Lisbum, to 
Lame— 20 miles in a right line, and is 10 miles broad. The number of ships 
belonging to Belfast are about 50 sail, from 20 to 3CX) tons. A vessel of 200 
tons, half-loaded, may come to the quay, there being 9^ to 10 feet of water. 
In 1 771 when the linen trade was brisk there were 3CX) looms in Belfast, but in 
1774 there were only 180. 

Belfast being the place where the emigrations were greatest, I made 
inquiries concerning them, and found that they have for many years had a 
regular emigration of 2,000 annually, but owing to the decline in the linen trade 
4,000 left in 1773. 

Prices of provisions at Belfast. — Potatoes 9d a-bushel; Salmon 2d a-Ib ; 
Lobsters 6d each ; Plaice, %^ per lb ; Beef, 2^d, Mutton, 3d, and Butter Sd 
per lb ; Geese I4d, Turkeys is, and Chickens 2>^d each ; Oysters is to 4s per 
hundred. Oatmead |^d lb ; Coals 13s a-ton. Labour the year round, i/id in 
the town, and 8d a-day in the county. Spinners earned 3d a-day and weavers 

The Irish Parliament, in 1780, to further encourage the growth 
of home seed, and at same time promote the manufacture of 
cloth, not only repealed the bounty given for importing foreign 
seed, but laid a duty on imported linseed oil, and applied these 
two funds to stimulate the exportation of cloth to foreign countries. 
The trade by this means was materially benefited, and in addition 
duties were levied upon foreign linens. The wisdom of this latter 
step was, however, a doubtful one, as foreigners to protect them- 
selves placed restrictions on all English woollens. 

Linen manufacturing on the Continent having been much im- 
proved, it was found very difficult at this time to compete with it. 
In a report by the Lords of Trade it appeared that though our 
trade was favoured, between bounties and duties, to the extent 
of about 15 per cent., yet with all this the foreigners were able to 
keep up a competition, especially in the fine linens ; and that a 
small reduction in the duties would have brought them as cheap 
as ever to Great Britain. Having observed that our linen bounties 
and linen duties, though possibly in many cases exceptional in 
the great scale of commercial policy, have proved an essential 
encouragement to the Irish staple, they said, " we think it right to 
add that it has also been the means of forcing forward an extensive 
linen manufacture in Ireland, though struggling under great 
disadvantages as to the growth and supply of tihe raw material." 

1780. — Potash appears to have been used for the first time as 
a ley for boiling yams and cloth. 

1782. — An act was passed this year (22 George III., c. 53.) 
repealing 6 George I., and freeing Ireland from all commercial 
dependence on Great Britain, for up to this period shipments to 
most of the British Colonies and Dependencies could only be 
made through English ports. The Irish Parliament, to mark their 

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appreciation of this favour, immediately voted 20,000 men for the 
British Navy. 

1784. — In their great delight at the unrestricted freedom to 
caiTy on a direct foreign trade, Irish merchants at once largely 
embarked in the export busiQess,and shipped considerable quantities 
of goods of all classes to America, and other foreign countries, 
forgetting, in the excitement which appeared to take hold of the 
trade, that a sudden and greatly increased demand did not 
necessarily follow the accumulation of goods in any of the 
markets to which these consignments were made. The 
consequence was that the markets abroad became overstocked, 
and the shipments were so slowly realised, in those days when 
banking facilities such as we possess were unknown, that 
manufacturers found themselves seriously crippled for want of 
capital, which was thus locked up abroad. 

Though the monetary institutions of our day were unknown at 
the period, looking back at this distance of time it may be 
a matter rather for congratulation than otherwise, for had advances 
been readily obtaiued the evil of excessive consignments might 
have gone on unchecked for years, until a terrible disaster had 
perhaps fallen upon the trade, and thrown back its progress for 
perhaps a century. As matters stood, the evil was soon detected, 
and the recovery set in earlier, so that the blow was far less severe 
than it might otherwise have been. 

A good deal of clamour was then raised, and a strong 
protectionist party was quickly organised who tried to get the Irish 
Parliament to enact protection duties, but this they refused to do; 
but they levied duties on British sugar, beer, wine, and printed 
calicoes, in order to give a preference to our own manufactures. 
Non-importation agreements were voluntarily entered into by the 
people to a large extent, and anyone found violating these 
agreements exposed himself to popular indignation, and if caught 
was liable to be tarred and feathered. 

Turning to the records of the Linen Board at this time, we 
select a few examples to illustrate the modus operandi by which 
aid was obtained from this body towards the encouragement of 
the trade. 

In February, 1784, M. W. presented a memorial praying aid to 
extend the cotton manufacture. F. Y. for aid to extend linen and 
cotton, M. S. and W. J. for same. W. C. H. asking a grant of 50 
wheels and 20 reels, to enable him to give employment to a number 
of poor manufacturers. A. C. praying aid to purchase machinery to 
enable him to extend manufacture of crossbarred, striped, and 
other lawns. F. A. praying aid to extend the manufacture of linen 
and cotton. F. H. praying the Board to grant him four stocking 


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looms. M. J. and others, for a spinning and carding machine for 
cotton. W. & M. C, tape, thread, and garter manufacturers, 
, praying the Board to enable them to take a number of apprentices. 
D. B. and others, praying for a hot and cold calender. These, 
and a host of others, were chiefly from spinners and weavers of 
the poorer class. C. O. H. asked for a number of looms to 
distribute among his poor tenants. H. M*C., damask weaver, for 
aid to extend his manufacture. 

On 13th Februar}', 1784, the Board passed a resolution which 
became a standing order, " That to every grant of wheels, reels, 
looms, jennies, and carding machines, the person to whom the 
same shall be granted, shall make it appear by affidavit that 20s had 
been added to every 50s the said grant contains." Looms were 
to be of value of JQ2 15s at least, jQ\ 15s of which the Board 
contributed to persons who had obtained a grant. 

Juries were appointed to examine cloth which was reported to 
be unmerchantable, and their verdicts were handed in to the 
Board, who thereupon decided what fines should be imposed. As 
an example, we find oii i6th March, 1784, that the Board having 
taken into consideration the opinions of several juries appointed 
to examine fraudulently lapped and damaged linens : — 

" Resolved, that the following seal masters of white linens be fined in the 
sums respectively affixed to their names for frauds committed by them in the 
execution of their office. 

G. T. on 46 pieces tender and unmerchantable, ... ^yj 7 6 

S. & T. 34 ,, small holes and tender, ... 1700 

S. & T. 45 „ mildewed and stained, ... 10 o o 

J. T. 20 „ tender and unmerchantable, ... 20 o o 

R. K. 29 ,, tender and mildewed, ... 14 10 o 
And on 13th April 1784 we find 

H. D. fined for passing i piece with concealed holes and rotten, 315 10^ 

J. D. ,, 2 „ short measure, ... 400 

J. J. „ 29 „ unmerchantable, ... 52 10 2 

343 pieces were condemned as tender and unmerchantable, and were ordered 
to be cut, to prevent their being exported. 

The precaution taken to prevent the exportation of bad cloth was 
a very wise and judicious one, and did much towards maintaining 
the first-class reputation which Irish linens had long enjoyed in 
the markets of the world. 

It is much to be regretted, that owing to the rapid manner in 
which cloth is pushed forward at the bleach-greens at the present 
day, a quantity is more or less unavoidably injured ; the great 
whiteness to which linen is required to be brought being at the 
risk of damage to the fabric. These risks are sometimes borne 
by the bleacher, and sometimes by the owner, but in either case a 

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good deal of damaged cloth is thrown on the market, to the injury 
of the great bulk of genuine cloth, the value of which is in some 
measure affected. The question is one which in no small degree 
concerns the trade, and deserves consideration, with a view to 
maintain the character and value of our Irish linen. 

There were eleven bleach-greens along the river Lagan in 1784. 
Three of these turned out 24,000 webs this year ; one finished 
10,000, and another bleached 8,000 : two finished 5,000 each, 
two 4,000, and two 3,900 each. The exports of linens from 
Ireland amounted this year to 24,961,898 yards. 

The patents which Arkwright secured for his spinning engines 
having expired about this time, a very considerable increase 
followed in the production of cotton fabrics; as cotton yam could 
be spun so much more cheaply than linen, cotton goods 
competed to a considerable extent with the linen fabrics, and took 
the place of cambrics, lawns, and the finer and more expensive 
classes of linen goods. 

About this period also the art of dyeing turkey red was 
introduced into Glasgow by a French artist, and a great business 
was in a few years developed in this branch of trade. Macpherson 
states that it was a disputed point whether Manchester or Glasgow 
had the honour of first introducing this art, as it appears that a firm 
in the first-named city got a premium of ^2,500 from Parliament 
for the discovery. 

1787. — A commercial treaty was concluded this year with 
France ; the laws prohibiting the importation of French cambrics 
and lawns were repealed. 

1 791. — Improvements were effected in the mechanism of 
looms, by which two webs of cotton or linen could be woven at 
same time, another was an improved method of bleaching, by 
which cotton goods could be bleached in five hours. 

1795. — Cloride of lime was first used this year in the process 
of bleaching cloth and yarns, and the discovery proved of very 
great value to the trade. 

1796. — An active business marked the history of this year; 
farmers had enjoyed improved markets for their produce ; the 
people had inuch better employment, and the home trade for 
linen goods was very favourable. Exports had run up to 46,705,319 
yards, the highest ever before reached, and much above the top 
figures attained for twenty years afterwards. An old linen draper 
mentioned some years ago to a friend of the author that the brown 
cloth markets of 1796 were stirring in the extreme. The gentle- 
man to whom we refer was among the earliest makers of fine 
cambric, and had frequently sold webs for twenty-five guineas each, 
or at the rate of one guinea a yard. 

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1798. — ^The exports of linen cloth fell this year, owing to the 
disturbed state of the country, to 33,497,171 yards, and in conse- 
quence of a greatly reduced production of cloth nearly twice the 
quantity of linen yam, compared with 1797, was exported. This 
memorable year, with its insurrection, and all the ills consequept 
on such wild projects, was marked by much disaster to the trade of 
the country, and no branch suffered more than the linen manufac- 

The Utopian idea of uniting men of all creeds and classes in 
Ireland, and forming a grand political organisation to redress the 
evils which were then held to exist, and to effect legislative reform, 
occurred to some active spirits in the north a few years previously. 
Industry was neglected in many districts ; ploughs lay rusting in 
the field, and hundreds of looms ceased to ply the shuttle. At 
first the organisation merely sought an extension of political rights, 
and a fairer field of commerce, but no long time elapsed when it 
became evident that the ideas of the confederation were outstripped 
by those who afterwards joined it, until at last it drifted into an 
avowed hostility against British rule, and a revolt was popularly 

We need not do more than make a passing reference to the 
results. A rebellion broke out in the spring but, owing to the 
vigorous steps taken by the Government, it was put down in the 
course of a few months. Many excesses were commited on both 
sides, and whilst the riot and confusion lasted trade and agriculture 
greatly suffered. 

If the opening ot this century was full of promise to the linen 
industry, the close was marked by difficulty and depression, but 
the trade in the meantime had acquired great strength, and had 
taken so deep a root in the country that the effects of this storm 
were but temporary. In a few years it again put forth fresh and 
vigorous shoots, and bid fair for a long time to come to hold its 
own against all competitors. 

The political convulsion of '98 was followed by a treaty between 
the Parliaments of England and Ireland, which resulted in the 
union of the two countries under one Legislature. 

In ** Ireland and her Staple Manufectures" the author has 
graphically sketched several scenes which took place at this period, 
in many of which persons connected with the linen trade were 
mixed up. 

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From the Legislative Union with Great Britain — covering the period 
of the Dissolution of the Irish Linen Trade Board— to end of 1840. 

j-T is not within the scope of this little work to enter 
upon or discuss the various questions raised at this 
period respecting the political movements which cul- 
minated in the extinction of the Irish Parliament, 
and consequent fusion of our Government with that 
of Great Britain. Whatever views may be entertained 
regarding the wisdom of this Act, it cannot be denied 
that very great commercial advantages resulted from the 
xinion of the weaker with the stronger power, and though measures 
of relief, and the adjustment of old grievances, were but slowly 
doled out, the country now enjoys unrestricted political and com- 
mercial freedom. 

1805. — The staple trade had very much improved this year, so 
that exports of cloth were more than five millions of yards over the 
quantity in the previous year. 

An important invention, brought out in t8oi by M. Jacquard, of 
Lyons, proved of very great value to the linen trade, so far as the 
production of damask and fancy goods was concerned. Previous 
to this, in the weaving of figured goods, it was necessary to employ 
" draw bo)^" — as the apprentices were called who attended the 
weavers — and their duty was to draw up the warp threads by means 
of cords or pulleys, according to the pattern indicated. Jacquard's 
invention superseded those draw boys, and by a system of per- 
forated cards (cut according to the special pattern intended to be 
woven), strung together so as to form an endless band, which were 
pressed against the levers of the warp threads, raising all, except 
those which passed through the holes, by. means of pedals, lihder 

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the control of the weaver, these cards did the work mechanically 
which was formerly done by the draw boy. 

This system is now universally adopted for weaving all figured 
goods, but the description given will scarcely be intelligible without 
an inspection of the mechanism of the damask looms now in use. 

The production of flaxen yams by machinery had been in 
operation in England, and also in Scotland, firom the close of the 
past century, and for about twenty years afterwards a considerable 
trade in coarse warps and wefts was carried on with Irish linen 

The Linen Trade Board had made several attempts to introduce 
this system by offering premiums of thirty shillings per spindle, for 
all such machinery set up in any mill, but it was not until this year 
that we find any practical result Prejudice, which stood in the 
way respecting any interference with the time-honoured system of 
hand-spinning, was extremely difficult to overcome, and it is not 
to be wondered at that an invention which threatened the extinction 
of the ancient art, and the throwing idle of many thousands of hands 
in every province, should meet with great opposition. In this 
country, in common with all others, hand-spinning firom time im- 
memorial had been practised by women and children in their 
cottages and homesteads all over the land, and the yams were 
brought to the nearest towns, and there sold to the weavers ; very 
often the females of the family spun the yam whilst the males 
worked it into cloth. At this period a great deal of yam was spun 
in Connaught, where the trade, so far as the coarse numbers were 
concerned, had become centralised; from this province these yams 
were sent to Ulster for the manufacture of the coarser classes of 
linens, but a good deal was also sent to Scotland. 

This year, however, a Cork man set up 2 1 2 spindles for canvas 
yarns, and so many others followed his example that in four years 
a considerable number of spindles were at work, all of which were 
driven by water power. 

1809. — A sum of ^20,000 having been granted by Parliament 
this year, " to be applied towards the encouragement of the saving 
of flaxseed for sowing in Ireland,'* the Board issued a notice of 
instmctions respecting the claims for bounties on the saving of 
the seed, with a view to extend the growth of flax in Ireland, and 
render the linen manufacture independent of foreign countries for 
the supply of seed. 

At this time, the gentlemen farmers stated that Irish saved seed 
was found equal, if not superior, to any foreign seed; and if 
properly saved did not degenerate. In order, however, to produce 
the best seed, they stated the flax straw should be stacked till 
Febmary, but as this was out of the power of poor cottagers, the 

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saving of the seed from home fibre could only be done by gentle- 
men and wealthy farmers, who could afford to hold their stock 
from autumn till spring. The bounty for home saved seed was 5s 
a bushel, if taken after ist February, or 2s 6d if taken before. 
The claims for bounty had to be made up on certain forms, sworn 
to and certified, before the amount of bounty could be claimed. 

Petitions under sanction of an oath, especially in the case of 
poor persons, was the usual mode of making application to the 
Board, for a grant of public money, to purchase wheels, looms, 
and other appliances connected with the trade. The following 
will illustrate the mode of doing business : — 

An application from Margaret Davitt, a female weaver, was presented to the 
Board, and is as follows : — 

" Sheweth, — That she, this petitioner, is a linen weaver by trade, and has 
learned the same several years ago ; that she applied to the Right Hon. Isaac 
Corry three years ago, in or about the month of July, 1806, and at that time 
she, this petitioner, made affidavit on the Holy Evangelists, before John Duff, 
Esq., Justice of the Peace, that she wove two hundred yards of linen and up- 
wards, within the space of one year, whereupon she did apply for to get a loom 
from the Board. 

"Said petitioner began a second year, and made a second affidavit that 
she wrought and wove two hundred yards more of linen, and upwards, within 
the space of one year ; which, affidavit was also sworn before the aforesaid John 
Duff, Esq., and given to Mr. Joseph Weir, to put it forward for petitioner, but 
when petitioner asked for the affidavits the said Mr. Weir told her that he mis- 
laid the papers, and could not find them. 

" And now a third time she, this petitioner, is willing to make affidavit 
that she wove and wrought two hundred yards of linens, and upwards, within 
the space of one year ; also, she, this petitioner, has learned some apprentices 
(as it is her common emplojrment those many years past), and expects, with the 
assistance of God, to learn more yet. 

"Therefore, she, this petitioner, applies herself to the Right Hon. Isaac 
Corry to encourage her to get a loom from the Board, and in compliance thereof 
she, this petitioner, will proceed to work at the weaving business ; and that she 
will learn more to weave during the residue of her life time, and, as in duty bound, 
she will faithfully fulfil said promise. 

"(Signed) MARGARET + DAVITT." 


** Margaret Davitt came this day and voluntarily made oath that the above 
petition is in substance true, and that she wove the quantities of linen specified. 

" Sworn before me this 27th August, 1809. 


Whereupon the Board ordered — "That the sum of £6 be granted to 
Margaret Davitt for the purchase of a loom.*' 

1810. — From the records of the Board in April of this year, a 
County Cork firm drew a pretty large sum in the shape of 
premiums for erecting spindles, and for weaving cloth. 

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P. Besnard, a premium, in foil, for manufecturing and selling, in 
tht year 1809, 32,558 yards of duck, and 17,959 yards of sail- 
cloth, at 2d per yard, in the County of Cork, ;^420 19 6 

Julius Besnaru, a premium, in foil, for manufacturing and selling, 
in the year 1809, 38,293 yards of sailcloth, at 2d per yard, in 
the County of Cork, 319 2 2 

P. & J. Besnard, a premium, in full, for erecting in the County of 
Cork, in the year 1809, 264 spindles for spinning yam by mill 
machinery, at 30s per spindle 396 o o 

In May the Inspector-General reported that the claims for 
saving flaxseed would come to about ;;^ 18,000, and the following 
abstract of the flax returns for 1809 show the extent sown, and 
the number of claimants for the bounty : — 

No. of rPAffti a/m»a ^^* ^^<^ claimed 

Province. persons who TriSh^m bounty for saTing 

^SSSTfuS: Irish sown. 

the seed. 

Ulster, 55,943 62,441 11,256 

Munster, 4,063 3,7i6 i»S7o 

Leinster, 17,178 4,107 1,169 

Connaught, 24,547 6,485 3,991 

101,731 76,749 17,986 

The town of Drogheda had long been famous for linen manu- 
factures, and owing to its contiguity to the metropolis, a ready 
market was found for many classes of goods suitable for home 
trade use, such as towellings, dowlas, sheetings, &c. At the pre- 
sent day several factories are in full work, and afford emplo)aiient 
to a considerable number of hands. 

Statistics of Drogheda trade for 1808 and 1809 show a very 
satisfactory state of things, though a smart falling off" appears 
between these years. 

1808. — 10,649 pieces of sheetings, dowlas, sailcloth, ticken, 

duck, &c., sold and exported, ;f 103,633 10 o 

— — 64,226 pieces i and | market linen, sold at Drogheda, 256,904 o o 
1809. — 5, 724 pieces of sheetings, &c., 58,574 o o 

— — 5 1,086 i»eces of I and I market linen, 204,344 o o 

;f623,455 10 o 

Before the sale of white cloth became centered in Belfast — ^for 
which purpose the White Linen Hall was built — the number of 
cases forwarded to Dublin was very large. The returns at this 
time show the following comparative view of linen, received at 
the Linen Hall, Dublin, for one year ended ist March, 18 10, with 
1809 : — 

Inwards, ist March, 1810, 10,371 boxes, &c, average value ;fi 50,... ;f 1,555,650 
Do., do., 1809, 10,227 do., do. ;f 160,... ;f 1,636,320 

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The boxes for 1810 were valued at £,\o less, linen having 
fallen in price. 

In the report of the Commissioners of Accounts for Ireland, 
appended to the transactions of the Board for 18 10, charges of 
great mismanagement were freely made against the Board, for not 
properly attending to their duties ; great inattention as to money 
matters, and deficient supervision of the officers, and the negligence 
and inefficiency of several of them. As regards the Trustees, this 
Parliamentary report goes on to say : — " The Trustees are too 
numerous, too fluctuating, have too great a variety of opinions, 
and frequently counteract each other. They seldom attend in 
proper numbers, they frequently, in our opinion, act in direct 
opposition to the law, as appears on the face of their minutes, 
particularly in the most essential points of making grants, and 
paying money. They have no emolument but such as they derive, 
in common with the public, from their own grants, and, therefore, 
cannot be expected to give due attention to the performance of so 
very laborious a duty." Then follow specific charges of neglect 
of duty on the part of officers of the Board. 

It need, however, scarcely cause surprise that in attempting to 
nurse an important industry like this, irregularities and mismanage- 
ment should arise in administering the trusts of this department, and 
distributing its funds and patronage, when the Board was com- 
posed of noblemen and gentlemen scattered all over the country, 
practically unacquainted with the trade, and who did not go to 
Dublin often enough to attend to their duties. In fact, the whole 
machinery seems to have been kept going for a long time through 
the united efforts of the chief officials — viz., inspector-general, 
architect, and secretary. These officers had very large powers, 
and doubtless took things easy, making their offices as pleasant as 
circumstances would admit 

By means of the bounty offered for the erection of spindles 
the number this year appeared to have risen (from 212 spindles 
in 1805) to 6,369, and mills were now running at Buncrana, 
Ballymoney, Dungannon, Comber, Cork, &c. 

181 5. — ^At this period it appears there were five mills in 
Ulster, two in Leinster, and seven in Munster; but, owing to 
depression in trade, only one of the mills in Munster was in full 

181 6. — From the minutes of the Board, we find that in October 
of this year they instructed their secretary (Mr. James Corry) to 
make a tour of inspection throughout the province of Ulster, and 
to report generally on the position of the trade. From this report, 
dated December, 181 6, we propose to make some extracts, which 
win give a good idea of the condition of the manufecture jit this 

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period, and will explain the old brown cloth market system, which 
has been completely revolutionised since power-looms were intro- 

County Armagh. — The principal markets in this county were 
Armagh (which at the present day keeps up a struggling existence), 
Lurgan, Tandragee, and Portadown. The secretary found that 
the brown seals in a few instances got into improper hands, and 
where the hurry of the market happened to be great, and the 
number of sealmasters in attendance insufficient for the business 
to be done, the word of the weaver was too often taken as to the 
length of the web, and the seal had been put on before the web 
was measiured. On all such occasions the length that was marked 
exceeded, as might be expected, the actual length, which the 
weaver afterwards strove to make good by forcibly stretching the 
web, and thereby injuring the fabric. The disputes at these 
country markets used sometimes to be so numerous as to require not 
only the attendance of the district inspector, but the local magis- 
trates; for the secretary reports that ** the exertions of an inspector, 
however active, cannot much or at all avail in any market when a 
magistrate is not at hand, easy of access, ready to hear and deter- 
mine the mutual complaints of merchants, manufacturers, and in- 
spectors which arise out of the transactions of a market. Those 
gentlemen, therefore, who devote their time and attention to these 
subjects may be considered the benefactors of the trade." 

Among the establishments visited by Mr. Corry in his tour a 
brief description of a few may be interesting. 

We visited the concerns of the respectable company of Messrs. Nicholson 
& Sons at Bessbrook, on Saturday, the I2th October, 1816. Their concerns 
are about three miles from Newry, and are of considerable extent. They con- 
sist of a spinning mill, a scutch mill, a hackling house, and sundry other 
buildings necessary to such an establishment, but they have no weaving depart- 
ment attached, their yam being given out to weavers in the country. This 
establishment received from the Board between the years 1806 and 1809 inclu- 
sive the sum of ;f 1,758 12s lod by way of bounties for having erected 1,216 
spindles within these periods, and the further sum of ;£i,8ii ^s 4d from i8n 
to 1 8 14 for the manufacturing of canvas and duck. Further details are then 
given respecting the machinery, &c. 

The concerns of Mr. James Nicholson, of New Holland, near Keady, were 
visited. In this concern there were at this time 5CX) spindles, twelve frames 
for line, and four for tow, with the necessary preparing machinery. Weaving 
done throughout the country, the chief manmacture being duck. 

Co, Tyrone, — Principal markets were Dungannon, Strabane, 
Newtownstewart, Fintona, Ballygawley, Cookstown, and Stewarts- 
town. Jobbers appear to have been regular attenders at these 
country markets, their operations being considered more or less 
injurious to the trade, although regular buyers found it a con- 
venience at times to get cloth through those under agents, who 

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visited out of the way places where regular buyers seldom went 
Many of these jobbers were honest and really respectable traders, 
but their peculiar calling had strong temptations to take advantage 
of sellers in small towns where they happened to be the only pur- 
chasers. They acted as middlemen, and those of them who were 
unscrupulous members of the brotherhood cheated the poor weaver 
of a fair price, and the buyer of his profit. Other irregularities are 
noted, such as entering into an agreement with the weaver before 
the market began as to the purchase of his webs, and thus depriv- 
ing the regular buyers of the advantages of open market \ but this 
was only practised by under agents, or commissioners, as they 
were called, and not by the bleachers or principal buyers. All 
these irregularities were found to exist more or less in Dungannon 
market. Brown seals also got at times into improper hands, and 
the impression was often so illegible on the webs as to make it 
difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain the name of the sealmaster, 
who, to conceal defects in the web, gave the seal a twist in making 
the impression so that his name could not be read.* This was an 
offence against 3 George III., cap. 34, which required sealmasters 
to affix a fair impression, <kc. At this time it appeared that thQ 
County Tyrone spun but a small proportion of the great quantity 
of yams which it manufactured, it being supplied principally from 
the Counties of Fermanagh, Leitrim, and Donegal. 

Cooksiown market was reported as well conducted and free of 
irregularities, but at Strabane and Newtownstewart some weavers 
used to plaster their webs with flour or potatoes, which, in the 
words of the report, gave the web " an artificial substance to the 
eye of the buyer." The magistrates found a difficulty at first in 
dealing with such cases, as they were doubtfiil if they came within 
the meaning of the Act which prohibited " the dyeing or staining 
of yarn or cloth, which made the yarn or cloth difficult to bleachy^ 
and this plastering, although the bleachers said that many of the 
webs had a black appearance when laid out, did not appear to be 

*This was an old trick, for by a placard in our possession, dated 22nd October, 1804, 
sealmasters got the following caution :— 


" Whereas, it has been a practice for some time past in many of our markets to expose 
for sale brown linens upon which it is impossible to read either the name or place of abode 
of the sealmaster, which may happen sometimes through negligence, but from dear bought 
experience we generally find it to arise in the fraudulent intention of the sealmaster, who 
knowiogly makes up linen with bad ends, concealed damages, and short measure ; then wil- 
fully blots the seal lest the buyer, when he discovers the fraud, should be able to ascertain 
and punish the offender, WE, the undersigned linen drapers, in order to put a stop to this 
improper practice, do pledge ourselyes to each other that from henceforth we will not 
knowingly buy, or suffer to be bought for us, any brown linens except such as have the 
impression of the seal in legible characters on the outside, as directed by the Linen Board ; 
and, also, that we will strictly examine every such piece to discover the frauds which this 
artiiSoe is intended to conceaL 

" Qiven under our hands this 22nd October, 180i." 

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reached by the Act. A case was, however, submitted for the opinion 
of the law officers of the Board, who stated that such practices 
did contravene the statute, and were punishable accordingly. 

At Ballygawley marked plastered webs had been exposed, but 
owing to timely exertion, and giving premiums to weavers, the 
irregularities had been discontinued. . 

Co, Dawn. — The markets were Banbridge, Newry, Hillsborough, 
Rathfriland, Downpatrick, Kilkeel, Kirkcubbin, Ballynahinch, and 
Castlewellen. The report regarding the county is a short one, 
but of ia favourable character. Respecting Banbridge market it 
states : " The gentlemen assembled at Banbridge instructed me to 
say that the condition and quality of the webs, brought to this mar- 
ket, might be improved by local grants of looms and wheels, given 
for the use of the market, and placed at the disposal of the trade." 

Co, Antrim, — The chief markets were Belfast, Lisbum, Bally- 
mena, Ballymoney, Portglenone, Randalstown, and Ahoghill. 

Lisbum, — An extended report is given respecting Messrs. J. & 
W. Coul son's damask factory at Lisbum, by which it appeared 
that since 1759 the manufacturing of damask table linen had been 
carried on by members of the family. 

In a memorial dated December 8, 18 12, this firm applied to the Linen 
Board for grants to extend this important manufacture, which at great risk and 
expense they had brought to its then position entirely through their own efforts, 
and stated that they were ** using every exertion in their power to excel and 
fully to supersede the demand for the long established manufacture of Germany ; 
which, notwithstanding the many local advantages, the damask manufacturers 
of the continent possess .... they were sanguine of being enabled to 
accomplish. They had recently, after trying various experiments in complicated 
and expensive machinery, produced such damasks as the specimens which they 
laid before the Board for their inspection." This memorial, as it well deserved, 
was most favourably received, and from the minutes we find this record, that 
"a drawing of the plan of the damask looms used by Messrs. Coulson was 
presented to the Board, with an estimate for erecting the same, in the most 
improved and perfect manner, and the Board having considered the foregoing 
memorial, plan and estimate annexed, and having viewed sundiy specimens 
of damask, in preparation for the table of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, 
submitted to them by the Messrs. Coulson — Resolved unanimously — That this 
Board highly approve of the plan of the damask loom this day submitted by 
Messrs. Coulson, of Lisbum, and that the specimens of damask this day 
exhibited by them afford the highest satisfaction to this Board, as being fully 
equal, in their opinion, to the finest foreign damasks that have been hitherto 
imported into these countries, and that their exertions, therefore, are deserving 
the aid and encouragement of the Board." And a grant was in accordance 
therewith made.* 

*Mr. M'Call, of Lisbum, (in some articles which appeared in the Linen Trade Circular in 
1870) mentions that during Lord Hertford's vice royalty that nobleman brought under the 
notice of George the Third " the superiority of Coulson's table linen, and an order was sent to 
Lisbnrn for a large lot of goods, which were to be specially got up for the Royal household. 
The Ungly patronage gave additional eclat to the damask factory, and when the cloths and 
napkins were delivered at St. James's they gave snoh satisfaction that a highly complimen- 

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Belfast, — This market was visited by the secretary of the Board 
on 2Sth October, 1816, and after the brown market, which was 
held in Donegall Street, was over, he attended a meeting of the 
principal merchants assembled at the White Linen Hall. At this 
meeting complaint was made that the linens, shipped on bounty 
from Belfast, were required to be examined at the Custom House, 
which was a place very inconvenient to shippers, and it was thought 
that the same indulgence which was given to the export merchants 
of Dublin might, with equal safety to the revenue, be granted to 
the trade of Belfast, and the secretary advised the Board that a 
communication should be made to the Commissioners of Customs 
requesting to know if they would have any objection to allow the 
White Linen Hall at Belfast to be in future the place for examin- 
ation of cloth shipped on bounty. In a letter addressed by an 
extensive linen merchant in Belfast to the secretary of the Board, 
it appeared " that almost all the linens exported from Belfast at 
this time were upwards of 25 inches wide, and some were over 36 
inches wide, such as sheetings and diapers. 

Bally mena, — Complaints were made to the secretary that the 
robbery of bleach greens frequently occurred in this locality, and 
that the law, which, as it then stood, gave as a punishment for the 
offence, imprisonment for seven years up to transportation for life, 
was found not sufficiently deterrent, and the trade here wished to 
go back to the old law, which treated the offence as a felony, 
punishable by hanging, and without the benefit of clergy. The 5 1 
Geo. HI. c. 39, passed in 18 11, repealed the Act of the Irish Par- 
liament 3 Geo. III. c. 34. At the present day it Causes a shudder 
to reflect upon the severity of the law as it stood at the close of 
the past century, when punishment by death was inflicted for 
thefts which in our day would be treated as comparatively small 

Robbing bleach greens had a kind of attraction in former 
days, which the depraved and desperate looked upon as the very 
chivalry of crime. But early in the present century John 

tmry letter was sent to the manufacturer, stating how much Queen Charlotte was pleased 
with their design and workmanship. * 

The fame of Gonlson's damask rapidly rose after the satisfactory accomplishment of the 
Boyal order, anji not only the leading peers of Q-reat Britain, but several of the continental 
potentates, were found among his patrons. When any of these eminent personages visited 
the north of Ireland one of the speciEil objects of their curiosity was the Lisbum damask 

»At the March Assizes, held in Downpatrick in 1785, John Johnston and David Dogherty 
were found guilty of stealiug in Eathfriland one piece of muslin and one piece of lawn from 
a pedlar named M'MuUen, and for that crime they were sentenced to death, and executed. 
Thomas Keough, for stealing two bullocks, value £5, was hanged on 7th May. William 
Curry for highway robbery was also executed. At the Kihuainham Assizes, in August, the 
same year, five men were sentenced to death for highway robbery. One of the culprits 
stated just before he was executed that he had himself robbed a man at Kilmacree, for 
which crime Timothy Murphy and two others had been hanged in the wrong. 

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Hancock, of Lisbum, a Quaker gentleman; John M'Cance, of 
Suffolk, near Belfast; John S. Ferguson, of Belfast; and other 
benevolent linen bleachers, set about the noble work of having 
the law relating to such robberies changed for a less sanguinary 
code, and ultimately succeeded in their praiseworthy efforts. 

We need hardly add that the suggestion made by the Bally- 
mena people was not acted upon, and that the machinery of the 
Board was not put in motion to reinstate the hangman in his 
office. As a natural reflex of the sanguinary spirit of the last 
century, we have at the present an increasing public opinion in 
favour of the total abolition of capital punishment. Previous to 
the alteration of the law relating to bleach green robbery, it was 
not unusual for two or three executions to follow each Assize on 
the north-east circuit; but under the more merciful code the plunder 
of bleach-fields is of rare occurrence, although the punishment 
seldom exceeds a few months in jail. • 

Complaints having been made at Ballymena that the sealmasters 
in that district fi-equently used a common stick as a yard measure, 
and which was not always the length of the statute yard, it was 
suggested that no yard-stick should be used save such as was 
branded by the inspector. In some cases it was proved that dis- 
honest sealmasters hired their seals to equally disreputable drapers, 
and for a time bleachers who had purchased fraudulently made up 
webs suffered great losses in consequence of the linen having been 
returned on their hands. A county inspector (Mr. Fowler) caused 
one sealmaster to pay £^o as compensation for certain delinquen- 
cies of which he had been guilty. 

The visit of the secretary to a couple or three factories which 
existed in Belfast is next given. In one of these we are told that 
32,952 yards of sail cloth were made in one year, 11,572 yards 
of which were made from mill spun yarn, upon which bounty was 
paid to the extent of £<)6 8s 8d, another got £1^1 14s 2d. 

Details of visit to Ballymoney are next given. At Balnamore 
mill 420 spindles had been set up, and 13 looms for making 
canvas bagging. At Knockboy 222 spindles were reported as 
having been set up in 1808; at Crumlin, 768 spindles in 1809; 
Cushendall, 512 in 1809, and 222 at Knockboy, near Ballymena. 
Reports follow respecting the markets of Deny, Coleraine, 
Letterkenny, and Buncrana. At the latter, sail cloth and duck 
were made which was fully equal to Russian cloth. The details 
are pretty similar to those given in connection with other markets, 
of which we have furnished a sufficient number of examples to 
enable an estimate to be formed of the position of the trade at 
this period, so far as buying at open markets was concerned. 



At Ctotehtll, where 5/4 and 6/4 sheetings were made, the 

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report states that they were brought to market in a very irregular 
condition, many of them had bad ends; of unequal fineness 
throughout, and all of them varied in length and breadth. A 
London factor, who happened to be in the district at the time, 
stated to the secretary that the Cootehill sheetings were likely to 
become less favourites than heretofore in the English markets from 
these circumstances, if not remedied in time, and that the sheet- 
ings of Yorkshire and Lancashire had already begun to interfere 
with them. 

At Ballibay irregularities of jobbers and sealmasters were 
complained of, and that the flax was brought to market in an 
unclean and unmerchantable state, which depreciated its value 
very much, so that demand for the English market was falling 
oflf. Monaghan market exhibited irregularities regarding flax 
similar to Ballibay, and at Enniskillen a good deal of jobbing 
was complained of. 

From general observations, which form the third part of the 
secretary's report, we add some extracts : 

Rough Flax, — Export of flax to Great Britain rough from the scutch had 
within these 9 or lo years back become a great branch of trade in this country. 
Great Britain not only offered a market for all we could send there, but she 
imported largely from foreign countries. In 1814 Ireland sent to England and 
Scotland 22,426 cwt., and in 1815, 29,291 cwt., exclusive of exports to other 
countries. The market price of flax in Ireland during this period might be 
averaged at £1 los. per cwt. It has fallen in price since then ; but taken at 
the price of the day, the sales of rough flax to Great Britain amounted in these 
two years to upwards of ;f 181,000. 

Then follow suggestions with regard to the extension of flax 
culture in the south of Ireland to supply the home demand, and 
exclude the foreigner. Respecting the quality of the Irish flax at 
this period the report says : — 

The quality of our Irish flax is admitted to be greatly superior to that of the 
foreign. The flax of the County Armagh is the favourite in the Dublin market, 
particularly that from Tandragee, which some of the buyers do not hesitate 
to call the best flax in the world, possessing more staple than any foreign 
flax whatever. The manner, however, in which the foreign flax comes to the 
market compels the English buyer to give it a reluctant preference. It comes 
in a form and condition that renders it a more disposable article of commerce. 
Complaints were made to me in every market which I visited of the irregular 
manner in which it is brought for sale. The rough flax, they say, comes m so 
unclean and so unmerchantable a state that nothing but the superior quality of 
the article preserves a demand for it in the English market. The demand, tiiey 
fear, wiU decline unless the markets are placed under legislative regulation in 
favour of the better mannered, but inferior, flax of the continent. Some of it 
comes in bundles, the bundles varying in size and weight; some in sacks, the 
flax loosely thrown into them ; some in apronsfuU, and some in handfuls. All 
being sold by weight, various expedients are used to increase it, and every 
ezp^ient is injurious, particularly the damping of it, a very common practice 

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which makes the flax afterwards heat The inside of every bundle is often ftiU 
of the shoves, pebbles, and dirt of various kinds. 

Very great improvements have taken place since this period in 
the handling of flax, and the manner in which it is brought to 
market, but frequently we hear of complaints at the present day of 
badly deaned fibre ; and that owing to carelessness in the handling 
of it in some of the stages the value is often very n^uch depreciated, 
and though the farmer is disappointed at the result the fault in 
most instances Hes at his own door, and is capable of removal by 
proper care. 

Scutch mDls are next treated of in this report, and then a section 
is devoted to hand spun yarn, which at this period was a branch of 
trade extensively carried on in several parts of Ireland, for until 
1828 all the mill spun yarn was of coarse quality, and spun dry. 
Complaints were frequently made respecting the hand spinning 
branch, and it is to be regretted that owing to these irregularities 
the trade in yams, both on home and export account, was much 

From memorials appended to the report we learn— That a 
great portion of the coarse linens of Ireland were manufactured 
from yam spun in Connaught, and that almost the whole of the 
yarn of that province was made up contrary to the law, and that 
yarn called " spangle yarn" was fraudulently made up, so that 
English and Scotch manufacturers were to a great extent obliged 
to give up buying it, and to import yarn from the Continent, even 
though at a dearer rate and of an inferior quality. But on account 
of its being always regularly reeled and brought to market in a 
• saleable state they bought it, though they would willingly pay 10 
per cent more for the Irish yarn if properly reeled than for any 
foreign yam. 

The want of employment and .depressed state of trade in Con- 
naught at this time was alleged to be owing to the dishonest way 
in which these yarns were made up, and the remarks conclude 
with the words — " If the Irish yarn was all made of one length in 
the slip^ and fairly and strongly divided in the aU^ it would keep 
the foreign yarn away altogether." 

The trade in hand-spun yarn in Connaught as well as in Ulster 
is now a thing of the past. The mill-spun yarn speedily drove it 
out of existence, and although it is greatly to be regretted that the 
trade suffered so much injury, owing to the fraudulent practices 
and irregularities complained of, the extinction of the industry was 
rapidly approaching, and no efforts, however directed, could have 
saved it from annihilation. If, however, at this period, our 
continental competitors were beating us in tbe hand-spun branch of 
trade, we took a good start of them at mill-spinning, and fortunate 

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it is that this was done, as it quickly turned the scale in our favour, 
so that Irish linens speedily took the lead of foreign goods in the 
markets of the world, and retain to this day their name for superior 
bleach and finish. 

Brown Linen Markets, — Under this head the secretary gives 
detailed reports regarding the class of linen goods made in the 
various districts he visited, and the estimated quantities sold at- 
each of the markets in the year 1816. As the figures possess much 
interest we insert the Return in full. 

Value of Linens sold at each Linen Market in the Province of Ulster, 

in 1816. 





Value of Sales 

Value of 


at each Market. 


























Newtownstewart 400 






















































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Valae of Sales 
at each Market. 

Value of 
Annual Sales. 




227 10 






;f 1 19,600 O O 

1,000 o o 

1,200 O O 

850 O o 

650 o o 

240 o o 

52,000 o 

62,400 o 

44,200 o 

33,800 o 

12,480 o 


450 o o 

;f 204, 880 O O 

11,700 o o 

;fll,700 o o 

Total, ;f 2, 323,962 o o 

The Secretary adds — 

"The foregoing account of the sales of the Province is subject to this 
observation, namely, that linen bought by the jobbers in one market, and sold 
by them in another, may be said to be twice entered. I do admit it, but still I 
think the sum here stated is rather within than without the truth, because the 
sales of linen at all the great fairs of the Province, which are not included here, 
are so considerable, and so much more than countervail any reduction to be 
made on the other hand, that instead of deducting from the general amount I 
should rather be disposed to add to it, and say that the total value of the home 
sales of Brown linen in the Province of Ulster amounted annually to about two 
millions and a-half sterling. " 

The number of white seals, issued from 1782 to this time, were 
1,596, and brown seals sent into Ulster to this date, since 1802, 
were 1,616. 

From the appendix to the report we tabulate some particulars 
respecting the class of linen g<jods made at this period in a few of 
the districts of Ulster, which will close our sketch of the trade as 
it stood in 1816. 

Digitized by 




Brown Cloth Manufactured in some of the Principal Districts of 
Ulster in i8i6, and Sold at the undernoted Markets. 


of cloth. 

° QuaUty. 



L Average 


Per yard \ 



500 to 600 



6Jd to 8d 1 5s to 8s principally 


700 to 1 200 



9d to IS 4di for half bleaching for 


7^ to loo' 



home trade ; 9s to 
i28forfullblg. Sold 
by factors in Dublin, 
London, & Glasgow, 
and for export to 
America. Lawns 
washed and beetled. 



1400 to 1600 



2s od 

Lawns when bid. 





IS iid 

sold in United King- 





IS I Id 

dom ; usedfor printed 
hkfs. and children's 
use, &c. Diapers 
when bid. used as 

table cloths, towel- 



iiooto 1400 




ling, &c. 

88 sent to England 
and West Indies. 
Some half bid. ; lis 
to 148 bid. for home 
and export trade. 



500 to 600 




J'or half big. for 
home trade. 



600 to iioo 



Tow yam 
5Kd ; flax 
9ci to I3id 

Yam changed. 
Some of the linen 
half bid. 


Tow yam 





Yam tolerably well 
bid. for English mkt. 


Pretty good 



I4d to 20d 

Chieflyfor full big. 



600 to iiOo 




Yam partly bid. 


800 to 12O0 



Per web 

For home use, for 
army shirting and 
American and West 
Indian mkts. when 



700 to 800 



;f I . 

Made of yam boiled 

Do. 1 

300 to 1700 


£2 I 

mpotasli, and spread 

9n grass for a few 



800 to 1600 




£1 13 4 

Lawns for export* 

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Brown Cloth Manufactured in some of the Principal Districts of 
Ulster in i8i6, and Sold at the undernoted Markets. — 
( Contintted. ) 


of clotb. 









B. money 



*Stout linen 

Fine linen 



600 to 800 

looo to 1400 





Per web 
£1 17 6 
;f 2 

600 to 1700 



Per yard 

1600 to 2200 



3s 4cl 

Sets not gvn 




3s 3ici 

2s 4d 

IS Id 






Per web 
;f 2 
£2 10 




;f I 6 
;f 7 

Coarse goods half 
bid. for English mkt 
Fine goods full bid. 
for home and export 

For half and full 
bid. for home trade 
shirting linen. 

Some sold brown 
and some half white, 
small portion of 
brown sent to Scot- 
land ; prime stout 
fabrics for London 
and south of Eng- 
land; slight texture 
for America and 
West Indies. 

For home and ex- 
port trade. 

Consumed at home 
or exported in mkt. 
state. Some dyed 
and sent to West 

When bid. sold at 
home, and exported 
to American mkts. 
3/4 finished brown 
for Dublin, England, 
and America. 7/8 
bid. for home and 

« Report states— The market is held in a commodious hall, off Donegall Street, enclosed 
with high walls and arched shades for the accommodation of buyers in bad weather. It was 
first built1)y the late Marquis of Donegall, and since rebuilt by the linendrapers of Belfast. 
.... Most linens come in brown state, but others grey or half white, for use of the 
common people, who loudly complain of the rotten state of the linens retailed in a grey 
state in the streets, alleging that they give no wear from being bleached with lime. 

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1821. The secretary made another tour of inspection through 

' Ulster, commencing the 9th May and ending the 6th August this 

year, and presented to the Board in March, 1822, a voluminous 

report (extending over 330 pages of printed folio), and from which 

we make some extracts. 

Much of the report is taken up with detailed accounts of the 
various seals issued by the Board at different periods, and the 
difficulties experienced in carrying out the rules respecting the 
stamping of goods. The first seal granted to a Brown lapper was 
issued on the nth May, 1762. This seal was subsequently 
recalled, and after the Act 21 & 22 Geo. III., cap 35, came into 
force, a seal of a different form was issued on 22nd July, 1782. 
The measuring and stamping of brown linen in the province of 
Ulster continued, for fifteen years, to be carried out after the passing 
of this Act, by a number of sealmasters in each of the market 
towns, but in the other provinces sole sealmasters (that is only one 
for each district) were appointed, with a number of assistants. 

These seals were square, two-and-a-half by two inches, had the 
name and address of the sealmaster surrounding a device of a 
spinning wheel, and spaces for entering the length and breadth of 
the web, which was done either by type or ink. This last-named 
seal was recalled, and a new one issued in 1798. The recalling 
of the seals was the plan adopted for checking abuses which would 
from time to time grow up. When once a seal was recalled it was 
a punishable offence to use it, and in that way sealmasters who 
had been guilty of irregularities found themselves deprived of 
office. The seal of 1798 was oval shaped, with the words, " Trustees 
linen manufacture," surrounding the device of an Irish harp with 
the crown, and instead of the name of the sealmaster being given a 
number was adopted, and the seals were duplicated for the use of 
the sealmasters' assistants. A new form of bond was required to 
be entered into by the sealmaster and his deputies at this period. 

The regulations in respect to this seal having been evaded, 
and the change by which a principal sealmaster, with a number of 
assistants under him, appointed to each district not having given 
satisfaction to the trade, and that by reason of the reduction in 
the number of seals, a good deal of cloth was sold under the old 
seals, or without any seals at all, it was found necessary to cancel 
the whole of the arrangements of 1798, and to go back to the 
previous system of appointing a number of independent brown 
cloth sealmasters. Accordingly a circular seal was adopted which 
had the name of the sealmaster on it, with the words " seal of 
1799" in the centre. This was the year in which the change was 
made, although the seal was not issued till 21st February, 1800. 
This seal continued in force lor two years, when its form was 

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altered, and a square one was adopted, with the words in the centre, 
"Seal of 1802." The minutes of the Board narrate numerous 
instances of the steps taken to enforce this law. Many were the 
appointments made, and many cases are recorded of punishments 
and dismissals of persons entrusted with these brown seals. Mr. 
Greer, the Inspector-General, mentioned in a report that " many 
abuses prevailed respecting the brown seals, such as lending them 
out, stamping without measuring, and overlooking defects by not 
tal^ng sufficient time to examine the linens brought to be sealed." 

Independent of those who held the office of public sealmasters, 
the Board issued seals to manufacturers of standing, and in whom 
they reposed confidence, and these were permitted to seal their 
own cloth. 

Extended reports are given of meetings held at the various 
towns through which the secretary passed, and so far as we can 
judge no trouble was spared to collect as much information as 
possible, and from all persons connected with the trade, with a 
view to improve matters; and there can be no doubt that had a 
number of practical men, well acquainted with the technicalities of 
the trade, been at the head of affairs in Dublin the staple industry 
would have been much more efficiently looked after. But the 
cumbrous machinery, originally devised with the best intentions, 
was practically inefficient, so that laxity permeated every depart- 
ment, and this tone reached down to the lowest official connected 
with the Board. 

Space will not permit of more than a few extracts being made 
regarding the manner in which business was carried on at some 
of these country markets. We select Bally tnma market, as it still 
survives, whilst all others have passed out of existence, by changes 
which sprung up in later times respecting the mode of carrying 
on the trade: — 

Minutes of public meeting at Ballymena, July 7, 1821. — A large number 
of manufacturers and weavers attended. A paper was read representing the 
views of a section of the manufacturers, who complained that the appointment 
of a sole sealmaster who acted in this district did not give satisfaction. " Before 
this regulation took place we measured, and sealed our cloth the evening before 
the market at our own homes, and on coming here had full liberty to attend to 
the purchasing of yam until the commencement of the cloth market, but now 
when our cloth comes to town we are obliged, often to our loss, to attend no 
longer to the yarn market, but instantly to mind the getting of our cloth pre- 
pared for the market, .... which often requires some time, the press 
and confusion being very great ; we have also to pay for the service done by 
the sole sealmaster, and however trifling the sum may be we think that in the 
present depressed state of trade every fair means should be resorted to were it 
only to save one penny. We also think that by putting us again into a capacity 
of sealing our own cloth no injury to the purchaser of the linen could possibly 
arise, as we humbly conceive any of us are ftdly equal to answer any mistake 
that might happen, and on the shortest notice." 

Digitized by 




Another body of manufacturers and weavers, who differed in some respects 
from these views, made a separate statement. In it they mention that " the 
average length of the coarse yard wides and of the three-quarter yard wides 
may be said to be 52 yards, for breadthing, measuring, and stamping of which 
we are charged 2d and no more. The average length of the fine yard wides is 
25 yards, and for every web of this description we have been also charged the 
same price until this day, when the charge fell to id. An effort was made 
many years ago to raise the charge upon the double webs to 3d, but it did not 
succeed; and we have been told that in former times it was not more than what 
the single webs now pay. The usual demand on us for the House, which is at 
the rate of 2d for every double and id for every single web, is the only other 
charge to which our webs are subject. 

**With respect to the accommodation afforded to the weavers of the town, 
for the measuring and lapping of their webs, we cannot all speak alike, because 
some of us are allowed by Mr. Hogg (the sealmaster) to measure our own webs 
at home, and type the lengths upon them, to which he afterwards affixes his 
crown stamp, on our coming into town, on the faith of our accuracy, we paying 
him id for the same ; but such of the present committee as have not this ac- 
commodation from him must say that the inconveniences felt on a market 
morning are very severe. The different deputies who are employed by Mr. 
Hogg as his measurers do their business in different parts of the town; most of 
those houses are roomy enough, but the distance of many of them from Mr. 
Hogg and his assistants to get his stamp put on is productive of great delay. 
.... As soon as our webs are sold we hurry to the measurer, and when 
we are done with him, we run back to Mr. Hogg's place for his stamp, and 

then to the merchant to be paid To avoid this confusion many of 

the manufacturers and weavers travel between twenty and thirty miles to Belfast.'* 

Other papers were handed in from the buyers and bleachers of 
the district, and also one from Mr. Hogg, jun., the sole sealmaster, 
but enough has been extracted from the report to enable our 
readers to obtain an insight into the position of the market at 
this period. 

Appended to the report of the secretary is a general return of 
sales in the several linen markets of Ireland for the year ended 
5th January, 1822. 

The following is a general abstract under the respective 
counties : — 


;fii6,626 5 5 

East Meath 

;f 900 



142,952 12 I 
23,386 10 





King's County 

22,161 I 



395,809 6 II 


43,269 18 



33,076 6 II 




231,219 12 4 


1,345 15 


345,504 16 10 

Westmeath ' 

3,683 9 



214,199 3 


807 10 


570,348 2 10 

;f2,073,I22 i6 4 

Total for Leinster 

Total for Ulster 

^^285,354 14 


Digitized by 




^49,i»3 3 
i8 19 



5,627 I 



13,019 II 



994 15 



27 I 



;t26,785 9 



71,526 13 



8,421 16 



723 13 



10,207 I 

Total for Mmister ;f68,87o 13 9 Total for Connaughtjfi 17,664 14 o 

Total sales of brown linen cloth in Ireland for the year 

ended 5th January, 1822 ;f2,545,oi2 18 10 

1825. — Up to this period all the mill-spun yarn produced was 
on the dry system, and unless an improvement had been effected 
by which the flax could be drawn out into finer threads than it 
had to this been possible to do, hand-spinning would, for the finer 
classes of linen goods, have lasted much longer as a handicraft, or 
we should have had to continue to import fine numbers from the 
Continent for linens and cambrics. But now English and Scotch 
spinners had adopted the wet system, and were beginning to send 
over their yarns to Ireland, and it did not take long to prove 
that our hand-spun yams could not compete with this great 

1826. — The time was now approaching when it was felt that a 
continuance of State aid, on behalf of an industry which had 
attained such proportions as this, could no longer be defended, 
either on the grounds of public policy or commercial principles, 
and this view was shared to a large extent by the trade. The 
administrative department at headquarters had been, for years 
previously, falling into decay ; and frequently, when meetings 
were summoned for the despatch of most important business, out 
of seventy-two members, it was found impossible to collect more 
than three or four, sometimes only two attended. It is most 
surprising that the original machinery was preserved intact imtil 
the day it was broken up, and that no attempt was made to reduce 
the directorate to a sound and practically efficient basis ; but 
possibly the growing dislike against such a control prevented any 
steps being taken in later times to improve, and therefore prolong 
its existence. Accordingly, we find that Government took the 
initiative step, and on the 23rd of August this year the Chief 
Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant addressed a communication to 
the Trustees, intimating that the Lords Commissioners of his 
Majesty's Treasury having considered that the grant heretofore 
made to the Linen Board, for the support of that branch of 
industry, could not be continued any longer ; and, as his Excel- 
lency concurred in the opinion that there were many objections to 
the continuance of the grant, but, at the same time, not to sud- 
denly stop it, he informed the Trustees that the amount would be 

Digitized by 



limited to ;^ 10,000 for 1827. Nothing appears to have been done 
in reference to this letter until the following year. 

1827. — At a meeting of the Linen Board on 6th February the 
communication from the Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant, 
of 23rd August, 1826, was taken into consideration. 

A letter from Mr. Corry, the secretary, was also read, and in 
this he reviewed the position of the Board, in reference to its 
surveillance of the trade ; and— although he had been in their 
service for nearly thirty-two years, and had the best opportunities 
of judging of the working of the establishment, "which for 
more than one hundred years had been entrusted with the 
protection and management of the linen manufacture of Ireland" — 
he admitted there was a popular opinion abroad unfavourable to 
the continuance of the Board, and he agreed in the view that 
after a certain point of prosperity has been attained the less any 
manufacture was encumbered with legislative regulation the better. 

A special meeting of the Trustees was convened for the loth 
February, "to consider whether it would not be expedient to 
propose to the Government of Ireland the dissolution of this 
Board." However, on this occasion it was resolved — "That it is 
not expedient to make such a proposition to Gove^jiment." 

Nothing further was done until the 7th August, when a letter 
from Dublin Castle was laid before the Board. In this the 
Lord Lieutenant intimated that it was not the intention of his 
Majesty's Government to recommend that any grant should be 
proposed to Parliament for the encouragement of the linen manu- 
facture for the year 1828. 

A copy of this letter was sent to all the members of the Board, 
requesting each to give his opinion thereon in the fullest manner, 
and in an appendix to the transactions of the Trustees for 1827 a 
large number of replies were published, not only from individual 
members of the Board, but also from linen merchants and manu- 
facturers, whose opinions, regarding the control of the trade in 
future, were also elicited. The substance of these replies shows an 
unmistakably adverse feeling regarding the central control, but, at 
the same time, it was generally admitted that a local control, to 
some extent, was still absolutely necessary. 

The opinion of the trade was also collected by the Board, 
as to the wisdom of retaining certain portions of the Act, and 
a system of county inspection was suggested, which met with 
general approbation. 

After taking these replies into consideration, at a meeting held 
on the 14th September, it was " Resolved unanimously : — ^That 
legislative provisions continue to be essentially required for the 
protection and regulation of some branches of the linen trade 

Digitized by 



of Ireland, particularly with reference to the sealing and measuring 
of linen cloth brought to market, and for detecting and punishing 
frauds in the manufacture and making up linen cloth and yarn, 
and in the preparation and manner of exposing flax for sale. 
And resolved — that such parts of the Act of 6 Geo. IV. cap. 122, 
as relate to the foregoing resolution, ought to be retained or 
re-enacted as law, together with such additions as may be deemed 
advisable for the protection of the trade." 

A Bill was accordingly drafted and submitted to Parliament 
the following year. 

1828. — On 15th July, the Act 9 Geo. IV. cap. 62, was passed. 
Sec. 2 — Dissolved the Board,* and all their property reverted to 
the Crown. But a very comprehensive legislative control was still 
kept up, as by sec. 3 — All flax sold in fairs or markets was to be 
of equal cleanness and quality throughout, under penalty not 
exceeding one shilling per stone. Sec. 4. — Magistrates might 
cause flax to be examined. Sec. 9. — Weavers to put their names 
on each web they wove, also to mark length and breadth ; penalty 
for neglect not exceeding ;^i. Sec. 10. — Regulated the breadth 
of goods known as yard wides, 7/8, 3/4, 9/8, 6/4, &c. Sec. 12. — 
Linen to be ofc equal fineness throughout, and not to be pasted, 
dyed, or stained. Sec. 14. — On complaints being made to magis- 
trates they had power to refer disputes to arbitration of three 
persons skilled in weaving, their opinion being final. Sec. 19. — 
Lord Lieutenant had power to appoint twelve persons in each 
county to be a committee for controlling brown linen sealmasters, 
who were continued in office. Sec. 26. — No person to sell or buy 
any unbleached linen not sealed. Sec. 27. — Nothing beyond 
breadth of the thumb to be allowed with the statute yard. 

These provisions for regulating the trade were to be in force 
for three years. The Act was renewed on three occasions, viz., 
2 and 3 Wm. IV. cap. 77, 5 and 6 Wm. IV. cap. 27, and 
I and 2 Vict. cap. 52, the latter continuing for five years, when 
it was allowed to lapse. 

The improvements effected in mill-spinning were this 

* As it may be interesting, we note the names of the Trustees at the period when the 
Board was dlBsoIved, and which were as follows : J/ar^ifuex— Downshire, Donegal, Thomond, 
Sligo, Oonyngham, Ormonde. J&arJ*— Granard, Oarrick, Shannon, Oonrtown,Charlemont, 
Kingston, Roden, Longford, EnniskiUen, Bme, Glare, Leitrim, Belmore, O'Keil, Oaledon, 
Qosford, Charleyille, Olengall, Kihnorey, Norbury. FMcoi«n<»— Forbes, Clermont, Northland, 
Hawarden, Ferrard, Lorton, Ennismore. Bw/*op«— The Primate, Meath, Derry, Kilmore. 
5ar<m* -Blayney, Oarbery, Famham, Dnflerin, Dunally, Oriel. CornmonenS'a N. 0. 
Colthorst, Bart., M.P.; Right Hon. Sir Gteoige F. Hill, Bart., M.P.; Right Hon. The Knight 
of Kerry, M.P. ; Right Hon. J. 0. Vandeleur; Right Hon. James Fitzgerald; Hon. R. 
Ward; Hon. H. R. Pakenham; George R. Dawson, M.P.; James Browne, M.P. ; James 
Daly, M.P.; Arthur French, M.P.; Owen Wynne, M.P.; James Cuff, M.P.; Charles Brownlow, 
M.P. ; General Archdall, M.P. ; B. A. M'Naghten, M.P.; P. La Touche, jun.; 0. P. Leslie, 
Matthew Forde, Nathaniel Sneyd, J. C. Beresford, H. J. Clements, Thomas; Vemer William 
O. Gore; Darid Kerr, B. M'Donnell; R. S. Tighe; Cornelius Bolton. 

Digitized by 



year turned to practical account in this country, through the 
enterprise of Mr. James Murland, of Castlewellan, who in the 
most spirited manner, erected, at his own cost, and without any 
subsidy from the Board, a wet-spinning mill, driven by steam 
power. The time when the mill was started appeared a most 
favourable one, as demand for suitable warp yarns was active, and 
the raw material was cheap, so that the enterprise was rewarded 
by handsome profits on the undertaking. 

1830. — The example set by Mr. Murland was quickly followed by 
another leading firm, then engaged in the cotton trade — the Messrs. 
Mulholland — who first set up about 1,000 spindles in a small mill 
situate in Frances Street, Belfast, and subsequently erected 8,000 
spindles in Yo;k Street Mill. 

At this interesting period in the history of the flax-spinning 
trade we cannot do better than refer to " Ireland and her Staple 
Manufactures," for a description of the Messrs. MulhoUand's 
mercantile spirit, and the concern over which they presided. 

* * Having tested the principle and found it likely to succeed, the firm of 
Mulholland had the new establishment (their old mill, a cotton one, had been 
burned down on the loth June, 1828), fitted up with superior machinery for 
flax-spinning, and in the spring of 1830, the first bundle of yam was made up 

from the steam driven spindles of York Street Mill Many cautious 

men of that day considered the flaxen yam project as a very hazardous under- 
taking, but the sturdy perseverance and mercantile energy which distinguished 
the house of Mulholland, while they were engaged in the cotton trade, did not 
wane when they set to work in the other line, and not only did flax-spinning 
by mechanical power succeed beyond the most sanguine expectations of the 
firm, but the yam produced was so much cheaper, and so superior to the finger- 
spun article, that it gave quite a new impulse to the manufacture of linen. 
Demand increased enormously, and although the prosperity of the York Street 
Mill caused many other men of enterprise to follow in the same course, it was 
difficult to keep pace with the wants of manufacturers. Belfast spun yams were 
much sought after, as well by local makers of linen as by the trade at a distance ; 
orders poured in firom the Scotch houses, and large quantities were sent to 
English firms. When the York Street Mill commenced flax-spinning the total 
exports of Yam from Ulster did not exceed one million pounds. In 1865 
nearly twenty-eight millions of pounds were exported from Belfast alone. . . . 
The success of the Messrs. Mulholland as the introducers of the new mode 

of flax-spinning into Belfast was quite equal to their enterprise 

and the profits of the concern exceeded the dreamiest imaginings of the 

proprietors The York Street Mill commenced with about 8,000 

spindles, these were time after time added to (Later on we shall 

note the progress of this concern. ) . . . . Belfast can never forget how 
much she owes to the house of Mulholland. What the firm of Marshall did for 
Leeds, and that of Baxter for Dundee, the brothers Mulholland accomplished for 
Belfast, in leading the way in flax spinning. When their new concern com- 
menced work in 1830 the population of the borough was under 50,000, and the 

exports annually sent away barely amounted to four millions sterling 

Mr. Andrew Mulholland lived to see Belfast become the great centre of Ireland's 
linen trade and the chief seat of flax spinning." 

1835. — '^^^ rapid improvement in linen manufacturing which 

Digitized by 



followe4 the introduction of the wet-spinning system, and the 
cheapness with which yarns were produced, and the great regularity 
in regard to weights, counts, &c., as compared with the hand-spun 
material, enabled manufacturers to considerably reduce the price 
of cloth. Irish cloth was now rapidly cutting out German cloth 
abroad, and some of the South American markets, which formerly 
took the manufactures of Silesia, Brabant, &c., were now supplied 
with Irish Silesians, Brabantes, &c. 

The relative prices, at different periods, of some of the leading 
sets of linen are given in the following table : — 

Yard Wide Family Linen per Yard. 

H**** iS*** 20*** 22'"' ^ 24*»* 






























1836 — 1840. — Trade in 1836 showed satisfactory progress, 
the exports of both cloth and yarn being considerably in excess of 
the previous year; however, 1837 turned out unfevourable, as 
the terrible calamity which came over financial affairs in America 
told so severely on the Irish linen trade, that exports of cloth 
fell off enormously, and home demand for yarns being much 
reduced, nearly double the quantity, compared with previous 
year, was exported. A recovery took place in 1838, and 
trade gradually improved down to close of 1840, a steady tone 
being maintained in all departments. 

On 15th October, 1835, a great fire broke out in New York, which 
destroyed 674 buildings. . . . About i,ocx). mercantile firms were dii- 
lodged. . . . The fire burned over an area of 52 acres, comprising a 
densely-built and exclusively mercantile portion of the city. . . . The 
property destroyed was valued at 20,000,000 dollars. 1836.— Active measures 
having been taken to rebuild the burned portion of the city, the ground was 
this year nearly covered by new and handsome erections. 1837. — During this 
year a financial crisis occurred in America. . . . All the banks suspended 
specie payments, and very extensive failures took place, the eflfects being very 
severely felt in Great Britain. At Manchester, 50,000 hands were thrown out 
of emplo3rment, and most of the large establishments were working only half 
time. (Extracts from **Aimual Register" and **Brit Almanac and Com- 
panion" at this period. ) 

Digitized by 




From the formation of the Flax Improvement Society until 
its dissolution. 

k ROM the dissolution of the Linen Trade Board in 
1828 there appears to have been no public body 
specially identified with our staple industry, and 
save the Royal Dublin Society, which offered prizes 
at their exhibitions for flax products, the trade seems 
to have been left entirely to itself. Possibly the 
feeling of dissatisfaction which had been gaining strength 
for years previous to the extinction of the Board, and the 
opposition to the continuance of extraneous aid and control, which 
was then no longer needed, may have been unfavourable, for a 
long time after, to the establishment of any new organisation to 
watch over the interests of the trade. Be that as it may, we find 
that after it had been freed from all restriction, and released from 
the nursing which, for 117 years, had been carried on, commercial 
men set to work, and with their own resources, skill, and enter- 
prise, in a very short space of time quite revolutionised the spinning 
branch, and gave an immense impetus to the weaving. The 
factory was now taking the place of the old hand lab.our system 
which had been spread over the country, and every year witnessed 
an immense increase to the population of Belfast, where labour 
was attracted through the rapid extension of the spinning mills. 

1 84 1. — The opening of this year witnessed an effort to organise 
a Society to take charge of an important branch of the trade, and 
to draw greater attention to what was admitted to be of vast 
consequence to the future progress of our industry, namely, the 
promotion and improvement of the growth of flax in Ireland. 

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A Society was accordingly formed for this purpose, and from 
the preliminary prospectus we make the following extract, which 
sets forth the objects and plans proposed : — 

**The linen trade is admitted by all to have been the greatest benefit to 
Ireland, particularly to Ulster ; it is, therefore, a strange fact that little atten- 
tion has been paid to the improved cultivation of flax, and its culture is totally 
neglected in the most fertile part of the country. Were the sale of the article 
limited, or the grower not fairly remunerated, this state of things could be 
easily accounted for ; but the contrary being the case, it is a matter of astonish- 
ment to all strangers, and is not to be explained either easily or satisfactorily. 
Partial failures have occasionally occurred from very dry weather in seed time 
and early spring, or from the use of bad seed ; but the chief sources of failure 
are attributable to carelessness and mismanagement in preparing the ground, 
weeding, steeping, grassing, and swingling the flax. These being all faults, 
referable to the farmer himself, he willingly excuses by blaming the soil, the 
season, the water, or anything but his own ignorance or indolence, and is 
perfectly satisfied that a crop of flax cannot be rendered as profitable here as 
it is on the Continent, where attention worthy the importance of the subject 
is paid. 

For the purpose of correcting such erroneous views, and, if possible, 
of forcing conviction on the most prejudiced, a society is in process of forma- 
tion whose objects will be to show what actually can be done by establishing 
model farms in different districts .... by sending intelligent persons 
to witness the management of the flax crop as practised in Holland, Belgium, 
and France ; for the purpose of instructing the farmers of our own country 
hereby to produce flax equal to the finer sorts of the Continent, keeping the 
money at home, which is now sent to those places; and little doubt can be 
reasonably entertained that we should shortly supply our English and Scotch 
neighbours, and thus add an increased wealth to our farmers, and of employ- 
ment to our labouring population." 

The Society was launched under most favourable auspices, 
and proved a very great success. The donations and subscriptions 
amounted during the first year to ;^i,i6i 6s iid. Public 
meetings were held in various places, with a view to disseminate 
as much information as possible, and the society worked most 
energetically for many years. 

1843. — Through the exertions of the Society, the increase in 
the growth of flax in Ireland this year was estimated at 14,270 
tons, but complaint was made that the public did not support the 
Society to the extent it deserved. 

1845. — It may be interesting, in connection with the move- 
ment which resulted in the repeal of the Corn Laws, and the 
adoption of the policy of free trade, to here refer to the fearless 
position taken up by those interested in the linen manufacture, as 
showing what little grounds of apprehension were entertained 
respecting foreign competition. In a petition, presented to Parlia- 
ment, and numerously signed by spinners and manufacturers, it was 
stated ** That the growers of flax do not enjoy any protection 
against foreign competition (a duty of ;^io a ton, which was 

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formerly levied on foreign flax, had been abolished), and that the 
crop is extensively cultivated, and^has proved in general more 
remunerative to the farmer than those crops which have hitherto 
been largely protected. That experience having clearly proved to 
petitioners that the linens of Ireland can successfully compete 
with those of any other country, petitioners are prepared to 
relinquish all protection as applied to them ; and they therefore 
pray that in the adoption of any measures regulating the commer- 
cial policy of Great Britain, the free system under which the 
growth of flax has flourished may be applied to the linen manu- 
factures of Ireland/' 

From the report of the Flax Society for this year, it appears 
that the value of the flax crop was estimated at ;^ 1,750,000. 

1846. — A deputation, consisting of the President (the Marquis 
of Downshire) and the Secretary, waited upon H.R.H. Prince 
Albert, in October, with a view to explain the position and 
prospects of the Society, and to endeavour to obtain Royal 
patronage. On this occasion they submitted to Her Majesty the 
Queen specimens of damasks, cambrics and linens, — which had 
gained the medals of the Society at their exhibition in Belfast the 
previous year, — and requested the honour of their acceptance by 
Her Majesty. In the address which accompanied the presentation 
the following paragraph occurs : — 

This Society, established in 1841, has introduced into Ireland the Belgian 
mode of managing the flax crop, in the growth and preparation for the textile 
manufactures, such as are now submitted for your Majesty's acceptance. 
Previous to that period the quality of the fibre was not such as to adapt it for 
these fine fabrics, which were then exclusively made of foreign flax, but 
tlie Society has now succeeded, by the improvements it has introduced, in 
enabling the manufacturers to substitute the home grown material. 

The samples of Irish manufactures accepted by the Queen 
were damasks, made by Mr. Andrews at Ardoyne \ cambric, by 
Mr. Henning, of Waringstown ; and linen, by Messrs. Thomas 
M*Murray & Co., Dromore. Her Majesty the Queen and His 
Royal Highness Prince Albert afterwards consented to become 
patrons of the Society, which was then called " The Royal Society, 
for the promotion and improvement of the growth of flax in 

Many scutch mills were erected in 1846 in various parts of the 
south of Ireland, but by the failure of the potato crop, embarrassing 
both farmers and landowners, the Society had great difficulty in 
pursuing its labours, owing to curtailed receipts, and in obtaining 
supplies of foreign seed. They accordingly presented a memorial 
to the Government, and obtained a grant to assist in carrying on 
their labours. The high price to which food products rose, on the 

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failure of the potato crop tempted farmers, for years after, to sow 
grain more freely, to the neglect of flax. 

In November, 1846, handscutched inferior quality flax sold 
from 6s 3d to 6s 6d per stone of 16 lbs.; middling, 6s 6d to 
6s 9d ; fine, 6s 9d to 7s 8d ; milled flax, low middling quality, 
7s 6d to 8s ; middling, 8s 3d to 8s 9d \ good, 8s pd to 9s 3.d ; 
best, 9s 3d to 9s 9d; fine, los to iis 6d ; line yams, loo's, 4s 9d 
to 6s 6d ; tows, 25's, 5s to 5s 3d. 

We cannot pass over this period in the history of our country 
without alluding to the failure of the potato crop, which produced 
such widespread distress at the time, and greatly retarded the 
development of trade and agriculture. 

In 1845 there had been a partial failure of the crop, but the 
effects would not have been seriously felt had this not been fol- 
lowed by a sudden and total destruction of the natipnal esculent 
in 1846. A writer,* who has given much attention to social and 
commercial questions relating to the well-being of Ireland, com- 
piled a treatise on the condition of the country at this period, and 
some of the reforms he advocated were soon afterwards com- 
menced. From the part he took, as one of the secretaries to the 
Central Relief Association of the Society of Friends, and his 
acquaintance with the circumstances of the times, he was able to 
furnish very full details respecting this period of national distress, 
and from the work referred to we extract the following ; — 

"The Summer of 1845 had been cold. It was said that there had been 
frosts at night, and to this cause some attributed the injury to the potato crop. 
The Summer of 1846, on the contrary, was unusually warm. The wheat 
appeared particularly fine, and the appearance of the potatoes was most 
favourable, when suddenly they seemed blasted, as if by lightning. The 
leaves withered, the stalks became bare and black, the whole plant was dead, 
while the tubers were in many places scarcely formed, and in no part of the 
country were the late potatoes fully grown. The crop was destroyed, and the 
food of a whole people was cut off. It now appears extraordinary that the 
alarm was not more immediate and more general. The calamity had proved 
less serious the previous year than had been anticipated at first, therefore, . 
many hoped that the present accounts were exaggerated. Even those who 
saw that the crop was lost, could not believe that the consequences would be 
so serious. Perhaps none were able fully to anticipate the awful reality. 

Ireland had lost in potatoes and in oats to the value of at 

least ;^i6,ooo,ooo. The difficulty was greatly increased by the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of the crop which had failed. It constituted the food of the great 
mass of the population, and it was essentially the property of the poor. 
Cultivated by their own hands, in their own gardens, it was their capital, their 
stock-in-trade, their store of food for themselves, their pigs, their poultry, and, 
in many cases, for their sheep and cattle. When it was gone they had no 
other resource. They had believed themselves comfortable, and felt secure of 
having enough of food, and now, by a sudden and unexpected dispensation of 

* Oondltlon and Prospects of Ireland. By Jonathan Pirn (late MP. for Dublin). 

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Providence, they were at once reduced to poverty The 

first frightfiil tales of suffering which burst on us from the wild and ill-cultivated 
districts of the west, were quickly echoed from the richer and more fertile 
counties of Leinster. The distress extended itself among the industrious 
manufacturing population of Ulster, and the artisans and workpeople of the 
towns and cities. Want and misery spread throughout the land. The fol- 
lowing statement of distress in a manufacturing district of the County Armagh 
is extracted from a letter, addressed by a clergyman of the Church of England 
to the Relief Committee of the Society of Friends. It is dated February 23, 
1847 : — * The population of this parish has been hitherto chiefly supported by 
weaving, carried on in their own houses. The weaver at present can only earn, by 
weaving a web of sixty yards, two shillings and sixpence to four shillings and 
sixpence, which employs him nearly a whole week in preparation, while at 
present prices such wages will not support the mere weaver without a family. 
Even with such wages, I can state it as a fact, having come under my own 
immediate observation, that weavers are sitting up three nights per week, in 
order by any means to procure food for their families. There is scarcely a 
family in the parish in which there is not one or more members of the family 
sitting up nightly. I have seen them on returning to my own home (from 
visiting the sick) at two a.m. working as busily as in the day time. In several 
cases I have relieved individuals in their own houses, who, from exhaustion 
had been compelled to lie down, and could no longer continue to work at the 
loom. This has been, and is now, the only means of employment. There are 
no private or public works carrying on, or about to be carried on in the district, 
and even this mode of scanty and insufficient emplo)niient is now rapidly 
ceasing.* (Then follow very harrowing details.) One of the poorhouses <Jf 
the district — Lurgan — is shut for egress or ingress ; seventy-five died in one 

day. In Armagh poorhouse forty-five die weekly, &c We 

are, in short, rapidly approaching, and, if unassisted, must arrive at the worst 
of the pictures that have been presented to the public from the County 

Many and large were the contributions which were sent to the 
country at this period of national distress ; and Ireland should 
never forget with what a liberal hand England came to the rescue. 
Among foreign contributors, America stands forward by her 
noble donation of food and money, and from Continental 
countries and far oflf islands the sympathies of a common brother- 
hood were called forth. In our own country many philanthropists 
came to the front, and notably among them, members of the Society 
of Friends, in that broad spirit of Christian benevolence which has 
ever characterised that body, and did great service at this sad and 
distressing period. 5ut with all the exertions used, the wants of 
three railUons of people was a question which taxed to tha utmost 
all the resources then available, whilst the melancholy fate of 
thousands of our people, struck down by famine and fever, marks 
this as a time of terrible disaster and suffering. 

A mass of information is supplied by Mr. Pim respecting this 

period of dreadful distress, which — though now reading of what 

took place thirty years ago — produces such a sickening feeling that 

we turn with a sense of relief to the picture of prosperity which 


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our country presents to-day ; and though our staple trade, like 
many others, has been passing through one of those epochs of 
commercial depression which come to all, our artisans and work- 
people generally are well paid, comfortable, and independent ; 
and whatever drawbacks do exist they have been felt more by the 
capitalist than the labourer. 

The consequences of the famine were disastrous to the trade 
and commerce of the country. The poor were unable to do more 
than provide themselves with food ; the small shopkeepers in the 
country towns lost their trade ; landlords to a large extent not 
only lost their rents, but were saddled with enormously increased 
rates for the relief of the poor, which in many instances swamped 
their property. The agricultural and manufacturing industry was 
paralysed, and the want of employment added greatly to the 
universal distress, which, in a greater or less degree, affected every 
rank and class. 

In alluding to the domestic manufactures of Connaught 
Mr. Pim said : — 

** The peasantry of Connaught usually make their own clothing, consisting 
of linen, knitted stockings, a coarse but very serviceable flannel for women's 

clothes, and a good frieze for men These articles were regularly 

offered for sale in all the markets and fairs of the West, and formed no incon- 
siderable source of traffic. They constituted a domestic manufacture, which 
having existed from time immemorial, still maintained a precarious existence, 
in competition with the cheaper but less durable fabrics of England. The 
fleece of his own sheep, spun and woven in his own house, at seasons when 
otherwise he would have been unemployed, enabled the cottier and peasant farmer 
to provide comfortable clothing for his family, which was hardly possible for 
him to obtain in any other way. Such a manufacture must, no doubt, eventu- 
ally yield before the spread of that civilisation which, in the division of labour, 
restricts each individual to one occupation, and thus increases his capabilities 
and his skill ; but it would be a cause of much regret if the present circumstancs 
should destroy this ancient home manufacture before the natural period of its 
decay. There is much danger that the looms and spinning wheels which have 
been broken up or sold may not be replaced, in which case the industry of our 
Connaught peasantry will be even lower than it has hitherto been." 

These anticipations were fully realised, as the manufacture 
never recovered the blow which it received at this period. After 
detailing the condition of Ireland, the author, in succeeding 
chapters^ reviews the industrial resources of the country— the 
woollen, cotton, and linen manufactures — much of which possesses 
interest, but space will not allow more extended extracts. 

The prospects of a scarcity of flax at this time, and the small 
supplies on hand of both home and foreign material, contributed 
to embarrass the linen trade in 1847. To prevent the export from 
Belgium, the Government of that country imposed a duty of ;£ 10 
a ton on all flax shipped ; the result was that some of the mills in 

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Ireland were obliged to stop for want of the raw material. From 
returns for 1847 it appeared that the acreage of flax was 58,312. 
Complaints were pretty general at this time respecting the high 
protection duties imposed by Continental countries on our linen 
manufactures, owing to which they were in a great measure shut 
out of these markets; but looking to the march we stole upon them 
in our export trade with countries from which they long derived a 
rich return, it is not surprising that, whilst endeavouring to regain 
their balance, they practically denied us all share in their home 

1848. — In January of this year line yarns No. 100 ranged from 
4s to 5s 6d. Tow No. 25, 4s 6d to 5s. Inferior hand-scutched 
flax, 4s 3d to 4s 6d; best, 5s 6d to 6s 6d. Low quality milled flax, 
5s 3d to 5s 9d; fine, 8s 6d to 9s 6d per stone of i61bs. 

1849. — Trade began to revive this year, and the quantity of 
land sown with flax-seed exceeded the preceding year by some 
6,400 acres. The exports of linen yarn and linen goods also 
showed a very large increase, compared with 1848, and trade kept 
steadily improving for several years. 

On the nth of August Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal 
Highness Prince Albert, on the occasion of their first visit to 
Ireland, came round by sea from Kingstown to Belfast. On 
landing, Her Majesty was received by the Mayor, Mr. William 
Gillilan Johnson, and the various officials, and representatives 
of local bodies, officers of state, &c., and met with an enthusiastic 
reception by the inhabitants of Belfast. On this occasion, the 
honour of knighthood was conferred on Mr. Johnson by Her 

From the newspaper reports we give an account of the Exhi- 
bition of flax products — held at the White Linen Hall— specially 
got up for Her Majesty's inspection. 

Messrs. S. G. Fenton & Co. and Sadler, Fenton & Co. (now 
Fen ton, Connor <fe Co.), having placed at the disposal of the 
Managing Committee their rooms in the Linen Hall, the various 
specimens were displayed therein to the best advantage. 

" The Queen and Prince Albert drove in the carriage of the Marquis of 
Londonderry, and arrived at the Linen Hall at five minutes to three o'clock. 

The President of the Royal Flax Society, the Marquis of Downshire, 
led the way through the Exhibition. The floors of the long passages were 
carpeted with yard wide bleached damask, edged with crimson cloth . . . 
the floor of each room being covered with unbleached damask . . . the 
tables were covered with blue, which was in keeping with the walls. In the 
general plan of the exhibition the committee endeavoured to show every stage 
of the flax plant in its natural order. 

The first room contained samples of flaxseed, and its products— linseed 
oil and cake for feeding cattle ; flax in various stages of growth, &c. Second 

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room had series of samples of scutched home and foreign flax, the home fibre 
being so arranged as to show the improvements effected by the society in r^ard • 
to the treatment of the flax. Third room contained samples of hackled flax, 
both Irish and foreign, also samples of dressed flax. Fourth room had 
samples of yams, both line and tow, and also sewing thread. The mill-spun 
yam ranged from i^ lea to 400 lea, and hand-spun from 240 to 800 lea. The 
threads were shown both bleached and dyed. Fifth room contained several 
articles of flax manufacture, not otherwise classified, such as a delicately- 
worked scarf of fine mill -spun yam, half bleached to imitate colour of Mechlin 
lace ; woven shirt fronts ; flax tubing, woven without seam ; patent flax 
belting ; medical buck towels, mats, rugs, &c. , made of tow yams. Sixth 
room contained a. large number of samples of unbleached goods of all descrip- 
tions, such as plain bleaching cloth, diapers, hoUands, drills, huckabacks, 
sheetings. In rooms seven and eight the bleached linens were laid out Room 
nine contained specimens of brown damask of beautiful design. Room ten 
had bleached damasks. Room eleven — assortment of cambric handkerchiefs, 
bleached and unbleached, printed handkerchiefs, and linen cambric dresses ; 
and room twelve exhibited printed lawns and cambrics for ladies' dresses, hem- 
stitched handkerchiefs, &c. 

Among the exhibitors of flax, linen yam, and linen goods of all descrip- 
tions, we find the names of Messrs. Michael Andrews, Royal Factory, 
Ardoyne ; James Brown, Waringstown ; J. Brown & Sons ; William Barbour 
(now William Barbour & Sons), Lisbura ; James Coulson, damask manufac- 
turer to Her Majesty, Lisbura ; J. & W. Charley & Co. ; Dunbar, Dicksons, 
& Co. (now separate firms, Dicksons, Ferguson, h Co., and Wm. Spotten & Co.); 
Dunbar, M*Master, & Co.; Thomas Ferguson & Sons ; Gradwell, Chadwick, 
& Co., Drogheda; John Henning & Sons, Waringstown; William Kirk & Son, 
Keady ; A. Mulholland & Sons (now York Street Flax Spinning Co., Limited); 
S. K. Mulholland and Hinds (now John Hind & Sons); James Malcolm, 
Lurgan (now Malcolm & Pentland); T. M'Caw ; John Preston & Co. ; 
J. J. Richardson, Lisbum ; Richardson & Co., Lisbum ; J. N. Richardson, 
Sons, & Owden ; Sadler, Fenton, & Co. (now Fenton, Connor & Co.); and 
several other firms, some of whom are not now in existence. 

Mr. Preston had charge of the room in which the prepared flax was, and 
her Majesty appeared greatly interested, and made several inquiries of him ; 
and When he exhibited the specimens of flax grown on Prince Albert's Flemish 
farm, her Majesty turned to Prince Albert, and appeared at once surprised and 

In addition to the exhibition of flax products, there was also an exhibition 
of sewed ^nd embroidered muslins, the specimens being greatly admired by the 
Queen, who selected several of them. Mr. J. Lindsay (R. Lindsay & Co.), 
J. Holden, S. R. Browne, &c., contributed to this department, which was 
under their care. 

On leaving the exhibition, the Queen expressed to Lord Downshire, as 
President of the Flax Society, the great pleasure she had experienced in 
witnessing so interesting an exhibition of the staple industry of the province. 

During the Queen°s visit to the exhibition. Lord Downshire stated to her 
Majesty that the Society would be happy to present to her any specimens of 
flax fabrics which might be pleasing to her. Her Majesty having expressed 
her willingness to accept them, his Lordship laid aside the articles which more 
particularly attracted the Queen's or Prince Albert's notice. Two parcels of 
goods were afterwards made up, and carried by members of the Committee to 
the yacht Fairy, 

The following is a portion of the address which was presented, on this 
occasion, to the Queen by the Royal Society : — 

" It is with feelings of lively satisfaction that we receive your Majesty, in 

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a building erected by the merchants of Belfast, for the purposes of the linen 
trade, to exhibit to you therein some specimens illustrative of our staple 
manufacture ; and we feel assured your Majesty's visit will act as a useful 
stimulus to those engaged in the various arts by which our native productions 
may be advanced and improved. In condescending to become patron of this 
Society, your Majesty has recognised the importance of our labours in 
developing one of the great national resources of this country, by promoting 
the cultivation, on Irish soil, of a plant which, in its subsequent manufacture, 
affords so much emplo3nnent to the Irish population. We feel an honourable 
pride in directing your Majesty's attention to the happy influence which the 
linen trade has exercised, in contributing to raise the Province of Ulster to that 
comparative position of prosperity, which contrasts so favourably with the 
distress and misery, the existence of which we deplore, in other parts of Ireland. 
We have been sedulously labouring to ex-tend the culture of the flax plant to 
those poor and remote localities, as the four or five millions now annually paid 
to foreigners for .the material would, if expended at home, by exerting feelings 
of self-reliance amongst the people, tend to show them that the valuable 
resources of the country are amply sufficient, if fully developed, to support her 
population, and would prevent them from looking for eleemosynary relief from 
strangers. From the sowing of the seed to the finishing of the fabric, all the 
operations connected with the plant are performed at home, affording employ- 
ment alike to the farmer, agriculturist, labourer, and artisan, creating an 
intelligent, enterprising middle-class of manufacturers, the want of which is so 
much felt in other districts in Ireland, and the exportation of the products 
contributing to the employment of a mercantile navy, affording an item of 
exchange for the production of foreign countries." 

1850. — From the report of the Factory Commissioners, dated 
July, 1850, we find that the number of spindles in Ireland had 
reached to a very respectable figure, and was in excess of those of 
both England and Scotland, though the numerical strength of the 
mills was considerably less, the average number of spindles was 
much in excess of those of Great Britain. Ulster farmers had 
fairly recovered from the losses suffered during the famine years, 
and were able to devote more time as well as a wider area of land 
to the culture of flax. The crop turned out favourably, prices 
were remunerative, and the buyers were well pleased with the 
quality of the fibre ; demand for yarns was very active, every 
bundle thrown off the spindles found ready sale, and manufac- 
turers and bleachers had no cause of complaint, either in reference 
to the home or the export trade, which showed most gratifying 

The following is an abstract of the Factory Commissioners 
Report on Flax Spinning in the United Kingdom at this period : — 

No. of 

No. of 







In Ireland, 69 




„ Scotland, 189 




„ England and Wales, 135 







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1851. — The improvement in trade since 1848 had made 
steady progress, and under the fostering care of the Royal 
Society the breadth of land sown had been rapidly enlarging, 
so that this year we find the acreage considerably more than 
double what it was in 1849. ^"^ ^^^ report for 185 1 we find 
the following statement : — 

" The present demand for flax in Ireland is about double what 
it was when the Society was established in 1841, when the Irish 
spinning trade numbered 250,060 spindles. Now they are close 
upon half a million. In place of 1 6,000 tons of flax, which was 
the estimated consumption in 1841, 32,000 tons are now required 
by the Irish trade. The entire consumption of the United King- 
dom would at present require 500,000 acres of flax. annually, and 
it is progressively increasing at a perfectly rapid rate." 

When the Flax Society was formed in 1841, the flax cultivated 
in Ireland was about 80,000 acres, but in 1843 ^^ breadth had 
risen to 112,000, and in 1844 122,000 acres were under flax. In 
consequence of the scarcity of seed and unprincipled practices 
of some dealers, who made up old seed in foreign barrels, a partial 
failure followed, and a smaller breadth was sown the following 
year; the total area in 1845 being only 96,000 acres. In 1846 
the crop both at home and on the Continent turned .out much 
below the average, adding to the general distress which prevailed 
at that period. The consequence was that in 1847 we find the 
sowing was reduced to 58,312, and still lower in 1848, when only 
53,863 were sown; but it took an upward turn again in 1849, 
when 60,314 were sown; 1850, 91,040, and 1851, 140,536 acres 
were sown. 

During this year (1851) the Great Exhibition of all nations 
was opened in Hyde Park, London, and our merchants and 
manufacturers maintained the high reputation which the trade 

When His Royal Highness, the late Prince Consort, conceived 
the idea of collecting together specimens of the art treasures of 
all nations, and exhibiting the triumphs of skill in ingenuity, 
whether in illustration of the great discoveries in the domain of 
science, or in reference to tiie appliances appertaining to our 
domestic economy,^any difficulties were suggested, and doubts 
expressed, regarding the wisdom of the scheme, and feasibility 
of carrying it out. We are familiar with the details respecting 
the building itself, and the great name which its designer acquired, 
whilst the success of the undertaking is a matter of history, and 
the beneficial effects which resulted far exceeded the most sanguine 
anticipations of its originator. It has been said that the first 
idea the Prince got of this great project, which was carried to 

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such a successful issue, was suggested by the exhibition of the 
Royal Flax Society, on the occasion of the visit of Her Majesty 
and himself to Belfast in 1849. Be that as it may, we know that 
the scheme was matured soon after this visit, and Belfast, which 
produced such a creditable display in 1849, was not behindhand 
in furnishing evidence in 1851 of her manufacturing skill and 
native talent, in the field of enterprise in which she was now 

From the Jurors' Report (published in the official records of 
the Exhibition) on manufacturers of flax and hemp, we make some 
extracts, and find several Irish firms obtained medals and honour- 
able mention.* 

The names of the jurors were — Count F. E. van Harrach, of Prague, 
Chairman ; Charles Tee, Bamsley, Deputy-Chairman ; William Charley, 
Seymour Hill, Belfast, Joint Reporter ; G. Lefevere, Ghent, Joint Reporter ; 

Legentil, Paris; John M*Master, Gilford; John Moir, Dundee; Carl 

Noback, German Commissioner ; Alexander Scherer, Minister of Finance, 
Russia; John Wilkinson, J. P., Leeds 

** The Royal Flax Improvement Society of Ireland have exhibited a very 
interesting series of patterns of flaxen manufactures characteristic of that 
country, comprising sacking, huckabacks, drills, ticks, linens, lawns, hollands, 

The Jury regret that the specimens of good flax from Ireland are so few 
jn number. Those exhibited by Messrs. Bernard & Co., of Belfast, and retted 
on Schenck's patent hot water steeping process in sixty hours, are the best 
samples ; and those of Mr. Gailey, of Coleraine, retted on the cold water 
principle, are good specimens of the material prepared in that way. Both are 
worthy of commendation, and the Jury make honourable mention of them. . . 

The Jury awarded prize medals to the following Irish exhibitors in the 
various sub-divisions : — 

Michael Andrews, Ardoyne, Belfast, for excellence in double damask 
tablecloths and napkins ; Clibbom, Hill, & Co., Banbridge, for an excellent 
assortment of bleached diapers ; James Coulson & Co., Lisbum, for an 
extensive and admirable exhibition of fine, well-made damask tablecloths and 
napkins ; John Henning, Waringstown, for damask tablecloths of superior 
patterns and quality, bleached, brown, and mixed colours ; Wm. Kirk & Son, 
Armagh, for brown linens of l6w descriptions and prices; hollands, brown, 
black, and slate coloured, &c.; Thomas M'Cay, Dromore, for an exceedingly 
fine piece of fi-onting linen, made of mill-spun warp and hand-spun weft, 
exhibited brown ; Thomas M 'Murray & Co., Dromore, for a superior assortment 
of fine linens, bleached ; J. N. Richardson, Sons, & Owden, Belfast, for a 
superior assortment of light shirting linens for export, bleached ; Sadler, 
Fenton, & Co. (now Fenton, Connor, & Co.), Belfast, for a superior assortment 
of heavy shirting linens, for home trade, bleached. 

The Jury made honourable mention of the following exhibitors : — T. 
Bell & Co., Lurgan, for a good assortment of cambric handkerchiefs; 
Bernard & Co., Belfast, for good hot water steeped flax ; Corry, Blain, & Co., 
Belfast, for good damasks, made with power-looms, and a beautifiil and novel 
design, on paper, for tablecloth, not yet executed in cloth ; William Coulson, 

»Mr. Charley, in his work on "Flax and its Products in Ireland," gives the Jurors' 
report in full. 

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Lisbum, for a very fine damask cloth ; D. Gailey, Coleraine, for flax steeped 
upon the cold water system ; John Henning, Waringstown. Honourable 
mention is here made, as this exhibitor is awarded a medal for damasks, which 
also includes the variety of cambrics and printed goods he has exhibited in this 
sub-division. J. Malcolm, Lurgan, for a good variety of bleached lawns and 
handkerchiefs ; J. & T. Richardson & Co., Lurgan, for cambric handkerchiefs; 
Richardson & Co., Lisburti, for excellency of bleach, shown in fine linens; 
Royal Flax Improvement Society of Ireland, for the specimens before men- 
tioned (Council medal awarded in Class IV). 

The Jury awarded the sum of £\o each to the following :— Ann Harvey, 
Belfast, for perfection and quality of hand-spun flax (exhibited by Royal Flax 
Society) of about 600 lea ; Jane Magill, Belfast (84 years of age), for fine 
hand-spun flax yam of 760 lea, also exhibited by Flax Society. 

In October of this year a deputation from the Flax Society 
waited upon the Lord Lieutenant (the Earl of Clarendon) at the 
Vice-Regal Lodge, Dublin, for the purpose of presenting him with 
an address and testimonial, in recognition of his exertions on behalf 
of the society. The deputation consisted of the Marquis of 
Downshire, President; the Earl of Erne, Vice-President; Very 
Rev. the Dean of Ross; W. Sharman Crawford, M.P.; S. K. 
Mulholland, William Dargan, William Coates, John Charters, 
John Herdman, James Grimshaw, jun., James Campbell, John 
M^Master, John Hancock, Robert M'Kibben, M.D., and James 
M'Adam, jun., Esqrs. 

In the address, which the Marquis of Downshire read, we find 
the following paragraphs : — 

"We have been deputed, by a number of members of the Royal Society 
for the promotion and improvement of the growth of flax in Ireland, to beg 
your Excellency's acceptance of a silver vase, a set of damask table linen, and 
a case of cambric handkerchiefs, as a slight but sincere testimony of our appre- 
ciation of your exertions, to advance the great material object which we have in 

view That portion of the presentation which consists of the finest 

linen fabrics made in Ireland, represents the products of the great and flourish- 
ing textile manufacture, whose twofold connexion with the agriculture and 
commerce of this country has been often adverted to by your Excellency, and 
whose future progress you have strenuously endeavoured to aid by encouraging 
a more careful and extended home production of its raw material, and by giving 
your influence, both as a member of Parliament and an individual, to the freer 
admission of its products among foreign consumers. To the piece of plate 
which accompanies these articles the artist has endeavoured, through one of the 
materials employed, and by the general design, to give both a particular and 
a national signification. Several ornamental details, both of the vase and of 
the woven fabrics, have been furnished by pupils of the Belfast Government 
School of Design, for the foundation of which the town is chiefly indebted to 
your Excellency's good ofiices." 

In reply, his Excellency said — "It is impossible to see without 
surprise and r^et the vast annual importation from abroad of a raw 
material, for the production of which the soil and climate are eminently 
suited, and with respect to which experience has proved that foreign 
rivalry need not be apprehended. I accordingly could not hesitate to aid by 
every means in my power the patriotic and meritorious labours of the Roysi 

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Flax Society of Belfast in extending the growth of flax, and thus to bring the 
agricultural and manfacturing interests of Ireland into harmonious action with 
each other, and to give to the land its share and its profit in those manufactures, 
which have been carried to perfection by the national skill and industry, and 
for which, throughout the markets of the world, there appears now to be an 
unusually increasing demand. With such fabrics as that of which, through 
their kindness I now possess so beautiful a specimen, the manufacturers of 
Ireland may fearlessly challenge all competition." .... 

1852. — ^We next find that the Society applied to the Govern- 
ment for a continuance of the grant of ;^i,ooo per annum, which 
since 1848 had been given to them for the purpose of paying flax 
instructors, sent out through various parts of Ireland, particularly 
the south and west, and owing to the exertions of the next Viceroy 
(the Earl of Eglinton) they succeeded in getting it continued. 

Great efforts had been made to revive the cultivation of flax 
in the County of Cork, and a local association, formed at Bandon, 
ably supported by the noblemen and gentlemen of that locality, 
effected much good, and after a trial of four years the Society was 
able to congratulate the flax growers of the district on the success 
which followed their exertions; for it appeared that the specimens 
forwarded to Belfast had shown that the flax grown about Bandon 
could bear comparison with that grown in any part of Ireland. 
Though the extent of land under flax in the County Cork in 1852 
exhibited a falling off compared with 185 1 (which was an excep- 
tionally large average) the breadth for 1852 was more than double 
that of 1850. 

The Earl of Eglinton and Winton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
visited Belfast this year, and the Royal Flax Society presented 
him with an address in the library of the Linen Hall. 

Early in the year a Committee was formed, under the sanction 
of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce, with a view to take steps 
to supply information of general interest to the trade, and for the 
purpose of drawing up a weekly Circular, for private circulation, 
which would fairly represent the state of business from week 
to week, and be a more reliable chronicle of the trade than news- 
paper reports could possibly be. Also to collect statistical infor- 
mation, prices, &c. ; and furnish information relating not only to 
the home trade, but also as to the position and progress of linen 
manufacturing on the Continent ; the state of trade in various 
foreign markets, as affecting the home demand, and thus form a 
recognised official publication, for the general benefit of the Irish 
linen industry. The first number was issued on Friday evening, 
February 20th, 1852, and the Circular was regularly published 
each Friday evening down to 17th March, 1856, when, in order 
to secure more complete information for it, the day of publication 

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was changed to Monday evening, which has been the day of issue 
ever since. 

In the first number, we find it stated that the country markets 
•were well supplied with flax ; and under head of linen yams, that 
the mills were at full work ; stocks in spinners' hands moderate; 
rather under an average, and that a steady demand from manu- 
facturers had hitherto prevented accumulation. The demand for 
export had improved, and was then good. Value of 55's to 8o*s 
wefts, 3s 6d per bundle, with 7j4 per cent, discount, and prices 
stationary. Brown linens in country markets were reported as 
without much change. White linens — Stocks generally moderate. 
. . . . . . The demand for the home market fair; but 

light linens for export were dull. Prices remained without change. 
Advices from abroad reported Mexico and Havanna markets as 
dull, especially the former. The opening of the Spring trade in 
the United States had been retarded by the unusual severity of 
the weather, and this affected the Irish brown markets, as 
exporters could not calculate on the extent and tendency of sales 
across the Atiantic. 

Spinning by machinery having made rapid progress of late 
years, an estimate is here given of the comparative position of 
the trade at home as well as on the Continent at this period ; — 

Estimated Spindles in Ireland, ... 







On Continent— 

France, ... 


Belgium, ... 




Russia, ... 


Austria, .. 




Holland, ... 




Estimate for Continent, 


Do. United States of America, 




Up to 1850 — as appeared by the Factory Inspectors' report — 
whilst Scotland had gone into weaving by power, and had some 
2,529 looms running, and England had 1,131, there were only 58 
in Ireland. The great cheapness of labour in Ireland had deterred 
capitalists from embarking in factories for weaving by power, but the 
famine, followed as it was by a large stream of emigration, produced 

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such a revolution in the condition of the working classes that the 
cost of production to manufacturers was enhanced, so far as wages 
were concerned, some 20 to 30 per cent, at this period. The spinning 
power was also running beyond the manufacturing, so that yams 
in the early part of 1852 were in such slow request, that in June 
about 120,000 spindles were working on short time; however, 
when the weavers returned to their looms, after the field work in 
July, the mills were in full operation. The power-loom, when first 
applied to the production of flaxen goods, was only capable of 
working the coarsest and heaviest descriptions of cloth, for owing 
to want of that elasticity in flax yarns which cotton possessed, 
it was a long time before the difficulties, which stood in the way 
of substituting power for hand labour, could be overcome. The 
subject was now, however, forcing itself upon the trade, and the 
importance of supporting the spinning branch was also becoming 
more strongly recognised. 

In November, 1852, a proposition was made by a writer in 
the Linen Trade Circular, that some 10 or 12 firms should join 
in getting up in Belfast, or the neighbourhood, a factory of 120 
looms, to cost ;^3,ooo or ;^4,ooo ; the concern to be let to some 
good manufacturer at a fair rent, or wrought for the owners; 
provision being made that within five years, or three years, or 
sooner, the establishment should be sold and the company dis- 
solved. This letter drew on a correspondence, from which it 
appeared that the difficulty lay in there not having, to that time, 
come under the notice of the trade a thoroughly good and efficient 
description of loom. One writer said, ** It is true there are power 
looms at work, here and elsewhere, capable of weaving certain kinds 
of linen, but what is required is a power loom that will weave 
ordinary qualities of linen yarn into ordinary descriptions of linen 
cloth ; and so far as he was aware no power loom had yet been 
erected which would accomplish this." A suggestion was then 
made that a prize of ;^i,ooo should be offered for the best power 
loom which should be first produced in Belfast, with warping and 
dressing apparatus complete. 

The attention thus drawn to the subject led to the holding 
of a large meeting of the trade, at the offices of the Royal Flax 
Society, when a committee was appointed to collect information 
regarding the looms then in use, and to take further steps in the 

The general aspect of the trade for 1852 compared favourably 
with the preceding year, but the manufacturing branch was in a 
more satisfactory state than the spinning. In reviewing the 
position of both during this year the Circular stated that " The 
discovery of new gold regions, and the buoyancy of the money 

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market added to the general healthy state of trade and tended 
throughout the year to create facilities for the application of 
capital, and to give a wholesome tone to business transactions. 
The full employment of all those classes of the community who 
depended on trade for their support, and the excellent yield of 
the principal crops, together with advanced prices for all agricul- 
tural products, had a very beneficial effect on the home demand 
for linen, which exceeded all former years. The condition of 
foreign markets was also improved, and the exports of linens and 
yams both showed an increase, although this increase was much 
greater in the latter than the former." 

Wefts which at beginning of year, from ss's to 8o's, were 
3s 4 J^d to 3s 6d, sold freely at close of year from 3s 10 J^d to 4s. 

1853. — In May of this year we find that trade had shown much 
briskness. Brown cloth at the country markets was in good de- 
mand, and bleached goods were also moving off freely. The great 
improvements effected in the bleaching process enabled mer- 
chants to get round their goods very much quicker. 

An Industrial Exhibition, promoted by the late William 
Dargan, was held in Dublin this year, on which occasion her 
Majesty the Queen and his Royal Highness, the late Prince 
Consort, visited it ; and in recognition of the distinguished abilities 
of Mr. Dargan, and of his munificence in erecting, at his own 
cost, the Exhibition building, and for the success of the under- 
taking, her Majesty paid him a private visit at his country seat ; 
the first visit, it is stated, which had been paid by a British 
Sovereign to a commoner in modern times. 

Among the various sections on textile products, we find, in the 
official records of the Exhibition, one on the manufactures of flax, 
and in connection with an excellent article on the subject — 
written by Mr. Macadam, the Secretary of the Royal Flax 
Society — the names of the following firms appear, amongst others, 
who were contributors to this department ; — 

Michael Andrews, Royal Manufactory, Ardoyne, Belfast, super-extra 
double damask tablecloth, the "Clarendon Pattern," the shamrock and flax 
plants, interwoven with each other — also, two table napkins to match, one 
with, and one without sprigs. This pattern was specially designed for the 
table linen presented by the Royal Society to the Earl of Clarendon, when 
Lord Lieutenant. Super-extra double damask tablecloth, the "Ardoyne 
Exhibition Pattern," a very rich pattern, composed of a great variety of flowers 
from nature, grouped in a new style, with two table napkins to match. Double 
damask tablecloth, new pattern, the "Fern Rustic Pattern," composed of a 
great variety of ferns picturesquely grouped ; table napkin with coat of arms, 
and another with emblems of Ireland. Thomas Bell & Co., Bellevue, Lurgan, 
manufacturers — Cambric handkerchiefs bordered, printed, hemstitched, tucked, 
and embroidered (in the loom); printed dresses, also embroidered (in the lo6m). 

Clibbom, Hill, & Co., linen merchants and bleachers, Banbridge, manu- 
facturers — Bird-eye diapers, manufactured from prime linen yam. 

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James Coulson, & Co., Lisbum, manufacturers — Specimens of superfine 
damask tablecloths, napkins, appropriately ornamented with armorial bearings, 
badges, devices, and inscriptions, similat to those prepared for her Majesty 
and the leading nobility and gentry. 

Fenton, Son, & Co. (now Fenton, Connor, & Co. ), Linen Hall, Belfast — 
Case of linen fabrics ; prize linen of the Exhibition of 185 1 ; family and light 
linen, for the home and foreign trade. 

Gradwell, Chadwick, & Co. (St. Mary's Flax Spinning Co. ), Drogheda, 
manufacturers— Linen yams, 100 to 520 lea, in different stages of manufac- 
ture, from Irish and Courtrai flax. 

Harrison, Brothers, Dromore, County Down, manufacturers — lanen shirt 
frontings, in various patterns, all woven in the loom ; frontings, embroidered, 
veined, printed, &c. ' 

"William Kirk & Son, Annvale, Keady, County Armagh, manufacturers — 
Rough brown linens, linen Hollands, bleached linen diapers, lining, family and 
fronting linens, unions. 

J. Leadbeater & Co., Belfast — Specimens of yam and linen ; cloth 
manufactured of flax, prepared by the patent process of exhibitors, 

H. Murland, Castlewellan, bleacher and producer — Irish linens for the 
United States market. 

Royal Flax Society, Belfast — Line rovings for 130 lea and 260 lea yams ; 
line and tow yams from 6 lea to 280 lea ; specimens of unbleached and bleached 
fabrics, including heavy and light linens, drills, diapers, damasks, lawns, 
cambrics, mosquito netting ; specimens of fancy, dyed, or printed fabrics, 
including drills, bedticks, floorcloths, lawns, cambrics, linens ; case of speci- 
mens of linen yarns, &c., the manufacture of Messrs. Gradwell, Chadwick, 
& Co., Drogheda ; case of specimens of linen fabrics, &c., the manufacture of 
Messrs. John Hind & Sons, Belfast ; specimens sent in 1 774 to the Society of 
Arts, by Lady Moira, comprising — coarse wrappings for linens for furniture 
from the backings of tow ; coarse dimity for upper petticoats, and a piece of 
Lady Moira's own gown. 

In October the Belfast Chamber of Commerce, on behalf of 
the linen trade, memorialised the Government respecting the 
United States tariff on linen manufactures, praying that representa- 
tions might be made to the Government of that country for a re- 
mission of the duties same as between the period from 1832 to 
1842. Previous to 181 2 the duties were 5 per cent., but they 
were then raised to 37^. In 1832.— The duty on linen goods 
was abolished. In 1842. — 25 per cent, was put on, which was 
afterwards reduced in 1846 to 20 per cent, at which it stood in 
1853. The Foreign Office instructed Her Majesty's representative 
at Washington to support the prayer of the memorial, but the 
efforts used were unsuccessful. 

The general position of the manufacturing branch was most 
satisfactory this year, and showed a steady progressive movement. 
The acreage of land sown with flaxseed was considerably more 
than a fourth over that of 1852. The yield of Irish flax for 1853 
was estimated at 43,374 tons, which, as the produce of 174,000 
acres, exceeded that of any season from the commencement ot 
the Flax Improvement Society's labours in 184 1. In addition to 
the supply of home grown seed the foreign imports for 1853 were 

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about 94,146 tons. The spinning branch was, however, not remune- 
rative Uiis year, production being still in advance of the manufac- 
turing power; yams were depressed, and during November and 
December a large number of spindles were running only ^ time. 
The number of power looms had increased from 58 to 218; but as 
at this period weaving by power was still on its trial the progress 
in developing that branch of the trade was slow up to this point; 
however, great improvement having been effected in the power- 
loom it was in contemplation to set up 1,103 looms next year. In 
closing the leview of the trade for 1833, the Circular records that 
" the year was memorable as that in which the last remnant of 
import duties on foreign linen manufactures which had been much 
reduced at previous intervals, were swept away by the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer; and in which the United Kingdom entered into 
a perfectly open competition in every article with the countries of 
the globe, and that were this example followed by other states 
much advantage would accrue to the trade of Great Britain and 
Ireland as well as to the population of all countries which consume 
linen." It was also noted, with satisfaction, that of late years 
although the ZoUverein States had increased their import duties on 
this article, Holland and Belgium, Spain and Portugal, Sardinia, 
Austria, Russia, and Norway had relaxed them to a greater or less 
extent. The Government of the United States had recommended 
to Congress a total abrogation of duty on the import of flax and 
linen fabrics, a measure which, if carried out, would be of vast ad- 
vantage to our linen trade. Exports to the colonies were also 
increasing steadily; those of Australia to a very surprising extent. 
Finally, the prospects of the trade, as drawn from the augury ot 
the past year's events, were promising, and though temporarily em- 
barrassed, its high state of efficiency, and constant efforts at 
improvement inspired confidence in its innate power to secure a 
future progress equal at least to the past 

1854. — In March of this 'year difficulties in the East led to a 
war with Russia, the immediate effects, so far as the linen trade was 
concerned, being the enhanced value of flax, which was followed 
by a little improvement in demand for yarns, but which was not 
maintained, and cloth was but slightly affected. The prospect of 
supphes of the raw material, so far as Russia was concerned, being 
cut off, caused for a time much uneasiness throughout the trade. 
Prices of Irish flax, while the panic lasted, ran up to jQ6^ per ton, 
which in the previous year brought only ;^56, and in 1852 jQ^o. 
In May demand for yams was much less active, and as flax had 
reached so high a point, the spinning department was losing heavily. 
The panic, however, regarding flax, did riot last very long ; and in 
the course of the summer, when it was ascertained that supplies 

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from Russia would come through Prassian ports, Irish flax dropped 
in a short time about £^\2 per ton, but recovered to the extent of 
about ;^5 by the close of the year. The yeUr altogether was a 
most unfavourable one to the trade. The Circular stated — " The 
spinning trade suffered much during this year. Nine firms, repre- 
senting about 39,000 spindles, stopped payment, and several of 
their mills were idle. About 65,000 spindles in other mills were 
standing, so that at that time between a fifth and a sixth of the entire 
spinning machinery of Ireland was not at work. The year began 
with short time (45 hours per week), which measure was continued 
by about 370,000 spindles until late in February. Full time was 
then resumed until the beginning ,of November, when a conside- 
rable proportion of the Belfast factories again went on short time. 
Towards the close of the year, however, symptoms of a better de- 
mand for yarns having appeared, full work was generally resumed. 
With scarcely an interval of animation, the demand for yarns 
throughout the year was very languid, both on home and export 
account. As might have been anticipated, considering the state of 
trade, no new mills were erected in 1854, and the additions made 
to existing ones only reached to 6,222 spindles. In yams the 
fluctuations in prices were but trifling, but the leading numbers of 
weft were throughout the year selling at 3d to 4j^d per bundle 
under the average of 1853, whilst the increased cost of the raw 
material combined to make it one of the most unsatisfactory years 
to spinners that had been remembered." 

In the manufacturing department a languid demand was ob- 
servable during the greater part of the year, so that manufacturers 
considerably reduced the number of hand-loom weavers which 
they employed, this forced a large number to enlist, and also to 
emigrate, whilst the general dulness of trade stopped for a time 
any further extension of power-loom weaving. 

1855.- — It is recorded this year that a Frenchman having in- 
vented a loom, on the principle of Jacquard's patent, had adapted 
its mechanism to a system by which the looms could be worked by 
electro-magnets Great interest was manifested with regard f o it ; 
however after a few trials the invention was not found to be of any 
practical advantage, and the matter was soon after quite lost sight 

The Exhibition in Hyde Park resulting in such success, stimu- 
lated other countries to follow the example. Accordingly we find 
that Paris was the centre of attraction this year, and as usual the 
Royal Flax Society put in an appearance, having contributed 
samples of the fibre in ditferent stages of preparation. Messrs, 
John Preston & Co. exhibited flax from different districts of Ire- 
land ; Messrs. W, Kwart & Son ; Herdmans & Co.; Wolfhill Spin- 

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ning Co.; John Hind & Sons ; Johnston & Carlisle (now Brook- 
field Linen Co., Limited), and J. Preston & Co. exhibited linen 
yams ; and John Hind & Son, JafF(^ Bros., Johnston & Carlisle, 
York Street Flax Spinning Co., Fenton,Son & Co. (now Fenton, Con- 
nor & Co.), J. Preston & Co., J. N. Richardson, Sons & Owden, 
Michael Andrews, Clibbom, Hill & Co., and other firms exhibited 
samples of linens and damasks, &c., both brown and bleached. 

A deputation, appointed by the Belfast Chamber of Commerce, 
visited Paris in September, and reported on the linen machinery 
and linen manufactures which were exhibited. From this report 
we find they stated that — 

The linen machinery exhibited was not extensive. Some power-looms 
for weaving linen deserved attention, as the trade must soon adopt this system 
of weaving in order to keep up a r^^lar supply and uniform quality of goods. 
. . . . France was well represented in her linen goods, which were in 
almost every instance of excellent quality ; they had little starch or finish ; 
made of a firm round thread of yam ; and, although well adapted for inunediate 

use, were not so sightly as Irish linens The linens of Hanover 

were well represented Wurtemburg, Saxony, and Rhenish- 
Prussia exhibited a great variety of fabrics, from the coarsest to the finest. The 
lower and medium goods were similar to our own ; but they exhibited specimens 
of very fine linen which, it was feared, our manufacturers would have difficulty 
in equalling, being made of fine hand-spun yam, regardless of expense, for the 
Russian market. One piece, equal to a 4/4 3800, was 15/- a yard; 4/4 28<», 
6/9 ; 2600, 3/9 ; 24W, 3/4. In the linens made for exportation they imitated 
the Irish marks and finish, and in many instances even the same paper orna- 
ments as used by the Irish trade. This was an interesting phase in the history 
of the linen trade, that Germany, from whom we borrowed the name of a great 
variety of our linen fabrics, and still exported them under these names, was, in 
her turn, borrowing from us, and imitating our goods, both in names, material, 
and finish. Some of the Saxon damask was beautifully fine ; but, in design, 
the Scotch and Irish goods were quite superior. Austria made a very creditable 
display of linens and linen yams, the latter were particularly clean, and free 

from imperfections Belgium made a large display of goods, and 

appeared a formidable competitor. This did not refer to the finer linens and 
cambrics, for which at all times there must only be a limited eonsumption ; 
but in the lighter export goods, lapped in the Irish fonn, and with Irish labels, 
the prices were quoted nearly as low as they could be purchased in Belfast. 
. . . . The exhibition of linens and canvas from Dundee, and damasks 
from Dunfermline, were reported as highly creditable to the Exhibition, a con- 
siderable portion of the goods being woven by the power-loom 

The display of Irish goods was, however, on a limited scale, and the arrange- 
ment did not do justice to our important industry ; and the report states that 
it would have been most desirable that our superiority should have been better 
displayed in a place where such a display might have led to important com- 
mercial advantages Still in price, colour, and finish, our Irish 

linens can compete successfiilly with any others exhibited in Paris. The report 
concluded by drawing the attention of our trade to the great eflforts which 
Belgium and Germany were making to extend their export linen trade. We 
have already stated that they are imitating our finish and quality, they are also 
encouraging intelligent persons, from the neighbourhood of Belfast, to settle in 
both countries, to instruct them in the various processes of spinning, weaving, 

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HAND Book, 97 

and bleaching, and are in many instances introducing the power-loom, to 
cheapen production and improve quality. A general opinion appears to prevail 
that, as the power-loom gave a new impetus to the cotton trade, a similar 
effect will be produced when it is generally employed in the manufacture ot 
linen. It will require our manufacturers, therefore, to see that our Continental 
neighbours do not get before them in the march of improvemei>t ; and we 
would recommend their adoption of every new principle of production that 
ensures economy and . despatch, and so by progressive advancement maintain 
the advantageous position they now possess. 

This Report was signed by Messrs, John Herdman, James Grimshaw 
jun., and John Patterson. 

The Royal Society reported that the flax crop for this year had 
been considerably less than the preceding year ; the causes being 
stated that farmers were disheartened by the turn out of 1853 and 
1854, and the good prices which they realised for their cereal 
crops, owing to the war. 

From the report of the linen trade for 1855* we learn that, 
while manufacturers, bleachers, and shippers did a more satisfac- 
tory business than in 1854, spinners, except in particular classes 
of yarns, had a very unremunerative trade. The high cost of flax, 
and the indifferent spinning quality of the Irish crop of 1854, were 
both very adverse to them, while the caution exercised throughout 
the year by manufacturers, and the reduced makes of goods, 
caused a languid demand for yarns, and maintained prices at a 
low point, when put in comparison with the price of the raw mate- 
rial. A scarcity of weavers had been felt throughout the 
year, and wages rose at least 10 per cent. Although the trade 
had been healthier than in 1853, it did not participate in the 
prosperity extended to Scotland, the leading fabrics made in Ire- 
land not being of that heavy, coarse class so largely required for 

the Government contracts Power-loom weaving was 

tried with varied, but, on the whole, satisfactory results. Several 
firms who had erected power-looms had succeeded in making a 
fair quality of light linens, at a price which would leave an addi- 
tional margin of profit over hand-loom goods, and some being so 
well satisfied with these results, were about to increase their 

1856. — The Royal Society had to report an increase of 10 
per cent, in the breadth of land sown with flax this year ; and if 
the treaty of peace with Russia had been concluded earlier in the 
season the Society expected the acreage would have been much 
larger, although the high prices of grain gave way more slowly 
than was anticipated. The grant of ;^i,ooo was continued by 
the Government down to this period. 

All average business was done throughout the greater part of 
the year, and a healthy tone pervaded all departments. In the 


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spinning branch there had been little change ; no new mills were 
erected, nor had any addition been made to the number of spindles. 
Flax was about j[,i per ton cheaper than in 1855, ^^d> ^^^ ^^ 
treaty of Paris being confirmed, there was a good demand for 
yarns, although prices did not advance much over ij^d per 
bundle. Considerable progress was made in power-loom factories, 
about 25 firms being engaged in the trade, and 2,200 loonas 
running. Many improvements were effected in the looms, in 
adapting them to weave light linens for export. A large propor- 
tion were running on drills, heavy linens and coarse goods ; and - 
all were using common qualities of weft yarns, with superior 
warps. The Circular stated that " hand-loom weavers had become 
so scarce, and their wages so high, that were it not for the hkeli- 
hood of power-looms coming more and more into use, the cost of 
production might be such as seriously to interfere with the 
prospects of the export trade, while there would be considerable 
difficulty in securing a sufficient make of goods." 

1857. — From the report of the Royal Society we find that the 
hopeful anticipations indulged in that an increasing acreage of flax 
would be sown after the termination of the Russian war, were not 
fulfilled ; but, on the contrary, there was a decrease of upwards of 
8,000 acres. This was accounted for by the high prices of grain 
which had been maintained since the close of the war, and also 
owing to the unremunerative character of the flax crops in previous 
years, together with a scanty supply, and high prices of foreign seed 
this year. The quality of the fibre was stated to have been 
above an average. 

The manufacturing department was making a rapid progress, 
and between 700 and 800 power-looms had been set up, making 
in all 2,781, which were all in full operation, and preparations were 
being made for a large addition, when a financial crisis in America 
arose in October, which produced a paralysing effect upon trade 
at this side, and brought everything to a stand-still. Spinners 
held a meeting to consider the propriety of reducing production, 
and " from the 30th November, almost all the mills in Belfast and 
its neighbourhood, with many in the country, went on short time." 
The panic lasted for about seven weeks ; but at the close of the 
year a better feeling had sprung up. A review of the trade for 
this year concluded by stating that, "While, no doubt, our great 
staple manufacture had its share of trial and suffering, and while 
not only had spinners, manufacturers, and shippers all lost more or 
less money, but the working classes also felt the effects of the 
crisis very severely ; yet it is satisfactory to state that the trade has 
been in so sound a condition, that as few failures have occurred as 
during the same period of ordinary times. The trade had stood 

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the shock, and our banking institutions were never in a more 
prosperous condition. The manner in which the Irish linen trade 
had passed through this severe ordeal was such as to show its 
innate soundness, and to lead to the best anticipations respecting 
its future progress when matters at home and abroad regain their 
normal condition, and leave freer scope for its great and solid 

1858. — The extent of land under flax showed a further falling 
off this year, amounting to upwards of 6,000 acres, traceable to 
the better return which cereal crops still yielded ; but, though the 
acreage was less, the yield was superior to previous years, which 
more than compensated for the short sowing. As there was a 
falling off in the Continental flax crops this season, in consequence 
of long-continued drought, prices of home fibre were much more 
remunerative to the farmers, and ruled very high, from the opening 
of the market to the close of the season, owing to the brisk export 
demand. Yarns were low in January, and only advanced i^d in 
the first half-year ; but towards the close of the year a good trade 
sprung up, following the tone of the flax market, and yarns sold at 
an advance of about 4^d to 6d a-bundle, on prices current in 
January. Line wefts, 75*5 to 120% at close of year were 4s 6d, as a 
minimum, and tows, 25's, 6s 7^d to 7s 3d. Demand for cloth early 
in the year was dull ; but, as spring advanced, an improvement 
set in, which was steadily kept up, and ** the year closed with 
considerably higher values for all goods, with little ox no stock in 
the hands of manufacturers, and, on the average, unusually light 
stocks with bleachers." 

1859. — From an abstract of the returns respecting spinning 
mills and power-loom factories in Ireland, on the ist of May, 
1859, we find the following in the Linen Trade Circular : — 

Spindles employed. Spindles idle. Total. 

82 Flax-spinning Mills, 560,642 91,230 651,872 

Looms employed. Unemployed. 
28 P.-L. Factories, 3,124^ 509 3,633 

Although the acreage this year showed an increase of 49 per 
cent, the quality of the flax crop was inferior to that of previous 
year. Prices at close of 1858 had ** advanced to a height rarely, 
if ever attained, since the general introduction of spinning by 
machinery," and during the early part of 1859 they went up still 
higfeer ; in the course of the year a reaction set in, and, at the 
close, prices were much lower, though compared with quotations 
of yams, were regarded as extravagantly high. Yarns slightly 
advanced early in the year, but subsequently fell, and a drop of 

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9d on ordinary line wefts, and 6d on tows, was recorded as the 
difference between commencement and close of the year. Manu- 
facturers appear to have done very fairly this year ; power-loom 
cloth was in good request, and the new system was giving 
satisfaction. The Continental trade was not so good, but the 
United States market was regarded as satisfactory. The only 
drawback appeared to be the inordinately high figures ruling for 
the raw material. 

The Royal Sociey, which had worked so energetically in behalf 
of the trade since 1841, was this year dissolved. During the 
period of its existeAce considerable improvement had been effected 
regarding the culture and after treatment of the flax plant, and 
the blank which this society left appears to have been greatly 
felt. The president —the Marquis of Downshire — gave it much 
support, and ably co-operated in advancing the interest of the 
trade over which it watched. Mr. M*Adam, the secretary, was 
also most eflftcient, and we believe that the difficulty of finding 
a successor equal to him when he resigned was the main cause 
which led to the breaking up of this very useful body. 

Mr. Charley mentions in his work* that "the society might 
have gone on for years, and might have undergone such useful 
reforms in the constitution and management as the progress of the 
age required ; but the sudden retirement of the active and intelli- 
gent secretary brought on a crisis, and a collapse of the whole 
affair followed.'' 

With the dissolution of the Society we conclude this chapter, 
noting the names connected with the Board during the last year 
of office : — 

Patrons — Her Majesty the Queen ; H.R.H. Prince Albert. Vice-Patron — 
The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. President — The Marquis of Downshire. 
Vice-Presidents — Marquises — Waterford and Hertford ; Earls — Erne, Ranfurlyj 
and Bandon ; Viscounts — Masserene and Dungannon ; Lords — Rossmore, 
Lurgan, Monteagle, and Bishop of Down. Sir Robert Kane, Sir J. M. 
Stronge, Bart. ; Sir Robert Bateson, Bart. ; Sir William Vemer, Bart., M.P. ; 
W. S. Crawford, D.L. ; Veiy Rev. Dean of Ross ; Lt.-Col. A. Shafto Adair ; 
H. M *C. Cairns, M. P. Committee — H. Anderson ; W. G. Anderson ; John 
Bimey; Rev. F. Blakeley ; John Borthwick ; James Campbell ; John Charters ; 
G. J. Clarke ; John S. Crawford ; William Dargan ; William Ewart, jun. ; 
F. Filgate ; R. F. Gordon j George Greer ; John Hancock ; John Herdman ; 
James Hind ; Victor C. Kennedy ; S. K. MulhoUand ; J. M. Carten ; Thomas 
M*Clure; John Preston; J. T. Reilly ; J. J. Richardson, Esqrs. 

• flax and Ita Products in Ireland, by William Charley, J.P , Soyinouf Hill. 

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From the formation of the Indian Flax Company in 1859 
down to the close of the past year. 

r N the preceding chapter we noticed the dissolution 
of the Royal Society for promoting and improving 
the growth of flax in Ireland, and the same year 
that witnessed the extinction of this association gave 
rise to another, but with a different object in view, 
though in the main to increase, for home consumption, 
the supply of the raw material. 

1859. — Attention having been drawn to the suitabiUty 
of the soil of the Upper Punjab, East India, for growing flax, 
and owing to representations made to the trade by Sir John 
Lawrence, Governor of the Punjab, and Mr. D. M'Leod, Financial 
Commissioner at Lahore, a public meeting was convened on 13th 
Dec, 1859, i'^ the Council Room of the Chamber of Commerce, 
Belfast, when the question was fully discussed, and the following 
resolution adopted : — " Resolved — That this nieeting is of opinion 
that t"he very unsatisfactory state of the linen trade arises chiefly 
from a deficiency of the raw material, and that an abundantisupply 
at a lower average cost would tend materially to the prosperity of 
the trade, this meeting therefore recommends the promotion of a 
company, with limited liability, and a capital of ;^5o,ooo, in ;^to 
shares, for the purpose of obtaining a supply of flax, and other 
fibres, from India." 

A company was accordingly formed for the purpose, and 
considerable efforts were put forth to carry on the scheme, but 
which, as we shall afterwards learn, did not turn out a success. 

i860. — General business, in the several departments of trade 
during this year, was on the whole fairly satisfactory, and a gradual 

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tendency towards improvement was observable. The old com- 
plaint about the short sowing of flax was renewed, as the falling 
off amounted to nearly 8,000 acres. The yield to farmers was, 
however, good, but the fibre came out unfavourably from the 
hackle, causing great disappointment to spinners ; the cleaning 
was also defective, and at the close of the year, taking quahty into 
account, prices were very high. Yarns, 75's to loo's, ordinary 
wefts, opened at 3s 9d per bundle, and during the year crept up in 
price, closing firm at 4s 3d, showing an advance of 6d per bundle 
in the 12 months. Linens were in good request from commence- 
ment of the year up to middle of December. - Linen handker- 
chiefs being particularly active, and damasks were also in brisk 
demand, and became considerably enhanced in value. Power- 
looms were increasing, and all of them were well employed. 

In December the Board of Trade published details respecting 
the reduction in duties, so far as affected the linen trade, and 
which had been the result of a commercial treaty entered into 
between France and the United Kingdom. The important conces- 
sions established by this treaty were rightly regarded as likely 
to be of great advantage to the Irish linen trade. The reduction 
in duty on yams was about 65 per cent, and the duties on linen 
goods were also largely cut down. 

1861. — In connection with the Indian Flax Company's scheme 
it may be interesting to insert some extracts from letters received 
at this period from the seat of operations, detailing progress made, 
and which were published in the Circular, 

*' Sealkote, 15th April, 1861. — I commenced to harvest flax on ist inst., 
and have had the four bullocks on the road ever since. I start them at 3 o'clock 
in the morning, and they are in before the day becomes very hot. It is very 
warm now ; 130 degrees in the sun at 11 o'clock, and 95 in the shade, so that 
there is no European goes out after 8 o'clock, or before 5 in the evening. 
I have mounted several ripples, and the farmers prefer taking off the seed 

themselves, which, when they clean, I will buy from them There 

has been a great failure in the produce of native seed this year. As the season 
was dry it came to perfection too soon. I am afraid one half will not come 
up to two feet long. The produce of foreign seed is all we could wish it to be ; 
three and a half feet long is the minimum, and some have even attained four and 
a half feet. I see part of the late sown flax has failed. It should be all sown 
before the 20th October, in order to be ripe before the warm weather sets in ." 
Under date 29th April, same writer states — ** Where the flax and seed are good 
I generally give the. farmers a small ** baksish," or present, and they are better 
pleased with this than with the whole price of their flax. The heat is very 
oppressive on oxen, and if caught out in the middle of the day they lie down 
and will not rise. The temperature has suddenly risen, and is much warmer 
than it has been for many years at this season. It is now 12 o'clock, 136 
degrees in the sun; 115 in the sh^de, and 98 inside the house, with all the 
appliances to keep the air cool. AH the residents who can get away are off 
to the hills. The public offices are now open from 6 a.m. till 11, when they 
shut for the day.* This will continue until the coming of the rains in July." 

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In a review of the trade we find that there had been an 
interruption of accustomed mercantile operations with America, 
consequent on the political complications by which that country 
had been distracted. The average export trade in linen shipped 
from the United Kingdom to the United States showed that 
during five years ending December 31, i860, over 41 percent, 
was taken by America, whilst this year the percentage had 
fallen to 18 — a very serious drop, and, in consequence operated 
most unfavourably on the trade at this side, so much so that 
Ballymena linen declined 25 per cent, in price, and Lurgan 
damasks even more. Superior goods and heavy makes, suitable 
for home and continental markets, held pretty steadily all through, 
the decline being most marked in cloth suitable for shipment to 

Owing to this falling-off in the export cloth trade, yams declmed 
from 4s 3d for 75s to loos (at which they stood at beginning of year) 
to 3 s 9d at close. Though flax showed a larger acreage this year, 
the yield did not exceed that of 1866. Very much of it was of 
inferior quality, and produce after hackling was below an average. 
The year was therefore very much against spinners, and several 
times short running seemed all but inevitable ; however this was 
not resorted to. 

1862. — Another International Exhibition was held in London 
this year, and in the list of awards made, by the jury, we find the 
names of several firms connected with our trade «rho obtained 
medals and honourable mention. 

The Belfast Indian Flax Company obtained a medal for various sampliss of 
flax grown in the Punjab. The following firms were also awarded medals : — 
Messrs. Wm. Barbour & Sons, Lisbum, sewing and other threads — for general 
excellence. R. Bell & Co.', "Whitehouse and Belfast, damask goods — ^for fine 
assortment and good manufacture. Brown & Liddell, Lurgan and Belfast (now 
John Brown & Sons, and Wm. Liddell & Co. ), diapers, and finish of linen — for 
general excellence. Clibbom, Hill & Co., Banbridge, bird's-eye diaper, bleached 
— for fine assortment and variety. Foster Connor, Belfast, printed drills — for 
general excellence. Dunbar, Dicksons & Co., linen shirtings, cambrics, &c. — 
for great excellence. Dunbar, M 'Master & Co., linen yams and threads — for 
great general excellence. Fenton, Son & Co. (now Fenton, Connor & Co. ), 
plain linen — for general excellence. John Hind & Sons, brown and bleached 
linens and cambric yarns — for excellence in fine yams. Johnston & Carlisle 
(now Brookfield Linen Co. Limited), yams and bleached linens — for general 
excellence. H. Matier & Co., linen and handkerchiefs — a good variety, espe- 
cially in fine handkerchiefs. J. N. Richardson, Sons & Owden, linens — for ex- 
cellence in bleaching and finishing. Honourable mention — Belfast Local Com- 
mittee. Flaxseed fibre, yam, and Jinen. For very complete examples from 
flaxseed to finished fabrics. Jaffe Bros — Linens and linen cambric handerchiefs. 
Moore & Weinberg — for great variety and nice imitation of foulards. Preston, 
Smyth & Co., flax, yam, linen, and cambrics — for great variety and perfect 

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The Jurors were G. Mevissen (chairman), Zollverein ; Erskine Beveridge 
(deputy-chairman), Dunfermline ; M. Alcan, France ; Marquis Luigi Cusani, 
Italy ; William Charley, Belfast ; Ch. de Brouckere, Belgium ; J. Moir, 
Dundee ; C. Oberleithner, Austria ; Hon. Frederick vSmyth, United States. 

Jurors were precluded from being competitors for prizes. 

In an Indian paper, " The Scindian Kurrachee," the following 
report on the Indian Flax Company (Limited) appeared at this 
time : — 

"KuRRACHEE, 23RD JULY, 1862. — In October, i860, the Company 
deputed to the Punjab their first agriculturist, Mr. J. Wightman, with a view to 
ascertain and report upon the capabilities of that country for the successful pro- 
duction of flax. On his arrival at Sealkote, this gentleman found a small 
quantity of acclimated seed — 4 or 5 maunds —the only kind capalle of producing 
fibre. This was sown, and the produce was 36 maunds seed, and 22 maunds 
fibre, which is now on its way home, with 350 bushels of native seed, and 28 
maunds of native fibre, as the result of the experiments of the first season. In 
the month of October, the 36 maunds of seed were distributed to the zemindars 
of the Sealkote district, and during the present season Mr. Wightman purchased 
the produce at the average rate of one rupee for 3 maunds of flax straw, and 5 
rupees per maund for seed. This has produced on an average a return of about 
40 rupees per acre to such of the cultivators as took care and paid attention to 
the cultivation of it ; and the farmers are now impressed with the conviction 
that the flax crop is far superior in comparison with the results of grain culti- 
vation, and have evinced an arxiety to continue its cultivation on a large scale. 
To meet the deficiency of seed, the Company have forwarded from Belfast a 
supply of Russian seed, to the extent of 150 barrels, and to secure its reaching 
in good condition, the consignment has been sent by the P. and O. Company's 
steamers to Alexandria, thence to Egypt and Suez. Two consignments have 
already arrived at Kurrachee, and the third is expected to arrive by the next 
mail steamer at Bombay. Mr. Wightman was directed to proceed to Bombay 
to take charge, and see to its being tiansmitted safely to its destination at 
Sealkote. Two lots have been received by him, one lot is on its way up the 
Indus, the second is at Kurrachee, where it has to be dried before shipment, 
and the third consignment is expected to come to hand in a few days. . . . 
The Company are very sanguine of success in their operations, on receipt of 
this large accession to their stock of seed. The climate and the soil are also 
well adapted for the production of this very useful fibre. They have also had 
tanks made at Sealkote where they can steep any quantity of flax, and are now 
engaged in the erection of flax machinery, imported from M*Adam & Co., 
Belfast, which, when completed, will be worked by oxen. It is of the most 
simple, and, at the same tirtie, most effective description. The Punjab Govern- 
ment, we are happy to record, are giving every encouragement to the succesful 
carrying out of the Company's interests, thus aiding in the development of the 
resources of that rich and fertile province." 

In the Spring of 1862, owing to a great falling off in supplies 
of raw cotton from the Southern States of America, and conse- 
quent enhancement in value of all products of that plant — caused 
by the difficulties which were gathering in that country, and 
which culminated in a civil war — flax goods of all classes were 
considerably stimulated, and the raw material steadily advanced 
in price from that period down to September. A reaction then 

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took place, but in November an upward movement again set in, 
and at close of the year prices stood at a high point. Yarns 
participated in the excitement, and fluctuations in price 
were of a violent and unprecedented character. 75's to loo's 
common wefts opened in January at 3s 9d, rose in February to 
3s loj^d, at which point they kept pretty steady down to June. 
Early in July they advanced to 4s, in August to 4s i^d, but after 
this a wild feeling took possession of the market, a rapid rise 
ensued, and these numbers rose to 6s as a minimum on 15th 
September, holding firm at this rate till the 6th October ; after- 
wards a quieter feeling set in, and speculative buying having 
fallen off, quotations receded to 5s 3d on 3rd November, 4s gd 
on I St December, the year closing with an improvement on this 
price, when some spinners were asking 5s for 75's to loo's. 

On the first indications of political disturbance in the United 
States, the utmost depression was felt throughout the linen trade, 
at the anticipated loss which would be sustained by reason of a 
falling off in demand from a market which consumed so large a 
proportion of our goods. But the disruption of their own domestic 
manufactures, and the stoppage of supplies of raw cotton soon 
disproved these gloomy anticipations, and instead ot disaster 
overtaking our trade, the contrary effect was quickly experienced. 
Demand for linen goods of all kinds, but especially cloth suitable 
for clothing, and coarse goods became most active, and 
before the close of the year a considerable advance in prices had 
been established. Power-loom manufacturers were busily 
employed, 6,000 looms having been the estimated number nmning 
at this time. The flax crop did not yield well, although there had 
been an increase of about 2,000 acres compared with previous 

1863. — The Indian Flax Company continued its operations, 
though the prospects of success seemed rather discouraging. We 
find in the Circular a communication from Mr. D. F. M*Leod, 
Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, Lahore, addressed to the 
Secretary of the Company, at Belfast, and dated Lahore, October 
6, 1863. It mentions the arrival of Mr. John Montgomery, who 
had passed through Lahore on his way to the flax fields at 
Sealkote. The letter urged the Company to send out more men 
to assist Mr. Wightman " to be instructed in all that is peculiar 
to the work in India — to learn the language, and make the 
acquaintance of the people, and the best modes of dealing with 
them.'' The writer goes on to say — " It is now very apparent 
that in the present generation, at all events, the conduct of this 
matter cannot be safely entrusted to natives. The extent of 
operations that can be controlled effectively from one spot is, of 

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course, limited ; fresh centres of operation must be taken up from 
time to time, and each must be superintended by a European 
overseer, thoroughly instructed in all appertaining to the growth 
and manipulation of flax. To whatever extent, therefore, the 
Association desires to extend its operations efficiently, to supervise 
these, good European supervisors should be speedily sent out, and 
subjected to one or two year's training at the Sealkote head- 
quarters." . . . He next recommended that a good mechanist 
be sent out . . . and, speaking of the difficulties which had 
to be contended with, stated — " It must be difficult, if not im- 
possible, for those surrounded by all the appliances of European 
civilisation to estimate the amount of discouragement and difficulty 
which must be experienced by a man situated like Mr. Wightman, 
inaugurating a new experiment in a foreign land, amongst a people 
who have but very little in common with us ; in a climate not 
congenial to the European constitution, and with few or none of 
his own countrymen around him, moving in the same sphere with 
himself, from whom to meet sympathy or receive encouragement 

or support." As. regards the seed, he mentions 

" that the ton of seed sent out by the Association this year had 
arrived in good order, but a ton sent out by Dr. F. Watson, for 
the Punjab Government, had again in a great measure failed. Now 
that a good beginning had been made, and a large quantity of 
acclimated seed had been raised, which would rapidly increase 
from year to year, the yearly shipment of a ton or two of good 
seed would doubtless be all that would be required to keep up 
the supply." The letter concluded by remarking that though the 
project was then but in its infancy, he thought the prospect 
of success was good. 

The position of the linen trade this year was most gratifying 
and encouraging ; the improvement which had set in early in the 
previous one was not only fully maintained, but was followed up 
by most signal success. The disaster which overtook the cotton 
trade, and the widespread distress which arose in Lancashire among 
the operatives thrown out of employment there, and the losses 
entailed on millowners and others connected with that great 
industry, formed a strange and remarkable contrast with the extra- 
ordinary impetus which was imparted to all branches of the linen 
trade, as flax goods now largely filled the place of cotton manu- 
factures, which, by reason of their greatly enhanced value, came 
less into competition with linen. 

Encouraged by the favourable state of the market for 1862, 
farmers went more extensively into flax this year, and we accord- 
ingly find the area increased by upwards of 64,000 acres, and the 
largest crop, to this point, ever grown in Ireland. The yield 

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likewise showed great improvement, compared with that of pre- 
ceding year, and the prices obtained were also high. Spinners 
had a good year of it, and though no additions were made to the 
spindles it was estimated that 650,000 were fully employed. 
The export trade in yarns from the United Kingdom for the 
twelve months had risen up to ;£'2, 530,404, against ;£'i,85 2,451, 
in 1861, and ;^i,622,2i6. in 186 1. Line wefts fell from 5s at 
opening of the year to 4s 3d in September, but ralUed in October, 
and at close of year were back to 4s Qd to 5s. It was not, however, 
in this class of yarns that the greatest fluctuations were observable. 
The demand for power- loom goods and coarse fabrics being most 
active, we find that 30^ line weft, which were 7s to 7s 3d at beginning 
of the year, were quoted at 9s 6d at the close ; 50^ which were 
5s 3d to 5s 6d rose to 6s6dto6s9d. On tow yarns a great advance took 
place, 25S which sold in January from 7s 3d to 8s 3d rose to los 6d to 
IIS 6d at close of year. The review of the trade for this year, as 
given in the Circular, closed with this very -jubilant paragraph : — 
" There are many circumstances in the history of the past year, 
the retrospect of which cannot but afford satisfaction. With an 
increased acreage under flax-^with a healthful demand for yarns — 
with linens of almost all descriptions in active request ; and with 
spinners, manufacturers, and merchants receiving a fair remunera- 
tion for the investment of capital and the exercise of intellect and 
labour, all interested have reason to regard with satisfaction and 
thankfulness the operations of the year." 

The Indian Flax Co. received a communication from their 
agriculturist at Sealkote, dated i8th December, 1863, in which 
he reported that they had held their annual meeting on the 12th 
of that mohth, and by way of encouragement to the native farmers 
prizes had been distributed. " There was a large assemblage of 
farmers present, but not as many as on the last occasion. . . . 
The number of premiums was 47, divided into four classes. 
. . . The first premium was a cart and yoke of oxen; 2nd, 
a milch cow and calf; 3rd, ditto.; 4th, a cashmere shawl; 5th, 
a silk ditto, &c., &c. . . . The value of the premiums — which 
were presented by Sir Robert Montgomery — came to about ;^i2o." 
The agriculturist adds, " I have been out in the country much 
during the last fortnight, and find the flax in a very promising 
state. It is both thick and healthy, without one exception, much 
better than any we have" had heretofore." 

1864. — In May of this year the Linen Trade Committee pub- 
lished in the Circular an abstract of returns which they received 
from proprietors of mills and factories in Ireland, as to the number 
of spindles and looms engaged in the trade. Comparing the 
figures as they stood in 1859, we find the following result : — 

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In addition to the preceding there are — 

Employed in twisting thread, ... ... 14,648 spindles 

5 mills in course of erection, capable of containing, 45,000 ,, 

Power-loom factories — 
























At the Industrial Exhibition held in Dublin this year, about 
eighteen Irish firms were contributors of specimens of flax goods. 
In a report supplied by the Freeman's journal at the time, we 
find the following notice of the exhibits of some of our manu- 
facturers : — 

" . . . . The charmingly finished cases, in which the several 
specimens are contained, are in themselves worthy of much praise ; but it is 
with their contents we have to deal. Messrs. Dunbar, M 'Master & Co. treat 

us to samples of flax, linen, yarn, and thread Dunbar, Dicksons 

& Co. (now Dicksons, Ferguson & Co. and William Spotten & Co ), samples 
of brown linen, bleached linen, cambric and linen handkerchiefs ; printed 
lawns, damasks, drills, ducks, sheetings, etc. In this collection we have the 
manufacture of linen in all its shapes, from the coarse brown up to that worn 
by Royalty itself. .... Next, a case exhibited by J. & W. Charley & 
Co., who show several pieces of medium and heavy linens, from 31 to 36 inches 
wide ; also, lawns and cambrics, etc. In the competitive examination in this 
great brancli of industry, where all competing specimens are so excellent, it 

would be hard to make an award Next, we find a splendid and 

similar collection of goods exhibited by T. N. Richardson, Sons, & Owden. We 
'have here goods made for the home, English, Scotch, American, and Conti- 
nental markets. We have also cambrics, damasks, and printed linens of many 
patterns. .... Jaffe, Bros., of Belfast, and Banford Bleach Works, 
come out very strong in white and printed linens, cambrics, etc., all ot excel- 
lent manufacture We now stop before a most attractive upright 

case, Johnston & Carlisle (now Brookfield Linen Co., Limited), in which 
specimens of finest linens are made up in admirable style. Also, samples of 
flax in all stages, etc. . . . . William Barbour & Sons exhibit specimens 
of linen threads, of all .shades and colours. Preston, Smyth & Co. exhibit 
linen of various qualities, of excellent manufacture. J. Hind & Sons, samples 
of flax and yams, brown, dyed, and bleached linens, lawns and cambric hand- 
kerchiefs. W. Sprott & Co., linens and woven shirt fronts. Malcomson, 
Bros., sundry samples of linen and cotton goods. GradweU, Chadwick & Co., 
H. Hull & Co., and several other Drogheda firms, are likewise noted as 
exhibitors of yams and linen goods. 

The joint stock limited liability principle having gained in ■ 
populai* favour since its recognition by the Act of 1862, we find 
that the very satisfactory and progressive improvement in the 
linen trade induced many to apply this principle towards the 

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fonnation of local companies in connection with the trade. 
Accordingly, in July of this year, the York Street Flax Spinning 
Co. was started, " for the purpose of acquiring a property (accord- 
ing to the prospectus) consisting of the largest flax mill and linen 
factory in the North of Ireland, covering about four acres of land, 
in the town of Belfast, and consisting of a mill, weaving factory, 
stores, lapping rooms, and furniture, suitable for conducting the 
mercantile department of the business, to which was attached a 
valuable and extensive connection of 35 years' standing." 'i1ie 
large concern of the Messrs. Mulholland was accordingly converted 
into a limited company, and the prosperity which marked its 
progress under its founders has continued down to the present 

The general position of trade throughout this year was most 
satisfactory, and if it had not been that owing to the financial 
crisis in London, which caused the rate of discount to advance to 
9 per cent, the profits would have been much larger. To begin 
with the raw material, farmers being in such good heart by the 
result of previous years' crop, they required no further stimulus to 
convince them that they best served their own interests by extend- 
ing the acreage this year, and we accordingly find that the total 
breadth sown reached the highest ever known, viz., 301,693, 
being 87,594 acres of an increase compared with 1863. The 
season was, however, not favourable for steeping or scutching, so 
that the increased value of the crop this year did not correspond 
with the increased area, and a great deal brought to market was 
of indifferent quality, and badly handled. Prices opened pretty 
high in August, but dropped later in the season, rallying again at 
close of year. 

The spinning department continued in a very healthy condition 
all this year, and most spinners held orders so far ahead as to take 
off all production to the close of year. In August tow yams had 
reached the highest point ever known, 25's being quoted los 4^d 
to IIS 3d; and 35's, 9s 6d to los ; 25's line weft, iis to iis 6d ; 
35's, los; 50's, 8s 6d ; 75's, 6s 9d to 6s io)4d ; loo's, 5s 7j^d 
to 5s 9d; i2o's, 5s 3d to 5s 6d. These extreme rates checked 
demand, and a reaction took place, the year closing with 25's 
tow, 8s io)^d to los; 25's line wefts, 9s 6d to 9s 9d ; 75's, 
5s 7j^d to 5s 9d ; and a range from no's to 170's were 5s as a 

The export trade in yarns from the United Kingdom reached 
the highest point ever recorded, being in value ^^3,010,109, 
against ;£2, 530,404 in 1863. 

Power-loom manufacturing kept steady pace with the spinning 
trade, but hand-loom fabrics did not partake of the general 

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prosperity, and production this year had very much fallen off. 
But the comparative smallness in demand for fine goods was quite 
lost sight of in the active trade which kept all the power-looms so 
well occupied. The trade of the United Kingdom in linen goods 
shows a surprising increase this year, the value exported being 
;^8,i58,545, against ;^6,5o8,973 in 1863. The United States 
taking value amounting to ;^2,48i,i99, against j(^2,o'j6,y6i the 
previous year. 

1865. — The prosperity which marked the course of our staple 
trade during the past year was followed up by increased activity 
this year, and although peace was restored in the United States, it 
had no immediate effect in checking business, but rather the con- 
trary, the fall demand for linen fabrics being so very large that prices 
rose up to an extreme point, and supplies fell short of require- 
ments. Trade in linen goods with the United States for the 
twelve months increased from ^2,481,199 in 1864 to ;^3, 635,362 
this year. 

The area of flax showed a considerable falling off, as compared 
with 1864. Farmers were probably disappointed in the return of 
the previous year's crop, and that the results had fallen short of 
what they had anticipated, looking to the great prosperity of the 
linen trade. As prices generally obtained were so low, it was 
therefore not surprising to find that they reduced the quantity this 
year about 50,000 acres, seeing that quotations stood at from 
3s 6d to los 3d per stone in the Spring. The partial failure, however, 
of the Continental flax crop this year gave a great start to our home 
produce, so much so, that by the close of the year prices ran up 
to from 7s 6d to 19s 3d per stone. Yarns opened in January at 5s 
for no's to 170's, and 25's tow at 8s loj^d, but gradually receded 
in price down to May, when a range of wefts from 55's to 160 
were quoted 4s 7>^d, and 25's tow, 5s 9d. Reports coming from 
France, Holland, and Belgium, that dry weather and the fly were 
doing much injury to the growing flax, prices of the raw material 
took a great start, and from May to July Dutch flax rose ;^i4 to 
;^i6 per ton, and our own markets also followed the same course 
down to November, when prices reached their maximum, being 
further stimulated by the reported short supplies of Russian 
produce. Yarns had now advanced to 7s for a range of wefts 
from 115's to 170's, and 25's tow yarns to 8s 4j4d. A reaction 
set in about the middle of November, and at close of year they 
were slightly lower. 

Another Exhibition was held in Dublin this year, and from 
newspaper files we find several reports, of which the following 
is a condensed summary : — 

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The Belfast linen firms have done the Exhibition in some cases the service 
of sending flax dressed and undressed, in the raw state and in its different 
processes, which much increases the interest and educational value of the 
aepartment. Among the principal exhibitors Messrs. Jaffe, Brothers, Belfast, 
illustrate the universality of the operations of trade, in these days of rapid commu- 
nication with distant countries, by showing turbans manufactured in the capital of 
Ulster for the Moslems of Africa and Asia. 

No person who was unacquainted with the subject could fail to be struck 
with inscriptions in different languages, which attest the growing extent of the 
linen trade. Under a name which fairly describes its true importance, "La 
perla de Irlanda" finds its way to Brazil, and rough drills obtain entrance into 
the beleaguered Confederate States to clothe the negro labourers. The variety 
of the fabrics made from flax is really surprising. In the stand of Messrs. 
Dunbar, Dicksons, & Co. (now Dicksons, Ferguson, & Co., and William 
Spotten & Co.), of Belfast, are samples of flax, dressed and undressed, of 
hnen yarn and thread, of strong brown and bleached linens, of handkerchiefs 
which exhibit remarkable finish and design, and of splendid diapers of the 
fern leaf pattern 

Equally fine, but in some respects different, is the collection contained in 
the case of Messrs. J. & W. Charley & Co., also of Belfast. Here is illustrated 
the possibility of imitating cotton fabrics in linen. Several splendid diapers 
show the number of patterns which can be suitably applied by the designer, 
and two fine pieces ot lawn may be safely compared with the softest and 
whitest cambric. 

The great firm of Richardson, Sons, & Owden have a large stand taste- 
fully furnished with shirting and fronting linen, bird-eye diapers, and splendid 
brown damasks. Notable in this collection are the fine stitched and woven 
fronts. At first sight it could scarcely be credited that the latter were produced 
in the loom, so closely do they imitate the best needlework. The decorations 
and quality of the damasks are particularly fine, and even in the small articles, 
doyleys, an amount of taste and ingenuity is displayed exceedingly creditable 
to the firm. 1 he stand of Messrs. Jaffe, Brothers, of Banford Bleach Works, 
County Down, is no less attractive. The history of this firm is a remarkable 
instance of enterprise and perseverance. Its founder gradually made his way 
to the establishment of factories in Belgium and Hanover, and when well 
established in trade, changed his headquarters to Belfast, and placed his 
extensive works in Banford. The white handkerchiefs in the case, alternated 
with printed handkerchiefs, exhibit the utmost fertility of design and cultivation 
of taste. Messrs. Johnston & Carlisle (now Brookfield Linen Co., Limited) 
_ take a still wider ground. Specimens of flax in the straw, scutched and 
hackled, occupy one comer. Yams of flax and tow puzzle the uninitiated to 
tell which is produced from good material and which from the refuse. 

Messrs. Fenton, Son, & Co. (now Fenton, Connor, & Co. ) exhibit flax in 
the raw state, and in the difterent processes — yams, damask tablecloths, and 
Indian scarfs of beautiful and showy patterns. Messrs. Moore & Weinberg, of 
the same town, exhibit linen yarns and damask table-linens. There are only 
two representatives of the Drogheda trade in the Exhibition. This trade is 
(^uite distinct from that of Belfast, and competes principally against Scotch 
Imens. . , . 

Mr. Henry Hull has a pre-eminence in the class of goods which come 
under the head of sheetings, and several fine pieces of diaper will bear com- 
parison with any exhibited elsewhere 

In the Belfast damasks, there are very few objectionable patterns, no 
excessive ornamentation, no obtrusive attempts to fix attention. On the con- 
trary, there is evidence that "art'' in this branch has reached its highest 

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point. Where there are flowers they are disposed in the best taste, without 
crowding or unsuitable grouping. Some of these designs, it is well known, 
are very costly, and cannot be produced by ordinary men. 

1866. — In January of this year the Linen Trade Committee 
again collected statistical information respecting the spinning and 
weaving branches of trade, and the following abstract shows the 
progress made in two years : — 

Tifiii^ Spindles Spindles rr«i.„i Proposed 
^^^'* Employed Unemployed ^^^^ Extension 
1864 74 641,914 8,860 650,774 50,638 
1866 86 759,452 11,362 770»8i4 103,792 
In addition to the preceding, there were em- 
ployed in twisting thread — 17,786 4*656 

In course of erection, mills capable of 

containing — — 62,000 

FarfAriM Looms Looms rp_^_i Proposed 

j?actones Employed Unemployed '^'^^^ Extension 

1864 42 7,929 25 s 8,187 1,685 

1866 44 10,538 266 10,804 6,484 

In course of erection, factories capable of containing 1,400 

In the Linen Trade Circular of 12th November, we find an 
interesting communication from Dr. W. Neilson Hancock on the 
suitability of the south and west of Ireland for growing flax. As 
the letter touches upon some important points in reference to flax 
culture, we reproduce the communication in its entirety. 

''Dublin, Nov. 9, 1866. 
**To the Secretaiy, Linen Trade Committee, Belfast — 

"Dear Sir, — In reply to your inquiries as to my latest impressions 
regarding the effect of climate on the growth of flax, the impression left on my 
mind by the who'e history of Government encouragement to the growth of 
flax since 1846, and of the earlier encouragement to the linen tiade, for about a 
century before 1825, is that the greater part of the south, and part of the west 
of Ireland are too warm for the profitable growth of flax, as a Summer crop, 
in competition with other produce. 

•' As far as my information extends, the line of profitable Summer growth 
of flax cuts Ireland in two, crosses England, and takes in part of the north of 
France, then nins up through Germany to Russia. 

** Nearly all the flax imported to England comes from north of this line, 
and our great countries for flaxseed are Russia and Holland. The only place 
south of this line from which England appears to import any considerable 
quantity of flax is Egypt. But in Egypt there are two crops in the year, and 
flax is a winter crop. The same happens in India. In the plains of Hindostan, 
flax is a winter crop, as is also the case (as you stated to me) in the warm and 
low-lying plains of the Punjab. 

** The growth of flax in Egypt as a winter crop is as old as the time of 
Moses, for in the Bible narrative (Exodus chap. ix. ) of the plagues of Egypt, 
it is incidentally mentioned that the flax and the barley were destroyed by the 
hail, whilst the wheat and the rye escaped, and the reason is stated that * the 
flax was boiled' (li^., swollen, or the seed vessels formed), * and the barley was 

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in the ear,* but the wheat and rye were not grown up. The explanation of 
this being that the flax and barley were then, as now, winter crops in Egypt, 
and wheat and rye summer crops. 

** This affords a suggestion which I have made for Algeria, and which 
may be applicable to India, to try flax at whatever season or place barley 
succeeds best, and to avoid the season or place where wheat or rye is most 

" I annex an extract from my official report on the statistics of flax 
culture in Connaught and Munster in 1865, in which the climate for flax is 

'* The statistics for 1866, as far as I have examined them, are pot so 
encouraging, as those for 1865, with respect to the attempt to grow flax out of 
Ulster. — Yours very truly, W. Neilson Hancock." 

Extract from Dr. Hancock's official report, as referred to in 
his letter. 

The effect of climate in determining the district for flax: — 

**The very marked difference as to the growth of flax between some 
countries and others, and between baronies in the same county, suggested an 
inquiry whether there was any general principle by which the diflference might 
be accounted for. 

"There is a very considerable local difference in the climate of Ireland, 
arising from the direction of the mountain ranges, with reference to the warm 
winds from the South and West, and the cold winds from the North and East. 
Lands lying to the North and East of mountains and hills, and valleys sloping 
towards the North and East are colder than the Southern and Western faces of 
mountain ranges, and of hills sloping towards the South and West. 

** There are many indications that flax requires a colder climate than 
wheat. In Egypt, from which we import both flax and wheat, there are two 
crops in the year, a Winter and a Summer crop, and in Egypt flax is a Winter 
crop and Wheat a Summer one. 

"Again, we import our flaxseed from Riga, in Russia, and from Holland. 
We get little wheat from Holland and the Northern parts of Russia ; we get 
it from the United States of America, the Southern parts of Russia, from the 
countries adjoining the Black Sea, from France, Egypt, and Turkey. 

** In Ireland, again, the counties remarkable for wheat are those where the 
least flax is grown, and vice versa, Thus the greatest wheat cultivation is in 
Kilkenny, where there are 30,823 acres of wheat and only 255 acres of flax. 
In Tyrone, on the other hand, where there are 36,685 acres of flax, there are 
only 1,420 acres of wheat, 

** In consequence of the active competition between Ireland and warmer 
countries in the production of wheat, the extent of land under crop still existing 
may be taken as a measure of the climate of the different districts, and accord- 
ingly the county in Munster where the acreage under flax is least is that where 
the acreage under wheat is greatest. " 

The state of trade this year was also satisfactory, and the 
export demand for linen goods was not only lively, but returns 
showed an improvement compared with 1865. The home demand 
for the same period, although not of a very active character, was 
steady, and values were fully maintained. 

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The prices obtained for flax in 1865, which were £,\o to £,\2 
per ton higher than what farmers got in 1866, had the effect of 
checking any considerably extended acreage, though we find an 
increase amounting to about 5 per cent. ; the yield was, however, 
less, and quality inferior to that of 1865. The Continental flax 
crops were much better than previous year, and prices of foreign 
as well as home produce fell this season. 

Yarns were in good request at opening of the year, a range of 
wefts from 120's to 170's being 8s 3d to 9s, and 25's tow weft, 
8s 4>^d a bundle. Prices began to droop in March, and continued 
to fall until July, when wefts were quoted from 4j4d to is lower. 
A recovery afterwards set in ; but again in November and part of 
December a considerable amount of dulness existed, with a tend- 
ency to lower prices, but as the year drew to a close improvement 
in demand became manifest, and considerable animation prevailed, 
with a marked upward tendency in prices. The Bank rate was 
very high during the greater part of the year, having reached 10 
per cent in June, at which point it remained till August The 
expoi t trade in yarns showed a further falling off, principally on 
French and German account 

The turn-out of cloth from the power-looms had further in- 
creased this year, and demand appeared to have been brisk for 
three-fourths of the year, the American trade being reported as 
singularly good down to September ; some manufacturers of cloth 
suitable for this market having forward orders from 3 to 6 months. 
But the trade received a check when it became known that the 
United States Government contemplated an advance in the duties. 
The Continental trade, except on French account, was not so 
good this year, the falling-oflf being attributed to the war. Stocks 
throughout the year were, in general, very moderate; prices 
opened high at commencement, became easier during the year, 
but at the close were pretty firm. 

In the Report of Mr. Baker, Inspector of Factories, we find 
some useful remarks on the culture of flax ; and also respecting 
the popular ideas of farmers, especially those of the South and 
West, as to the growth and treatment of the plant. As much of 
what was then stated is equally applicable now, we insert the 
section which deals with the subject. 

The increase of spindles and looms in Ireland for Flax spinning and 
weaving, and the supply of raw material for them, are questions of the deepest 
interest. Whether under the circumstances which loom at present about the 
growth of cotton, or whether with reference to the efforts which Ireland has 
made and is making to bring linen into successful competition with the cotton 
Manu&cture, there can be no doubt that much of the anxiously desired success 
of the Irish linen trade depends upon the readiest method of obtaining raw 

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HAND BOOJt, 115 

material cheaply, and yet not so cheaply as to deter the indigenous growth 
for want of a remunerative profit. The Irish agricultural mind is one sui generis, 
and seems at present to be in a very peculiar state on the cultivation of Flax, 
especially in the south. The large acreage sown over the whole country in 
1864, the diminished growth of 1865, and the increase again in 1866, preplexes 
it very much. It is not certain whether to treat the introduction of this fibre 
into so many new districts, and the growth of patches so much larger than 
formerly in the old ones, as an innovation, or a fact which it ought to act upon. 
The farmer clings to the old method ef cropping his land, as if it were the only 
possible one to pursue, and as if the profits of certain Flax crops, of which he 
hears by chance, belong to a newer and better mode of culture, or are dreams 
only, and not realities. If he yields to the impulse to try a small patch and 
accidentally grows it very superiorly, and sells it for what appears to him 
fabulous prices in comparison with his former attempts, he will perhaps try it 
again the second year, leave it almost to cultivate itself when once the seed is in, 
and then, when it is gathered, asks the same fabulous price lor a worse quality 
of product, and wonders why he does not get it ? In this state of bewilderment 
he doubts and mistrusts and relapses. He is playing a game, and cannot 
understand the moves. He is ever calculating, as he sells his crop, wherein 
lies the advantage to the buyer, and what wiil turn up next ? If he is treated 
fairly by the purchaser in order to encourage him in the cultivation of this 
valuable fibre, and is given the full value for his crop, which in his ignorance 
he has not ventured to ask, he just accepts it and says, ** did you ever see the 
like of that ?** but is not thereby induced to apply his mind to the reason why 
he has been so favoured. And perhaps it will be years before he will attain 
to a knowledge of the effect of climatic influences, of the exhaustion of the 
soil by weeds, and of the repairing help it wants to enable it to respond to the 
expectations which he has formed of its capabilities. It seems to be with 
respect to agriculture as to most other things (of course there are exceptions 
in all) that, whatever is done, is a makeshift. If it prospers, it is luck ; 
if it fails, it is providential. A farmer in the neighbourhood of Drogheda 
last year sowed a field of two acres, by way of experiment, one with 
oats and one with Flax. There was the same soil and cultivation for both 
crops. He sold the Flax for £l^ los. and the oats for ^^5, and even was 
then hard to convince of the value of Flax as a remunerative crop. Such 
examples are constantly occurring. If the soil and climate were less adapted 
to grow Flak than they are, if labour was not generally cheap and ready, 
except in the time of Flax harvest, and if Flax was a product for export 
and not for home consumption, one could understand why so much persuasion 
was necessary to effect a radical change in the farmer's inclination. But with 
the actual profitable results in hand, and oftentimes a successionat crop within 
the same year, his obtuseness is remarkable. 

It is true that, occasionally. Flax is taken to market and returns unsold ; 
and that this is disappointing to the farmer's expectations. Whereupon he 
writes a letter to the nearest newspaper, to complain of the treatment he has 
received, and to threaten a discontinuation of the growth next year, not only of 
his own crop, but of that of the whole country. He forgets that markets 
fluctuate, and that spinning companies have other engagements to meet than 
those of Flax buying, and that there are many causes arising to them which 
interfere with his present want of success, but are unavoidable. 

It is, however, not only in the growth of Flax, but in the subsequent 
manipulation ot it, that the cause of failing markets is to be sought for. I was 
shown in Belfast a strick of Flax grown in England, and manipulated there, 
placed side by side with one of the same quality of Flax grown and scutched in 
Ireland, and the difference between them accounted at once for the disappoint- 
ment in prices which the Irish fanners have from time to time sustained. The 

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fibres of the English Flax were clean, and long, and parallel, and of a capital 
colour ; whilst tnose manipulated in Ireland were matted, full of shove, and 
requiring considerable additional labour and expense by the manufacturer, to 
bring it to a marketable equality with the English sample. It was then I 
could at length comprehend why a large spinner in the south of Ireland, with 
every desire to spin Irish Flax instead of Courtrai, and who regularly visits the 
Belfest Flax market to make purchases suitable to his purpose if he can, 
declared it impossible to procure Irish Flax sufficiently clean for his machinery. 
On pursuing the inquiry further with a most intelligent scutcher whom I met 
when near Belfast, and who had followed his avocation in several European 
countries, I learnt that, no process of reasoning can as yet induce the Irish 
farmer to comprehend that, sixpence extra spent upon dressing the Flax care- 
fully, though it might lose him sixpence in weight, would bring him 
half-a-crown a stone extra in the value of his raw material when exposed for 

But this is not all. One of the most important elements in Flax growing, 
if not the most important, after due attention to soil and climate, is the 
selection of the seed ; but the practices prevalent with regard to the seed appear 
to be, not only most disreputable, but prejudicial to the character of the 
product itself. In fact, it seems in vain to talk of soils, manures, croppings, 
rettings, and scutchings if, in the first instance, the seed is comparatively 
valueless. And yet, great pains have been taken with the Irish farmer in the 
distribution of information of every kind, plain, simple, and instructive, on all 
the points material to a successful cultivation of good Flax ; and, amongst other 
things, to the preliminary and paramount necessity of good, sound, and 
thoroughly sifted seed. There are crops of such seed under well known brands 
I am informed, which are considered a guarantee of quality in most markets in 
Ireland, and agents residing here and there who are responsible for it. But 
although the Irish farmer knows well enough how important it is to possess 
such seed, he will often buy his of some huxter, who plants himself down in the 
open market, at the very door, perhaps of one of these agents, with seed alike 
only to the other in colour, but sadly deficient in every other quality, for a 
penny or twopence less per measure, in preference. He thus buys discourage- 
-ment for himself, and disappointment for his country. This is one source of 
failure which those that are interested in the growth of Flax in Ireland have to 
provide against. 

1867. — Since the dissolution of the Royal Flax Society, in 
1859, there was no public body to watch over this special depart- 
ment of our trade. The late Mr. M*I1 wrath wrote a small 
pamphlet giving directions as to the growth and management of 
, the flax crop, and the Linen Trade Committee had it freely dis- 
tributed, and in various ways they assisted, as far as possible, in 
disseminating information of a useful nature. The North-East 
Agricultural Society endeavoured to promote and encourage the 
growth of flax, but their means of operation were too limited to 
have any important influence. 

Mr. Wm. Charley drew attention in 1862 to the importance of 
forming a large central society to fill the gap which the Royal 
Society left It was not, however, until this year that any steps 
were taken to supply the acknowledged want, when a pubUc 

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meeting was convened, in the Chamber of Commerce, Belfast, on 
the 1 6th August, 1867 (the President of the Chamber, John 
Lytle, Esq., being chairman), and it was decided that the forma- 
tion of such a society was absolutely necessary. The following 
resolutions, which were passed unanimously at the meeting, will 
fully explain the objects of the proposed association : — 

** 1st — ^That the formation of an association in Belfast for the purpose of 
improving the quality of flax grown in Ulster, and extending the cultivation of 
the crop elsewhere, is calculated to be productive of much benefit, not only to 
the trade in general, but also to the agricultural community." 

"2nd.— That, for the promotion of the general aims of this association, it 
should co-operate as much as possible with landlords, agricultural societies, and 
all organisations which have taken, or may hereafter take, practical steps for 
the extension and improvement of flax culture." 

** 3rd. — That as one of the chief obstacles to the growth of flax has 
hitherto been the difficulty of sale, in outlying districts, the association should 
take such steps as would enable the farmers in those districts to dispose of their 
crop to the best advantage." 

" 4th. — That, in order to facilitate the preparation of the flax for sale, this 
association should afford such encouragement as might be in their power for 
the erection of scutching machinery in new districts. 

**5th. — That, while encouraging the saving of home-grown seed (chiefly 
for feeding purposes), the association should afford, all possible assistance to 
landlords and farmers in procuring a supply of the best description of foreign 
seed, for sowing, on the most favourable terms. 

" 6th. — That a committee be formed for the purpose of framing rules and 
regulations for the association, and for further carrying out the objects in view." 

An International Exhibition was held in Paris this year, and a 
good many representatives of our trade put in an appearance. 

A report, supplied by John Stevelly, Esq., of Paris, to the 
Linen Trade Committee, gives such very full information on the 
various branches of the linen trade, and the progress which Conti- 
nental countries were making in respect to this manufacture, that 
we insert the greater portion which treats upon the subject. 


We find in the Exhibition of this year the great number of 621 exhibitors 
in this class, without counting the Belfast trophy, which does not appear in the 
catalogue ; and, although Scotland, England, and America are unrepresented, 
we have still a show of linens which would have been believed impossible in 
185 1 or 1855. This exhibition confirms what we already know by experience — 
that Great Britain, although doubtless the largest manufacturer of linen goods 
in the world, has been hitherto by no means a great consumer. 

The cotton famine has now forced many to use linen who previously used 
cotton ; and these, I hope we have secured as permanent customers for our 
linen manufactures. Such a crisis was not needed to induce the consumption 
of linens on the Continent, where a cotton blouse or a cotton shirt has long 
been a mark of exceptional poverty. 

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Commencing our circuit of the gallery on our left hand, we come to 
France, whose linen manufactures we shall first consider, not only because we 
are at present the guests of Fiance, but also on account of their importance. 
Then follow Holland, Belgium, Prussia, and the Northern States of Germany 
and Austria ; and, passing through several countries of minor importance as 
linen manufacturers, including our own colonies, we come to Ireland, almost 
at the point at which we started. I say Ireland advisedly, for the absence of 
Dundee, Dnnfermline, Bamsley, and a host of other places celebrated for 
their linens, leaves a woeful want in the British class 28, as it appears in the 
Champ de Mars. The unrepresented members of our trade urge their expense, 
labour, and loss of time at former exhibitions, and the small appreciable 
advantages which they derived therefrom, as an unanswerable argument against 
their exhibiting. I believe this, however, to be a mistake. Even in an 
economical point of view, it is certainly the cheapest and most telling 
advertisement. . . . 

France has not underrated the importance of exhibiting a complete series 
of her linen manufactures, but, in common with Belgium and Prussia, she has 
devoted to it the largest space allotted to any one industry. Certainly the 
linens exhibited by France have nothing in common with our makes or con- 
sistent with our ideas of what she would find most profitable ; we must, how- 
ever, study these French manufactures as they are, and try to imitate them if we 
wish France to become to any extent our customer. . . . The Belgians, it is 
true, are aided by cheap labour ; but we have, on the other hand, our immense 
development of power-looms. What we have neglected to acquire is the 
experience which the Belgians possess both in producing the goods demanded 
by the French trade and in adapting themselves to the fancy tariffs of the 
French Custom-honse. In the present report I should wish to draw special 
attention to those particular classes of goods which appear to me the most 
important for our manufacturers to become acquainted with and which it would 
be most easy for them to make their own ; so that, in case of a sudden suspen- 
sion of purchases on the part of a large customer, such as America, or of the 
reduction or abolition of the present French tariff, they might be able to avail 
themselves in some measure of the outlet which France affords them. 

Allow me to say a word on the subject of the French duties. The present 
French Government carried in i860 a comparatively liberal measure in spite of 
a formidable opposition. A tariff on the principle of a 15 per cent, maximum 
rate was far from a radical measure ; but at that time the intelligent Minister, 
now the Minister of State, held out the hope that, if the powerful band of 
manufacturers who opposed any ghange were neither ruined nor seriously 
affected by the modification of the tariff, the further reduction of the duty 
would be limited only by the fiscal wants of the country. 

During the seven years of the new regime the spindles have increased 
from 400,000 to 700,000. The power-looms have taken a firm place in the 
country. The exports of linen yarn and thread have increased from a nominal 
quantity to 4,ooo,ooolb., and the export of linen has reached the enormous 
amount of 9,ooo,ooolb. The sudden general demand for linen might diminish 
the value of these facts^ were it not that precisely the same results have fol- 
lowed in the cases of the cotton and the woollen trades. The French Govern- 
ment has partly recognised these results, first, in the treaty with Belgium, when 
certain duties were modified, especially on low plain goods and drills ; and, 
secondly, in the beginning of this year, when 20 per cent, reduction was made 
on the finest class of linen, in the special Austrian treaty. Under these cir- 
cumstances I believe that the time has arrived when it would be most important 
to urge on the French Government to abolish protective duties which the 
French manufacturers no longer require, or, at all events to place them at the 
lowest per centage which they believe the financial arrangements of the country 

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to justify. A 5 per cent, maximum rate would in all probability greatly 
increase the revenue. In making such a representation I would especially call 
attention to the case of heavy m3kes of coarse linens, and to drills, which are 
bo^h virtually excluded, and also to the importance to the French manufacturers 
of having extended to them the beneficial eflfects of the article 40 in the Belgian 
law on entrepots, which allows them to take out of bond, duty free, )rarns 
destined for the manufacture of linens for export. This would allow the French 
manufacturers to compete on terms of equality with other nations in the markets 
of the world. 

I hope the reporter of class 43, to Vhom this more properly belongs, will 

. excuse my making a few remarks on the important subject of the **raw 
material." At the beginning of the present century, during the wars of the 
Empire, owing to the want of labour the growth of flax was small in France, 
each household only growing what it required for its own use. Little or none 

' could be (exported. In 1822 we find, however, some 35,000 acres under flax, 
but in 1845 the area falls to 11,000 acres in consequence of the slowness of 
the French in following the lead given by England and Ireland in adapting 
machinery to spinning flax. At this time our sales of yams to France reached 
in one year the large amount for the period of i io,ooo tons. It was now clear 
that hand-spinning was doomed, and, with the erection of mills, we find the 
culture of flax gradually increasing. In 1864, in the Department du Nord* 
alone, there were 45,000 acres devoted to flax ; and in 1066 we may safely 
assume that France had at least 60,000 acres under the same crop, besides 
importing 312,000 tons of flax, principally from Belgium and Russia, 74,000 
tons of hemp, and 169,000 tons of jute. The exportations during the same 
period reach in the aggregate, exclusive of flax straw, 74,000 tons. Notwith- 
standing these figures, the supply of flax was so evidently inadequate that a 
few enterprising spinners and merchants of Lille formed, a few years ago, a 
company lor the culture of flax in the colony of Algeria, where the plant was 
remarked to grow abundantly in a wild state. The success of this speculation 
is worthy of notice, for last year, three years after their modest commence- 
ment, they sold 1, 000 tons of flax fibre. We find exhibited, not only by several 
spinners, but by the "Compagnie de la Culture du Lin et Coton d'Algerie," 
besides exceptional samples spun into yarns, numbering frofla 100 to 300, a 
good quantity of medium flax, suitable for spinning wefts, forty to seventy, of 
good colour, resembling in many respects those better marks of Russian flax, 
which of late years have become so scarce. They have great facilities for the 
weeding and pulling of flax in Algeria in the large native population, who do 
this kind ot work well, cheaply, and quickly. The water for steeping is good, 
and the scutching-machines used are the best that can be had. As the crop is 
gathered in May, the produce can be early in the market. The seed also 
deserves notice ; for the grain originally imported from Riga has so much 
improved after its third year in Algeria that, when tried with freshly imported 
Riga seed, it gives flax not only 10 inches longer, but with a finer fibre. Trials 
of this seed, under official surveillance, have been made both in France and 
Belgium with the like result. Messrs. Droulers et Agache give us examples of 
this flax spun. And they exhibit likewise an extensive range of well-spun 
yams, extending from 10 to 300, shown so as to make the difference between 
the qualities of flax grown in different districts easily appreciable. Messrs. 
Le Blan Freres have also a very creditable collection of yarns. The principal 
honours of the French department, both as spinners and manufacturers, must, 
however, be reserved for Messrs. Wallaert Freres, who exhibit a collection 
of family linens and sheetings, all power-loom goods, which certainly show 
considerable progress, although closely followed by the large manufacturers of 
Armentieres, Messrs. Beglin Duflos, Victor Pouchain, and Mathieu-Delangre. 
Normandy was the cradle of these household Linens, under the name of 

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* Cretonnes ;" and these Norman combinations are more or less those copied at 
Lille. Foremost among the large houses of Normandy are the old house 
of Laniel, the first to employ P(nver-looms in France, and still ready to adopt 
every improvement ; M. Fouixict and Messrs. P. Marie et Cie., both of Lisie\;x, 
who have seen nearly all their smaller neighbours disappear in the unequal 
struggle between Hand and Power-looms. Even they, with their powerful 
organization, have to contend with the high rate of wages, or rather with the 
difficulty of finding skilled labour in a region so far removed from the present 
centre of the Linen trade. In these goods, whether they be from Lille or 
from Normandy, the base is the same. The lower sets are 42 in. wide, the finer 
36 in., and a little is made 32 in. The Yams are well boiled, and we get 
some idea of the qualities employed by examining the samples exhibited by 
Messrs. Mery, Samson, Rattray, et Cie., an establishment founded by Messrs. 
Duffin, of Belfast, and making Yams specially for these goods in 25-40 line. . . . 

Messrs. Jongley-Hovelacque, Cam Cardon, et Cie., and Messrs. Duhamel 
Fr^res, give us all the types of cloth used in the naval and military services, 
both of which, as well as the hospitals, prisons, and other public departments, 
unlike our own, have always employed linen in preference to cotton. These 
types have a special interest for our manufacturei*s at present, from the fact 
that, in the last adjudication of a linen contract, the French military authorities, 
contrary to their invariable rule since 1840, left out the clause in the conditions 
requiring the contractor to guarantee that the goods are bona fide of French 
manufacture. Of this return to a liberal spirit we cannot speak too highly, 
and we accept it as a good omen for the future. 

Messrs. J. Scrive et Fils and a nmnber of others show samples of blouse 
linens, blue, slate, and drab, in all variety of shades. These cloths arc gene- 
rally made 41 inches to 42 inches wide, although a small portion are in $5 
inches ; but for our purpose we can study such goods more profitably in 
Belgium, where the manufacturers, without neglecting the preference given in 
France to heavy linens, have at the same time kept the French tariff in view. 
The heavy linens made of dry spun yam, although forming an important part 
of the French consumption, have less interest for us than the preceding descrip- 
tions ; still we cannot pass over the exhibitions of Messrs. Dickson et Cie., 
and of the ** Soci^t^ Liniere du Finisterre," from their well-known position in 
the trade of France. Besides the goods they sell for shirts and sheets in the 
agricultural districts, they are the principal linen contractors for the navy ; and 
their sailcloth competes with the best marks of Dundee in every market. 
Nothing could more thoroughly prove the absurdity of their being still " pro- 
tected" by a 15 per cent, duty in France 

We find eight exhibitors of fancy drills. Two districts appear to mono- 
polise this trade — Roubaix, in the immediate neighbourhood of Lille ; and 
Laval, in Mayenne. In both the arrangements of colour are tasteful, and the 
goods are well made and cheap. Fancy drilis, either in the piece or in made-up 
articles of clothing, form a large item in the linen exports of France. Let me 
especially draw attention to Messrs. Parent et Danchin, who show very nice 
fancy drills, 24 in. wide, linen warp and jute weft, at 7^d to I id, a new and 
very useful combination. 

In the Cholet district the trade in light linens and in linen handkerchiefs 
gives emplojrment to about 20,000 looms. There they make also checked 
Madras handkerchiefs, the colours dyed in the yarns. For these they have an 
outlet not only in France, but in the remoter districts of Wales, Germany, and 
Spain, where snuff-taking still lingers. This class of goods is, I believe, 
unknown to our manufacturers. Cambrai is also an important centre for the 
finer handkerchiefs, and for fine linens. The wages are higher than in the 
Cholet district, and the weavers are singularly intelligent. Eight manufac- 
turers give a proof of this in a veiy varied exhibition. The three of those first 

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on the list, Messrs. Vinchoii et Basquin, M. Bricont-Molet, and M. Bertrand 
Milcent, show a beautiful, series of **batistees," which are made from hand- 
spun yam, and to which the town of Cambrai has given its name, and also of 
ordinary fabrics 

The progress which has been made during the last. ten years in the damask 
trade in France is most remarkable, and the dazzling show of French damasks 
in the Exhibition, and the number and importance of the exhibitors, show that 
damask goods are now fast taking their proper place with the consumers, and 
replacing the plain linens and low diapers which were formerly in almost 
universal use as table linen. The show of every- day damasks of Messrs. J. 
Casse et Fils is very creditable, without considering their two chef-d'oeuvres, 
which it would require the more authorised pen of an art critic to discnss ; as 
also are those of Messrs. Deneux Freres, Messrs. Danset Freres, who need fear 
no competitor in their ordinary sorts, and M. J. Joanard, of Paris, whose, 
desigus are very beautiful, and so varied that every taste may be satisfied 
except that of the admirer of geometrical patterns, of which I do not see 
a single example. 

An honourable mention is due to Mr. Turquet, of Senlis, who has devoted 
himself to bleaching and finishing damask goods. Those in this Exhibition 
are nearly all bleached by him and do him great credit, although his name 
does not appear in the catalogue. 

Algeria has ' nothing worthy of note. The few wretched examples of 
native manufacture are most uninteresting. I sought in vain for something 
analogous to the "Algerian stripes'* made at one time largely in Belfast, 
of which the Arabs make the unique article of clothing wont in the tents 
during the hot weather. The interest in this country is more in its flax, to 
which I have already alluded. It is singular that, during the plague of locusts 
which devastated Algeria last year, i\ hile every other green thing was devoured, 
the flax plant was generously spared. 

Holland being our custoftier for ;f 250,000 worth of yams yearly, I cannot 
speak evil of her linen manufactures ; but, as I cannot praise them, I have 
no other course than to proceed to the next country on our circuit. 

Belgium shows much in common with the Lille district. Tbe separation 
of French Flanders is of coniparatively recent dale ; and the foundation of the 
linen manufacture in this part of the Continent is attributed to certain bar- 
barous tribes from the region of the Caspian Sea, who are said to have settled 
in this district some 300 years betore the Christian era. Whether there may 
be truth in this legend or not, it is certain that Flanders linen can be traced 
back to a very early period. At the time of the first invasion of Gaul by the 
Romans these northern people wore the '* sagum," or blouse, which is still 
the national dress. Belgium offers many advantages for the development of 
the linen trade. The climate is very suitable to the growth of flax, which is 
accordingly of excellent quality ; the water for steeping it is well suited to the 
purpose, and abundant ; and a great amount of care and skill is employed in 
its cultivation and preparation. The inhabitants are naturally industrious, and 
are well trained by centuries of traditions ; and the Belgian flax has always 
been esteemed the best in the world. The quality has, however, of late years 
been below the average, from, the desire of the farmers to produce the greatest 
possible quantity on a given surface, which could only be effected at the 
expense of the quality by the emplojrment of guano and artificial manures, 
whose effect is no longer doubtful. The growth of flax has by no means 
increased in the same ratio as the prices. In 1840 we find the production 
estimated at 210,000 tons ; while in 1864, with the prices trebled, the quantity 
grown is estimated at 250,000 tons. The larger proportion of the finer 
descriptions finds its way to Belfast and England^ the middle sorts and the 
coarse flax are bought by the Lille spinners, or go to supply the 250,000 

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spindles which turn in Belgium itself. The total exportation of grey yam is 
to an amount of about ^ 600,000, and of bleached yam and thread about 
;f 400,000, making in round numbers a total of about £ 1,000,000. Of this 
nearly half is sold to the neighbouring Prussian State, and the remainder is 
divided between Holland, France, aud Switzerland. The exportation of linen 
from Belgium reached in 1864 the imposing amount of ;f 1,600,000. France 
heads the list of customers by taking ;f 440, 000 worth ; Holland buys nearly 
as much, while the wonderful little Island of Cuba absorbs ;f 185,000. Prussia 
and Switzerland take ;£'ioo,ooo each ; and, although the Hanse Towns figure 
for over ;f 160,000, a large portion of that sum must, no doubt, be attributed 
to Russia, as she only received directly for £^o, The remaining ;f 175,000 are 
distributed over the globe. These results are really surprising in a country 
with a population of four n^Uions and a half. 

Amongst the most remarkable of the Belgian manufacturers is the well- 
known name of M. Rey Aine, of Brussels, who, after a long life devoted to 
this trade, finds himself, as he tells us, at the head of 750 power-looms, and 
nearly double the number of hand-looms, employing some 4,000 workers, and 
producing over 11,000,000 yards of linen annually, embracing nearly every 
class of goods. I propose drawing attention to the most remarkable varieties 
of Belgian linens only, and to those manufacturers who appear to me to 
succeed best in their specialities. 

Amongst these I class shirtings as the most important ; and the combined 
exhibition of Courtrai and Roulers gives us ample means of judging both •f 
their merits and of their defects. Among the latter I would class an inferior 
bleach, and perhaps a somewhat smaller quantity of weft, than we are accus- 
tomed to, and an over-boiling of the yam, which renders it soft, and gives it 
a tendency to form small lumps in the after processes. The yams are, however, 
excellent, the cloth is well woven, and the prices are moderate, as may be 
judged by the quotations of more than one of the exhibitors 

In the sheetings exhibited, and in those of M. Dathes, and M. Denys, we 
have examples of goods used largely on the Continent, especially in Spain, 
Italy, and Germany, which are little made with us. They command a large 
sale, for they are of good material, and lighter and cheaper than goods of the 
same class of British make. Many houses exhibit blouse linen, of which the 
sale is very important ; it will be sufficient to mention M. Tant-Verlinde and 
Messrs. Van Damme Freres, of Roulers, M. Parmentier, of Iseghem, and M. 
H. Van Brabander of the Belgian catalogue. The immense sale of these 
goods naturally draws our attention particularly to them, and, seeing them, a 
manufacturer will have little difficulty in imagining that Belfast, paying the 
same duties for their entrance into France, cannot sell a single piece, and, after 
many trials, has fairly given up the attempt as hopeless. The whole of the 
trade is thus left in the hands of Belgium, whose sales are estimated by 
millions yearly in this one article, the range being io<w to 18*®, and nine-tenths 
of the sales in the three middle numbers, 13, 14, and 15 

The cheap labour in Belgium is doubtless a difficult element to contend 
with ; but sooner or later it must follow the general advance. Although the 
goods produced by our power-looms are now more costly, their price is 
diminishing day by day by new inventions and by the improving skill of the 
weavers ; and they are at all times more regular. All these considerations 
should encourage us to emulation. 

The Belgian drills, of which, however, we have but few examples in the 
Exhibition, are remarkably good value. We have an opportunity of judging 
of them in the samples of Messrs. Comille-Bartholomeus, et Bartholomeus 
Freres, and one or two others 

The Belgian handkerchiefs are but poor ; and the damasks, of which there 
are several exhibitors — the best, perhaps, Messrs. Noel Freres, of Alost, and 

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M. Brandt — but are indifferent in pattern, and detestable in bleach. 

From France and Belgium we have much to learn ; I have therefore thought 

myself justified in studying their productions somewhat in detail 

Prussia and the northern States of Germany, however, still present 
important fields of manufacture, of which the nearest home is Bielefeld, whose 
linens are well known, not only in Germany and Russia, but also in France 
and Italy. The celebrity of this region for fine linens dates from the time of 
hand -spun yams. Of this we have many proofs even in this Exhibition. 
Above 2\^ these linens are admirable ; below that number I think their prices 
must shut them out from every market where an old and honourable connection 
does not weigh in their favour. Of these fine linens we can have no better 
example than those of the old house of F. G. Kreonig, whose existence dates 
from the year 1763 ; and of Bertelsmann and Son. The sale of this very fine 
linen is of course limited. Here they push it by turning it into shirt-fronts by 
the aid of sewing machines. Herr Westermann, and Herr Heidsieck give us 
some good examples of well-executed damask, which appears, however, to be 
an accidental article of manufacture in this country, entirely devoted to plain 
fine linen. Side by side with these fine goods and this old-fashioned trading, 
we find modern industry represented by several large flax-spinners and power- 
loom manufacturers such as the Bielefeld Company, the Ravensberg Company, 
the Vorworts Company, Herr Mevissen, and Herren Schoeller, Mevissen, and 
Buckler, of Duren, who average 20,000 spindles each, and many of them have 
large power-loom factories. These establishments, put up recently on our own 
models, only interest us as a pupil's success must always interest his teacher. 

Passing north from Bielefeld we reach Osnabruck, where we find that the 
old-fashioned manufacture of that name is still a reality. The Hanoverian 
market officers, who measured and sealed only a part of their cloth last year, 
state that the value of the linen which passed through their hands amounted 
to ;f 1 70, 000. In this neighbourhood Herr Aschrott, of Cassell, is certainly 
the most remarkable manufacturer. He appears to make every kind of goods, 
from white shirtings to hessians, at 4d a yard, including dowlas, Russians, and 
many other familiar names. I particularly noticed a hessian made nine yards 
wide on a five yard-wide loom by the system of doubling, long since applied 
to silk. 

Leaving Hanover, we come to the classic land of damasks. Saxony, 
which, however, leaves its reputation in the hands of but few exhibitors. Herr 
Joseph Meyer, of Dresden, besides his special piece, Rembrandt and his Wife, 
gives us many cloths excellent both in design and bleach ; and Herr Proelss is 
a manufacturer above the average. The 2,000 looms of Herr Fraenkel, of 
Neustadi enable him, with bis ordinary goods, to make, perhaps, the best 
show of damasks from the district ; at all events, they justify his success as a 
manufacturer, for he commenced in 1855 with two looms, and gradually 
extended his trade to its present importance. The exhibition of ihe above- 
named Dresden houses is no doubt creditable ; but I should have liked to have 
seen more numerous samples from Zittau and its neighbourhood, where damask 
manufacturers are plentiful, to have compared their goods with those of France, 
and thus to have been enabled to judge what portion of the old and widespread 
reputation of Saxon damasks is real, and how much is kept up through 
tradition. H. Waentig k Co., of Zittau, show an excellent collection of fancy 
drills, both linen and mixtures, for which they have a sale of 30,0000 pieces 
yearly, and in plain power- loom goods Herren Kaemelo, Erben, & Co., of 
Gross Schoneau,^ make a very saleable article at 8d to is 6d a yard. Herr 
C. T. Matthes and Herr Neumann, of Eylau, have an excellent display of 
** listadoes," used like those we make ourselves, for negro clothing in the West 
Indies. In Germany they have given a much greater variety to these goods, 
and have thus secured a larger share in the trade than we have done inr Ireland. 

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Nos. 45 to 50 form the collective exhibition of Lauban, and are almost entirely 
devoted to linen handkerchiefs. These goods are perfectly got up — weaving, 
bleaching, and finishing. Many manufacturers employ 300 or 400 looms, and 
the manufacture of these goods fully justifies the lavour in which they are held 
by all, and especially by their Russian neighbours. 

In the Russian trade, Irish linen handkerchiefs have always found them 
their most formidable competitors. We are also favoured with an exhibition of 
the products of the ** kramsta," one of the largest houses in Germany, if not 
in the world. The mill, it is true, has only 17,000 spindles on flax, and the 
power-looms are only 500 in number on linen goods ; but, between their linen 
and cotton manufactures, they give employment to 10,000 persons, and are 
buyers of 420,000 bundles of English yam yearly. Erdmannsdorf, the King 
of Prussia's model flax mill, is a large concern, on which nothing has been 
spared to put it on the best footing. Some 4,000 persons are employed, and 
they give us a good idea of their makes in drills, diapers, and family linens. 

Before leaving Prussia, I must express my regret that the exportation from 
England for this country, as for many others, appears under the head of 
** Hanse Towns." This prevents us firom knowing exactly what sum we sell 
to each country. I think our trade with the Silesian part of Prussia is im- 
proving under the present tariff", although a wide margin is still left for 

Leaving here the order of the catalogue, which separates Prussia from her 
late adversary by the Kingdom of Wirtemberg, it will be simpler to cross the 
Austrian frontier. Here a close resemblance to what we have seen in Prussian 
Silesia points clearly to the common origin of the manufactures of both sides 
of the mountains. In this industrious and thriving country the standard of 
living is low, and the present rate of wages reminds one of the scale. in Ireland 
fifteen years ago. The war of last year fell heavily on the inhabitants of this 
district, and nealy every village, known before only for its linens — Trautenau, 
Nachod, Hermannseifen, Rumburg, and many others — has now given its name 
to a battle. As it has turned out, the war has proved only an episode, and the 
number of mills built or now building will, no doubt, in a few years, make a 
great change in the linen industry in this patriarchal country, for which nature 
has done so much. The great manufacture, both of this district and of 
Moravia, is fine linen, and the principal peculiarity of the manufacture is the 
common use of bleached yarns ; these they handle in a very superior way, 
otherwise their weaving them at all would be impossible, as they use daily 
yarn as fine as 180 in the weft. The exhibition is wanting both in a series 0/ 
manufactured goods and in samples of the yarn ; still, a poorer show of linen 
than that of Austria might be redeemed by the goods of Herren Rayman and 
Regenhart, as their quality places them first of their kind amongst the Con- 
tinental exhibitors. The variety is not great — a tablecloth made for the 
Emperor of Austria, with a few plainer damasks, a range of linen handkerchiefs, 
and some fine light linens — but every one must be struck by the perfection of 
bleach of these latter. A. Kufferle & Co. , a Vienna house, who have their 
manufactory at Frievaldau, a village in Silesia, amply prove that the art of 
making good damasks and cheap handkerchiefs, with a bleach only to be found 
elsewhere in Ireland, has taken deep root in the country. 

Wirtemberg has in Herr A. F. Lang a manufacturer of more than ordinary 
merit. He shows excellent reproductions of. our own Light Linens, made 
by both power and by hand labour. The Damasks of Herr Faber, of Stutgard, 
and the fancy drills of Herr Kissel are very excellent. 

Switzerland, the next country in the list, has also cheap labour ; but I 
could only find in her exhibition the Fancy Drills of M. Schoop-Vonderwahl, 
worthy of notice. Spain, by poor samples of manufacture, shows the effect of 
a long-continued system of protection. 

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Portugal buys nearly all its Linens from England, amounting in value to 
about ;f 50,000 a year. The climate does not seem to suit the manufacture of 
anything except the very coarsest Towelling, ^Hessians, Sailcloth, and such 
coarse fabrics. 

In Greece I could see no sign of the exhibition announced in the catalogue. 

Sweden shows us some Damasks and plain Linens, made apparently a 
century ago ; but the Sailcloth of Messrs. W. Gibson & Sons might have come 
from Dundee. 

Russia is certainly advancing. She employs good materials, and makes an 
excellent article both in Yam and Cloth. Both the Baltic and Tammerfors 
Companies give excellent samples ; the former in Yams, the latter both in 
Yams and Linens, fine and coarse. The native manufacturers in White Shirt- 
ings, Hessians, &c., present some interest, but perhaps the most important 
e^iibitor is the Russian Government, who show the types of the linen they 
employ in their naval and military services, giving the weight, width, and price 
of every article. 

In the Italian section I was stmck with the quantity of embroidered 
Towels, of which many were at one time made in Ireland. The Italian Linen 
manufacturers may have held a high rank in past ages ; they certainly have but 
little in common with the present. 

Turkey has thirty-seven exhibitors, but their collective productions would 
go into a carpet bag. The primitive appearance of these goods is their principal 

The United States did not even put in an appearance. They are too 
intelligent not to feel that, even with their natural advantages and Saxon 
industry, their protective system prevents their competing on an equal footing 
with European nations, and they are too proud to figure by the side of Spain or 

It is greatly to be regretted that Barasley, Dundee, Dunfermline, and the 
other minor centres of the Linen manufacture of England and Scotland are un- 
represented : in their absence, however, the credit of the British trade is fiiUy 
sustained by the unrivalled exhibition of Linen goods from Belfast. Crowded 
into this small court we had every article which can be made from Flax, each 
unsurpassed of its kind, from nail-bags, made of scutchers tow, to the finest 
Linens and Damasks. 

In the Exhibition of 1867, the manufacturers of linen and yam of the 
North of Ireland have received four gold medals, and one silver medal, an 
amount of honour higher than has been awarded to any other district or to 
any other industry. 

Lest any one unacquainted with the machinery employed in the distri- 
bution of these prizes should ascribe any portion of that success to partiality 
on the part of the judges, it is right to state that of the eight members of the 
linen jury only one was an Englishman ; and it is said that he, with laudable 
delicacy, allowed his colleagues to decide upon the merits of his countrymen. 
Belfast may now certainly be said to have fully established her position as the 
metropolis of the linen trade 

The most striking among the gold medallists is undoubtedly the Belfast 
" trophy," or collective exhibition, to which thirty of the leading firms of the 
Belfast district are contributors, and which forms a small museum of the 

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products of the trade. It contains samples of power-loom warps, first, second, 
and third qualities, from fine to coarse, with the wefts to suit j strong and 
light linen warps, with fine wefts up to 300; and the different qualities 
of tows. 

Perhaps the power-loom linens may be found the most interesting item. " 
They are in all descriptions, f^ to 2oO<>, narrow and wide, from lawns to strong 
makes. In fineness and regularity in weaving these goods are not only 
xmequalled, but unattempted elsewhere, and yet nothing in the case is made 
specially for the Exhibition — z, thousand pieces of each could be produced of 
exactly the same quality, on the shortest notice. 

In fine fronting linens and lawns, Belfast has kept up its old reputation ; 
and cambric and linen handkerchiefs, white, printed, sewn, and embroidered, 
are shown in every form. The damasks are also in great variety ; but, unfor- 
tunately, the small space prevents their being seen to advantage ; even those 
selected for the most prominent place, and made for crowned heads, are 
exhibited rather for the bleach, and only a judge can appreciate the perfection 
of the execution. 

The one peculiarity of all the Irish exhibitions, which strikes every 
passer-by, is their splendid bleach. This seems natural to the country, and for 
perfect colour, unaltered strength of the tissues, and cheapness of production, 
forms a wonderfid contrast to the foreign courts. 

In the Belfast court we have such a multitude of goods for different 
purposes, and for the use of different nations, that it is hopeless to attempt to 
notice all, though each is of vast importance as an article of trade. We have 
linens for American clothing ; drills equal in quality to any made at Bamsley, 
and produced in Belfast at a much cheaper rate ; towelling, sheeting, tailors' 
and shoemakers' thread ; the goods sold in South America and the West 
Indian markets ; from the Listadoes, for the clothing of the, negroes to the 
Creas, or the Platillas, Silesias, Estopillas, and Grano di oras, half hidden in 
their rich ornaments ; and printed linen cambric dresses, an article hitherto almost 
unknown, which has found many admirers among the foreign ladies. These 
types are to be found repeated more or less fully in all the Irish exhibitions, 
except, perhaps, in that of Mr. John S. Brown, who has won hb medal 
through the special merits of his damasks. Mr. W. Girdwood, of Belfast, 
gives the only examples of linens printed in anything like variety. Mr. 
Girdwood's skill as a printer is too well known to require praise, and the 
samples which he has shown are neither better nor worse than his everyday 
work. He deserves double credit for the beauty of the linens which he has 
selected for the purposes of his art. 

The honours accorded to Belfast must be accepted as addressed more to 
the trade generally than to individuals, else we could scarcely explain the 

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distributive justice which adjudges a silver medal only to the unsurpassed 
exhibition of Messrs. Henry Matier & Co., of Belfast; and Mr. Ainsworth, 
I cannot but think, with due respect to a decision which is now irrevocable, 
that they deserved something more than a mere ** honourable mention." 
The linen trade of Great Britain cannot but be gratified by the generous award 
of the International jury. 


Class 28 — Flaxen Thread and Fabrics. 

18 Gold Medals in all were awarded in this class, of which 
four were obtained by Belfast exhibitors, viz. : — 

The Belfast Linen Trophy. (To get up which a sum of ;^2,3oo 
was subscribed by the trade.) The first gold medal. 

J. & VV. Charley & Co., Wellington Place, Belfast, and 
Seymour Hill, Dunmurry, gold medal. 

Fenton, Son & Co. (now Fenton, Connor & Co.) Linen Hall, 
Belfast, gold medal. 

John S. Brown (now John S. Brown & Sons) Belfast and 
Edenderry, gold medal. 

Henry Matier & Co., Clarence Place, Belfast, silver medal. 

The unexampled prosperity which had arisen in connection 
with the linen trade from the outbreak of hostilities in America, 
caused by the falling off of supplies of raw cotton from the 
Southern states, continued, as we have seen, down to the close 
of 1866 ; for even after peac^ had been proclaimed a considerable 
period of time elapsed before work was resumed on the extensive 
scale which formerly existed in the South ; and with the new social 
status involved in the enfranchisement of the negro population, 
it was slow and uphill work to regain the lost commercial position 
which the South enjoyed previous to this unfortunate war ; all this 
time the linen trade derived substantial advantages, and enjoyed 
unprecedented prosperity. 

In consequence of this exceptional state of things a very large 
and excessive amount of capital was drawn into the Irish trade, 
and every effort was strained to avail of the goldien opportunities 
of prosperity, and which continued so long as to almost completely 
deceive even the wisest and most far-seeing men connected with 

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the business.* We were not singular in this respect ; the Scotch 
trade was likewise abnormally expanded under the unhealthy 
stimulus thus imparted ; whilst in England, and on the Continent, 
great efforts were made by flax spinners and manufacturers to 
obtain a share of the general prosperity which thus suddenly and 
unexpectedly shone upon linen manufacturing. 

But with the revival of the commercial position of the Southern 
States, and the largely increased supplies of cotton which were 
forthcoming in 1867, prices of that staple fell considerably, and 
proportionately enlarged the margin between cotton and linen 
products. A reaction at once set in, and so sudden and serious 
was the rebound, that depression and gloom settled over the trade 
which had previously enjoyed such unmixed prosperity. 

In reviewing the position of business for the year, as recorded in 
the Linen Trade Circular, we find it states that ** in the mercantile 
history of the nineteenth century the year 1867 will occupy a 
place painfully prominent, by the disastrous events which its 
records will of necessity unfold. After a period of great pros- 
perity, the sinews of industry had become paralysed, as the 
partially silent spindle and noiseless loom only too clearly testify ; 
and during at least nine months of the year, neither the merchant 
nor the manufacturer was accorded those rewards which the 
investment of capital and the exercise of industry should have 
secured." With a falling off in demand for the market which had 
taken such largely increasing supplies of goods, during the previous 
three years, it was not surprising that accumulating stocks at home 
broke down prices very considerably ; the principal shrinkage in 
value being in power-loom goods, and the coarser descriptons of 
hand-loom makes ; fine goods suffered but little, as the production 
of these had not been stimulated to any degree corresponding with 
medium and coarse fabrics. 

« We find it needful to qualify these remarks on coining across a commonication from 
a gentleman largely interested in the trade (Mr. J. G. Richardson, of Bessbrook) who foresaw 
difficulty at least a year previously, and sounded a note of warning. . 

Writing on the subject of flax supply to the "Northern Whig," on 8rd Feb. 1866, he 
said :— " The war being over, the enterprising American will without doubt return to the 
production of cotton with double energy, and in course of a little time as la^e a crop will 
be thrown on the world as was ever yet produced. At the same time I am quite ready to 
admit that, if we could have had flax at moderate rates, we should have held some of the 

ground we have gained in favour of linens With regard to the possibUity of a 

commercial disturbance from undue speculation, it does seem but too true, in our experi- 
ence, that about every ten years we require to be kept in order by a monetary crisis— at 
least it has been so since I have been in business— 1837, 1847, and 1857. Now who can say 
that it is not possible before 1867 ? The working of the new joint-stock principle of limited 
liability will have to be tested by a crisis, ere it will find its proper level ; and, therefore, 
let us in the North of Ireland be wise and prudent, and show a good practical example to 
tiie community at large, and prove to the world we can calmly and temperately bear proch 
perity, as well as suffer adversity when it comes " 

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The depression in the manufacturing department quickly told 
on the spinning, the report stating that " during tlie months of 
July and August intense depression prevailed, which was only to 
some extent, and for a while dissipated by the very judicious 
adoption, on the part of spinners generally, of working two-thirds 
time, commencing in August." At close of the year the spinning 
trade revived a little. loo's line wefts opened in January at 
6s 3d, but fell to 4s 3d in December, and 25's tow weft fell from 
7s to 5s 4>^d. 

The dirop in prices naturally reached down to the raw material, 
which opened rather high in August, but fell quickly during the 
following months, rallying a little at close of year, as things began 
to wear a somewhat brighter aspect. 

J 868. — From returns rendered to the Linen Trade Committee 
in January, the following comparison is made with the figures as 
returned in 1866 : — 

«.,,^ Spindles Spindles m_,..i Proposed 

^*^ Employed Unemployed ^^^ Extension 

1866 86 759»452 11,362 770,814 103,792 

1868 90 841,867 60,439 902,306 15,032 

Spindles adapted for twisting thread 18,830 

-Pa/wfyxw^ Looms Looms fr«*«i Proposed 

Factories ^^^^^^^ Unemployed ^otal Erte^on 

1866 44 10,538 266 10,804 6,484 

1868 66 11,087 4,130 15,217 996 

The Indian Flax Company having been unsuccessful in their 
efforts to promote the growth of flax, on a profitable scale, in the 
Punjab, it was resolved to wind up the Company, and for this 
purpose a meeting was convened on the 24th July, 1868, when a 
resolution to that effect was unanimously adopted. 

This Company certainly deserved very great credit for the 
efforts they made to grapple with the enormous difficulties which 
such an enterprise naturally involved; and from the extracts 
previously given, we obtained a glimpse of some of those difficulties, 
it is therefore not at all surprising to find that the project proved a 
financial failure. 

Now that this experiment is a matter of history, and whilst the 
adventure was a courageous one, and quite in keeping with that 
enterprising spirit for which Belfast has ever been famous, it may 
be questioned whether, on patriotic grounds, the step was a wise 
one to have taken. 

The plentiful supply of the raw material has been over and 
over again dwelt upon as of vital importance to the due mainten- 
ance of our linen trade, and looking to tbe fact that not one-half 
of the supply required is grown in Ireland, it has become a 
question of constant recurrence — how far this deficiency can be 

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made up by other countries. We do not, however, find in the 
past history of the trade that, save in the year 1847, there was any 
actual want of supplies; and, as we have Russia, France, Belgium, 
and Holland, all willing to send us fi-om their surplus stocks, and 
with smaller contributions from other countries, no fears are now 
entertained that our spindles will be under-fed, much less starved, 
as was the case in Lancashire during the American war. 

This being admitted, the question arises as to how far steps, if 
any, should be taken by capitalists at home to promote and 
encourage the growth of flax outside our own country. 

It is well known that the flax grown in Ireland, despite of all 
the means used both by state aid and private enterprise, only 
at best comes up to a medium quality on the average, and that 
heretofore farmers have failed to fully profit by the instruc- 
tion and lecturing they have received ; that their efforts, from 
first to last, should be directed to bring the crop to the highest 
degree of perfection, and that in proportion to the care bestowed 
upon its culture and after treatment, the value in a great measure 
depends, these means being largely within their own control. 

This matter was again prominently dilated upon by the president 
of the Flax Association (Mr. Mulholland, M.P.) at the annual 
meeting last year. 

This Indian Company at first contemplated growing a descrip- 
tion of flax of a similar class to that which we get from Russia ; 
but if only this class had been grown it is extremely improbable 
it could ever have competed with the produce of the Muscovite 
empire, where the farmers for generations had been trained in the 
cultivation of the crop ; on the other hand, if a superior class 
of fibre had been aimed at, it would have competed with our 
home growth, and the inference drawn is that the success of the 
scheme in the one place would have been counter-balanced by a 
correspondmg falling off" in the other, a result which, we need 
hardly add, would have been very unfortunate. 

Had success followed the attempt to grow flax in that remote 
part of the world, where, it was contended, labour was so cheap, 
and at the present day is, in many parts, merely nominal, a much 
more serious state of things than the mere falling off" of our home 
growth might have arisen, for with a decreasing supply of the raw 
material at home, and an increasing production and cheaper labour 
abroad, it cannot be doubted that in a very short time capital, 
for manufacturing purposes, would have been attracted to the 
spot, and perhaps by this time we might have been chronicling 
that the flax spindles of the Punjab had reached a quarter of a 
million, with a proportionate number of power-looms consuming 
the yams. When too late we should probably have seen — what 

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has taken plax:e in the jute trade, machinery and capital trans- 
ferred from Dundee to the banks of the Ganges — Bombay 
competing with Belfast in flax manufactures. 

These views will be taken for what they are worth, but they 
have arisen out of a consideration of the eflforts of this Indian 
company to promote the growth of flax in that part of the world. 

The year 1868, though by no means presenting so gloomy 
a picture as T867, was still very far from being a satisfactory one 
to either spinners or manufacturers. The former had to contend 
against an increase in cost of the raw material of from 20 to 30 
per cent, which, though some rise followed in yams, left a very 
small margin of profit compared with previous year. The home 
crop showed a falling off" of about 23 per cent, notwithstanding 
efforts of the new flax Association, but prices being comparatively 
lower in 1867, it produced the result usually noticed — a reduced 
acreage the succeeding year. 

Yams opened in January at 4s 3d for 6o's to loo's, closing in 
December at 5s 3d for the lower number, and 5s for the higher. 
25's tow opened at 5s 7}4d, advanced to 7s in May, and closed 
at 6s lo^d in December. The bank rate during eleven months 
of the year was only 2 per cent 

The home demand for linens was of a satisfactory nature. The 
Continental varied very much, being at one period active, and 
afterwards depressed. American demand showed a further falling 
off, and prices realised were unremunerative. 

1869. — The result of this year's business, instead of showing 
any improvement on that of the year preceding, was generally 
regarded as being less favourable, but the depression felt through- 
out the linen trade was not confined to that branch of our home 
manufactures, as in various other industrial operations in the 
United Kingdom a very dull feeling existed. 

We assume that the high prices paid for the raw material had 
a stimulating effect upon farmers in 1869, as the increased breadth 
sown amounted to about 1 1 per cent But the flax crops on the 
Continent having turned out very good this year, prices of both 
home and foreign produce fell considerably, spinners demand 
being very slack, owing to the falling off" in trade. Home fibre, 
which ranged from 8s to i6s per stone in 1868, fell to 5s to iis 
in 1869. 

Yarns opened at 5s in January for a range of wefts from 70*5 
to loo's, but at close of the year 70's to 130's could be bought at 
4s, and 25's tow dropped from 7s i^d to 6s. The greater part of 
the year a depressed feeling existed, and to reduce production a 
resolution was adopted in September, by spinners representing 
690,000 spindles, to mn only 40 hours per week for ten weeks, 

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commencing 20th September. Besides this, a large number of 
spindles were stopped altogether. In November, finding that 
little improvement had shown itself, spinners unanimously resolved 
to continue to curtail their production one-third — either by short 
time or stoppage of machinery. A little improvement in demand 
sprung up about middle of December, and prospects looked more 
cheerful as the- year terminated. The export trade in yams kept 
up very well throughout the year, and the slight recovery in 
December brought up the total exports a little in excess of the 
figures of 1868. 

In the manufacturing department, prices showed a down- 
ward tendency during the greater part of the year, and at 
the close of it the leading classes of power-loom goods were all 
more or less cheaper. The home trade kept pretty steady, but 
the Continental demand fluctuated a good deal, dulness being 
frequently felt in this branch. As regards the American market, 
although the advices throughout the greater part of the year were 
of an unfavourable character, we find the shipments of linen 
goods from the United Kingdom were, during the first six months 
of the year, actually one-third over the corresponding period of 
1868, and this in the face of a very dull spring demand there. 
Owing to the immense expansion which the export trade with 
America received during the war, the productive power which 
was developed at that period, it was found impossible to contract 
in the same ratio, now that a reaction in the demand for that 
market had set in. In times gone by, when such a state of things 
arose, although it would have doubtless pressed hard upon the 
weavers throughout the country, the curtailment of production 
would have been much more rapidly effected than its expansion, 
and whilst the loss would have been shared more equally by all, 
trade would have recovered its lost ground much sooner ; but the 
unyielding nature of the factory system, thus put to its first 
practical test, soon became apparent ; and the centralised power 
was slow to accommodate itself to die altered circumstances of 
the times Whatever advantages power-loom weaving had in 
comparison with the more ancient one of hand labour — and those 
advantages are admittedly great — its concentrated powers were 
evidendy unfavourable to capitalists, when brought face to face 
with a suddenly reduced demand. 

This being the position of matters, though some curtailment 
of production undoubtedly took place, the exports to America, 
which formed some 45 per cent of the total export trade of the 
year, showed the comparative helplessness of manufacturers to draw 
in their producing power to balance the Intimate demand. We 
accordingly find that to dispose of those surplus stocks of goods 

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manufactured for a special trade, as no other way of escape from 
the difficulty seemed left, a large proportion was consigned, on 
chance of sale, to that market. The result was unfortunate in 
every way, as prices broke down there, when, in the face of a 
dull demand, stocks were found accumulating in the bonded 

In the closing paragraph of the review of the linen trade for 
the year, we find this admission, that '* a large quantity of the 
goods exported to America had not passed into healthful con- 
sumption, but remained in the extensive stores of that country as 
a supply anticipatory of future wants, and therefore authorising 
the presumption that future exports to that country may, in con- 
sequence, be of a comparatively restricted character." 

1870. — Compared with 1869 our staple trade showed symptoms 
of recovery, and though it can hardly be said to have been 
remunerative, much fewer losses were sustained than in former 
years. The outbreak of the Franco-German war in July caused, 
for a time, much disturbance, and until its possible results became 
more accurately estimated, business in all departments was much 
curtailed. Spinners did tolerably well during the spring, but 
from the commencement of the war until close of the year, both 
home and cross-channel trade fell oflf considerably ; Continental 
demand kept up very well, and the exports for the 12 months 
showed but little dimunition. Wefts opened at 4s in January, and 
receded to 3s 6d in December ; 25's tow showed a drop of 3d from 
the commencement to close of year. The flax crop, both home 
and foreign, turned out satisfactory this year, the yield and quality 
of the home growth being excellent ; but the dull demand for yarns 
during the second half of the year, coupled with an enormous 
increase in imported flax (about 75 per cent, up to November over 
corresponding period in 1869) broke down home prices, so that 
in December Irish fibre sold from 5s to 9s 6d, against 6s 6d to ios9d 
the previous year. 

In linens the home trade demand was very satisfactory, and 
the result of the years' trading was of a gratifying and encouraging 
character. The Continental demand had also improved up to 
the time of the war, when it then received a check, but a recovery 
set in about close of the year. The position of the American 
trade was, however, anything but satisfactory ; the loaded state 
of that market in the spring, owing to the stocks in bond held 
over from previous year, resulted in forced sales by auction, pro- 
ducing most irregular prices, causing much disturbance to business, 
and resulting in losses to many shippers. Matters looked a little 
better in the fall, and general stocks held at close of the year 
were somewhat reduced, though not to any large extent, as goods 

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were still consigned throughout year, though probably not to the 
same extent as in 1869. 

1871. — Trade throughout the United Kingdom began to 
recover this year, and our staple industry shared to a considerable 
extent in the returning prosperity — a cheerful feeling pervading 
most departments. Spinners had a very satisfactory business, the 
market gradually rising from beginning to the close of year. Line 
wefts opening at 3s 6d and closing at 4s pd, and weft tows advanced 
IS per bundle. A check was, however, felt in September, when, 
tempted by the advancing state of the market, large parcels of 
Continental yams were sent over ; still prices were not affected, 
a firm and upward tendency ruling the market at close of year. 

The acreage of flax showed a falling off of about 20 per cent., 
and the crop for this year was deficient in yield and quality ; the 
season was an unfavourable one, and some of the Russian seed 
was stated to have been deficient in quality. As the spinning 
trade was healthy, demand for the raw material was well sustained, 
and the diminished home supply helped to force up prices, so 
that quotations in December were from 7s to 13s 6d, against 
Ss to 9s 6d in 1870. 

Power-loom manufacturers were well employed during the 
greater part of the year, and very large orders were placed for 
linen suitable for dress purposes, which had come into great 
favour, and to a largely increased extent j the general home 
trade demand also was most satisfactory. Altogether, the recovery 
was in the home market this year, and this improvement indirectly 
affected the export ^rade, and stimulated demand somewhat ; but 
the continuance of the Continental war operated against any 
extensive traffic under this head. 

The American trade was rather better also, but the overstocked 
state of this market with European products retarded recovery, 
though buyers for the spring trade of 1872 operated much more 
freely than they did for the fall of 187 1. 

1872. — This year opened with a buoyant feeling ruling the 
market, and prices of cloth and yarns continued to advance. 
The president of the Chamber of Commerce (William Spotten, Esq.) 
on retiring at expiration of his year of office in February, alluded 
to the revived position of the linen trade, and his address on that 
subject, which we reproduce here, will be interesting. 

The President, in moving the adoption of the report, said — It is now my 
duty to move the adoption of the report which has just been read, and I ask 
your indulgence while I make some observations which may be of importance 
to all engaged in commerce in this thriving and prosperous portion of the 

It is not our habit in Belfast to indulge in boasting, nor to trumpet the 
progress of our national industry ; but I think I may safely assert that there 

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are few, if any, towns in the empire more solid in its commercial greatness, 
a.nd none more trusted abroad for honesty and integrity in its business transac- 
tions. We certainly have all had our share of business trial and adversity for 
some years past, owing to the great and unduly sudden increase in our powers 
of production, caused by the American civil war, and the extraordinary and 
inflated demand which then existed for all classes of our manufactures ; but, 
notwithstanding, few indeed, and unimportant, were the disasters which occurred 
during those long years of business depression, and now, I believe, I can con- 
fidently state that there is not a loom or spindle in the North of Ireland which 
cannot be employed to advantage and profit. The Linen Trade— and I give 
it prominence here, for on its soundness and progress our prosperity as a com- 
munity to a great extent leans — has seldom been in a more healthy state. 
Spinners, manufacturers, and merchants are foresold for a considerable time. 
Stocks of yarns and linens there are none of any importance, unless those held 
in the bleached and finished state, and even these are in the smallest possible 
compass ; while abroad, judging from the retail character of the orders we 
are receiving fi*om our friends there, owing, no doubt, to the present high prices 
ruling here, they hold no stock of Irish goods in excess of their wants. I may 
truly state, therefore, that our staple trade is enjoying and likely to enjoy for some 
years a fair share of uninterrupted progress and profit, and in that our working 
population are getting a full share of its benefits. Wages never were so high, 
and our people never had more cause to be contented, happy, and prosperous. 
It may be of interest for me to state that our exports of linen goods from 
Belfast during the past year were ;^2, 300,000 in excess of 1870, and ^3,400, 000 
in excess of 1869, facts which speak for themselves ; while the amount of 
capital now employed in our producing powers considerably exceeds ;£"5,ooo,ooo 
sterling; and although our progress in manufactures is considerable, that in 
population outruns it. Belfast itt 1861 numbered 121,000; in 1871, 175,000— 
a proportionate increase unequalled in any part of the empire, except in one 
city — ^and buildings still grow up around us with marvellous rapidity, and 
houses are inhabited as quickly as they are built. And here I had better state 
that, although the prices of our fabrics have advanced too rapidly and seriously, 
still we have not much to fear in this respect with regard to competition, for 
other fabrics have in general at least kept pace with us. Cotton has advanced 
about 50 per cent. ; cotton yarns, 30 per cent. ; and manufactured goods, 15 
per cent, to 20 per cent ; wool about 65 per cent. ; woollen yarns, 60 per 
cent, to 70 per cent. ; and manufactured goods, 35 per cent. Whether the 
high prices now ruling will continue, or whether they may check consumption, 
remains to be seen ; but that a reaction after a time may set in is more than 
probable, all experience in business having shown that such is the invariable 
result of high prices. I now come to refer to the source of the wealth and 
future prosperity of the manufacturing industry of this province, which is of 
the most vital importance to all engaged in it. The cultivation of flax, and 
those engaged in spinning will admit that the fibre which is the product of 
Irish soil, although generally defective in preparation, is pre-eminently adapted 
for a large portion of our production of yarns ; but, unfortunately, the short 
acreage in Ireland in 1871 and diminished yield has seriously curtailed the 
supply. The year 1871, as compared with that of 1870, shows a dimunition 
of about 62 per cent, in production, and 19^ per cent, in area appropriated 
to the crop. Many causes have conspired to produce this unfavourable result, 
and the most serious has been a succession of adverse seasons for the growth 
of the flax plant. This cannot continue, and with a revival of favourable 
yield, farmers, it is to be hoped in their own interest, will be encouraged to 
resume the culture on the same scale as they did in former years. The prices 
which were obtained this season, and which the present prosperous condition 
of the linen trade may reasonably cause them to expect for the produce of next 

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summer's crop, should check the curtaihnent of the area, which has been too 
apparent for the past two years. The report of the Flax Supply Association 
is reassuring that our spin'" Is will not be starved for want of ntiaterial, but 
this feeling of security, c. i.siuering the increased demand which now exists 
for our fabrics, should not cause a suspension of efforts to increase our home 
supply of flax, which for suitability is on what we have mainly to depend. 

The great activity which prevailed in every department of the 
staple industry, owing to the civil war in America, had the effect 
of stimulatmg several other branches of trade in various parts of 
Ulster. Lurgan extended its borders, and Portadown spread out 
its boundaries. Old mills were enlarged, new ones erected ; and 
power-loom factories reared their tall chimneys where never before 
the steam-engine was known. All this caused extra demand for 
hands connected with the building trade, and wages rose fifty, and, 
in some cases, one hundred, per cent. Wages of factory hands 
had also been increased considerably. By way of comparison, 
we may mention that when the Messrs. Mulholland commenced 
mill spinning in 1830, 7s to 9s a week formed the range for men; 
4s to 5 s for women, and 2 s 6d to 4s for boys and girls under 16 
years of age. In April, 1872, the scale of remuneration, which 
had been from time to time raised by the employers, exceeded 
that of 1830 by 1007 150, and,, in some instances, 200 per cent. 

Early in this year, owing to the greatly improved state of trade 
in all branches throughout the United Kingdom, extravagant views 
were put forth by the operatives in the manufacturing districts of 
England for an advance in wages, and by means of well-organised 
federations of workmen, capital was suddenly brought face to face 
in a determined struggle with labour. 

The metal trades being extremely active in the spring, wages in 
the mining districts rose rapidly, and in addition to this the men 
only worked half time, so tiat with a greatly curtailed supply of 
coal, prices advanced until they were double the rates ruling the 
previous year. Next, in all departments of manufacture, whether 
textile, mechanical, or by whatever designation known, a general 
advance was demanded, and to accomplish this result the more 
quickly, strikes, on a scale never before dreamt of, were the imi- 
versal levers employed. 

The advance in labour enhanced the value of products of all 
descriptions, and, as a natural effect, this great social movement 
permeated every class and section of the community. Of course, 
our trade could not expect to escape the influence of such a 
disturbance, and we accordingly find that a class of workmen in 
the spinning mills, called "flax roughers,'* not succeeding in 
obtaining the full advance they demanded, struck work in May. 
Finding they would not abate their demands, spinners were driven 
to the necessity of stopping their machinery, and in June about 

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400,000 spindles were silent. This state of things, however, only 
lasted a couple of weeks, as the roughers yielded to the terms 
originally proposed by the millowners, which was an advance of 
2S per week on the rates previously current. Other mill and 
factory hands also obtained an advance, so that with increased 
cost of production in coal and wages, spinners and manufacturers' 
profits were considerably reduced. 

Demand for yams fluctuated very much during the year, but 
prices kept tolerably steady, and at its close stood nearly as high 
as at the commencement, whilst the tone of the market was firm. 

Though the breadth of flax skowed a decrease, the quality and 
yield were far superior to 187 1, which was estimated at only 14 
stones to the acre, against 25 this year. Prices in 187 1 were 
comparatively high, but taking into account the small yield per 
acre, the' crop was not so remunerative to the farmer ; and 
though quotations dropped is to is 6d per stone in 1872, the 
crop was a very much more profitable one. 

The home department of trade throughout the year, though 
by no means so lively as during the preceding, was neverthe- 
less characterised by much steadiness. There was a falling off in 
demand for fine shirting linens, but coarser fabrics, roughs and 
dress linens, moved oflf freely. 

Owing to increased cost of production, prices of cloth kept 
high, and as the labour movement had not spread among the 
masses on the Continent so quickly as at home, our manufac- 
turers were placed at a disadvantage, and trade with Germany, 
Italy, and Russia exhibited a marked decrease. 

Demand for the American spring trade having been fairly 
active, exports for the first six months showed a large increase, but 
trade in the autumn being much quieter, a falling oflf in the 
second half of the year took place. 

i873.-^The unfavourable features which appeared in 1872 in 
reference to the demands of labour, and the consequent general 
rise which followed in every department, enhancing the cost of 
production, and seriously reducing the profits on capital, continued 
to operate with increased severity during 1873. Against this 
general advance our trade had ^ to contend, and, to add to the 
difficulties of the position, a panic of unusual severity took place 
in New York in September, mainly arising from excessive and 
wild financial speculations in railways and other public under- 
takings. This reacted severely on business, and resulted in extensive 
and widespread disturbance throughout every rank and class, every 
department of commerce feeling the pressure. . Our staple industry 
felt the shock very severely, and for many months transactions were 
greatly curtailed, and shipments for the remainder of the year 

Digitized by 



much reduced. The general trade of the United Kingdom with 
the United States showed a considerable falling off this year. The 
aggregate of failures throughout the States was very large, and 
many extensive dry goods importers were obliged to sacrifice their 
stocks at low prices, the market being so completely disorganised. 
Great shrinkage in values followed this disruption, and as indus- 
trial operations and public works were suddenly contracted, or 
altogether suspended, immense numbers were thrown out of 
employment. Economy and retrenchment followed in every 
department, and with an overstocked market in nearly all commo- 
dities before the panic, this sudd^ and unexpected reduction of 
the consuming capacity of the United States produced widespread 
and long-continued depression. Our manufacturers had, of course, 
to share to a large extent in the losses and consequent curtail- 
ment of trade which naturally followed ; and whilst prices of cloth 
were drooping in the latter half of the year, yams kept very 

The home trade demand was large throughout the year, and 
the increased business in linens for dress purposes, which sprung up 
during the five years previous, was well sustained, and gave a large 
amount of employment to our power-looms, making up to some 
extent for the loss on American account. General trade with the 
Continent showed further falling off, which must in some measure 
be attributed to the effects of the war and the advance in labour 
which was also taking place on the Continent. 

A small increase was observable in the extent of flax-grown 
in Ireland this year ; but the quality and yield were much inferior 
to those of the previous crop. This, coupled with an increase on 
the imports of foreign fibre, and a falling oflf in trade, told upon 
prices; but the difference was small compared with 1872. In 
concluding their review, the Linen Trade Committee stated, 
** That the year was both for manufacturers and merchants, one 
of discouragement, nor could the greatest prudence and caution 
have prevented the difficulties which arose. Many manufacturers 
had, for the greater part of the year, to contend against prices of 
yarns beyond the proportionate prices of cloth, in addition to 
which tjjey were saddled with a larger stock of cloth than usual, 
owing to a restricted demand, whilst merchants, in order to effect 
sales, had to submit to prices which were not remunerative." 

An International Exhibition was held this year at Vienna, and 
several Irish firms contributed samples of Linen Manufactures. 
By the official report we find that medals were awarded to Messrs. 
George Betzold & Co., Dicksons, Ferguson, & Co., Fenton, 
Connor, & Co., Jaffe Bros., and Moore & Weinberg, all of Belfast, 
for the excellent quality of the goods they exhibited. 

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HAN,D BOOK, 139 

1874. — The disturbance "which trade suffered by reason of the 
rapid advance in value of labour, culminated, as we ha^e seen, 
in a crisis in the United States, September, 1873, the reflex of 
which on the home market soon became apparent. With the 
collapse of many great railway enterprises demand for iron and 
steel, and all manufactures of that kind, fell off considerably ; 
this brought about a reaction in the iron and coal trades, and 
a long and determined struggle was now entered upon between 
employers and employed. If the power of combination was 
often exercised in an unreasonable manner, to effect a rise in wages 
which circumstances did not warrant, fierce and prolonged was 
the resistance, to prevent the reduction which was now inevitable 
As labour rose much more slowly on the Continent than in 
the United Kingdom, we had to contend not only against a greatly 
reduced demand for our staple products, but had to witness many 
of the orders previously placed in English markets sent to foreigners, 
and in the spring of this year Belgian iron could be sold in London 
at lower rates than the prpduction of Staffordshire. Being thus 
undersold in the leading products of the kingdom, nothing remained 
but a reduction of wages, or blowing out of furnaces, and in 
numerous instances the latter had to be resorted to as the only 
argument to convince the international combination of workmen 
that prices had been pushed to a point that prohibited traffic in 
those commodities in which, though constituting the main stay of 
England's commerce, they possessed no monopoly. 

Sad, indeed, it is to reflect on the enormous waste of national 
wealth which followed the self-enforced idleness of tens of thousands 
of labourers, not only in the coal and metal trades, but also in the 
textile and other industrial works of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. But if the national loss through unproductive labour 
was great, the loss in individual instances was, to untold numbers, 
the savings of a lifetime ; whilst the ultimate issue, which they 
were powerless to resist, widened, in many instances, the breach 
between employers and employed, which this clash of interests 

Our trade suffered in some measure from the effects of 
this struggle ; but as this brings us to a period which is still fresh 
in our recollection, we shall take leave to here insert the report 
of the Linen Trade Committee, on the position of business 
during 1874 : — 

In common with almost every other mercantile and manufacturing industry 
in the United Kingdom, the Irish linen trade suffered from the wide-spread 
depression which prevailed, not only at home, but abroad, during the past 
year. Labour rose so rapidly in the various markets of the world, but especi- 
ally in the United Kingdom during the three preceding years, as not only to 
paralyse, but in some instances to completely check trade in many departments. 

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. . . . Combinations of trade unions, and organised strikes, on a scale 
never before attempted, were the agencies employed by labour in the war 
waged against capital ; but when the inevitable reaction came, in spite of all 
the resistance offered, a readjustment set in between the two elements, showing 
how essentially inter- dependent the one is upon the other, to sustain the 
prosperity of both. Labour has, consequently, been steadily falling in various 
branches of trade, in a greater or less degree corresponding with the previous 
rise. . . . There is, however, another element in connexion with our trade 
to be taken into account, considering how dependent it is, for the consumption 
of so large a proportion of its products, upon the American market, whatever 
interferes with the general prosperity of trade on that gp:"eat continent affects 
our industry in a corresponding measure. 

The position of matters in the States, and the events which have transpired 
during the past year and a half, are too well known to require to be enlarged 
npon here. The great advance in labour, coupled with reckless speculation, 
were the main elements which contributed to the financial panic of September, 
1873, from the effects of which the country is but slowly recovering. .... 
Our trade keenly sympathised with the state of trade in the American market, 
and naturally to so good a customer we look for an impetus to renewal of life 
at home. 

At the commencement of the year there was a slight indication of im- 
provement in demand, but as the year advanced the dulness, which had 
characterised trade for a long time previous, increased, and was heightened 
during the summer by a strike, against a reduction in wages, among our mill 
and factory operatives, which lasted for about two months, ending in a com- 
promise. Towards the close of the year a better feeling seemed to spring up, 
and transactions were entered upon with more spirit ; prices of both cloth and 
yams became firmer. 

Liften Yarns. — Trade during the past year was generally of an unsatis- 
factory character, the causes which affected the demand for linen manufactures, 
and their decline in value, reacted upon the yarn market, which, for the greater 
portion of the year, had to contend against drooping prices and curtailed 

In sympathy with a slight improvement in trade at the beginning of the 
year, quotations kept pretty steady until March, though production ^was in 
excess of consumption. Prices then became easier, and before April closed 
quotations of line wefts were 4^d to 6d per bundle lower than at the com- 
mencement of the year. Tow warps kept firm during this time, but wefts 
receded i>^d. From this period down to end of June, general demand, both 

on home and export account was dull Although the strike 

in July and August (which lasted generally about seven weeks) was estimated 
to have reduced production of yams by about one-and-a-half million of bundles, 
trade continued quiet, and prices without change till end of September. 
Demand then slackened, and prices became easier ; stocks gradually creeping 
up from that time to middle of November, when a turn for the better set in, 
and considerable parcels of lines and tows were bought by merchants and 
manufacturers. Several spinners cleared off their stocks, and prices slightly 
hardened, a firm tone being imparted to the market, which it generally retained 
down to the close of the year. 

Home and Export Linen Trade. — The year opened with a very fair 
consumptive demand for various classes of fabrics, especially medium and low 
priced goods, the finer descriptions not moving so freely. During the greater 
part of the year, a steady trade continued to be done, though at times buying 
was restricted to small parcels for immediate requirements. At same time, the 
amount of stock turned over was quite equal to previous year, the healthy tone 
being fully sustained all through, with indications of improvement at the clos«, 

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Continental. — The actual stocks placed in Continental markets were quite 
equal to previous year, and the Board of Trade returns show that the exports 
from the United Kingdom were in excess ; Russia, Germany, France, Spain, 
and Italy all taking larger supplies. 

l^est Indian, — The great falling off in demand for these markets has been 
severely felt by our trade. The unfortunate condition of Spanish affairs 
reduced the consumptive demand for the principal market of Havana to half of 
what it was two years ago, however, at the close of the year, there were some 
signs of improvement. Trade with Hayti and other islands has also greatly 

South America. — These markets likewise show falling off in demand, the 
exports being only about one- half of what they were two years ago. The 
chronic political disturbances in most of the Spanish settlements seriously 
retard development of trade. 

Australia. — This market, which ranks among our best customers, and 
stands equal to Germany in the amount of goods taken last year, shows an 
mprovement compared with 1872. 

United States of America. — The markets of this- country occupy the first 
rank, in point of importance, for consumption of all classes of linen fabrics, 
and though the past year shows a falling off of about 3^ per cent, in the 
quantity exported from the United Kingdom, the actual money value is i^ 
per cent, higher. Compared with 1872, the exports were about 17X per cent, 
less in value. That year, however, should not be taken as a fair criterion of 
demand, as there is reason to suppose consignments were much heavier than 
for the past two years. 

1873. — On the 22nd January the Flax Supply Association 
held their eighth annual meeting in the Chamber of Commerce, 
Belfast— John Mulholiand, Esq., M.P., President, being in the 

This Society, which we saw was formed in 1867, very much 
extended its field of action, and has been every year gaining in public 
favour, and much interest attaches to the official information 
which from time to time emanates from it. Mr. Andrews, the 
Secretary, wrote a pamphlet — giving instructions regarding the 
culture of the flax plant — which has been extensively and gratui- 
tously distributed by the Association. The statistical and historical 
information, embodied in their annual reports, will form interesting 
material in foUowmg up the history of the trade in future years. 

The report presented at this meeting stated that the flax crop 
of last year gave a very fair average yield, but not equal to what 
the length and bulk of the straw indicated. And though there 
was a decrease in the acreage sown, amounting to over 17 per 
cent., the superior yield of the crop reduced the actual decrease 
in the quantity of fibre to about 5 per cent. 

For yarns the year opened with an improved demand, and 
prices kept steady till March, when an easier turn took place, and 
in April the range of line wefts had dropped from 3s loj^d in 
January to 3s 9d; 25's tow wefts firom 6s 4j^d to 6s 3d. A 
recovery took place in May, and prices advanced i j^d to ^d per 

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bundle. In July the range of wefts stood at 4s, and 25's tow 
weft 6s 4j^d, with a fair demand on home and export account 
Owing to the partial failure of the flax crops on the Continent, the 
raw material began to advance from this month, and kept steadily 
rising down to the close of the year. This affected the home 
markets, and Irish flax advanced on an average about £,1^ 
per ton between August and December. The position of 
the market for the raw material stimulated trade in yams, and 
during the second half of the year a very large turn over of stock 
took place, prices gradually creeping up until the range of wefts 
reached 4s 4 J^d, as a minimum ; other numbers in proportion ; 
and 25's tow weft, 6s 9d. 

Linens sympathised with the upward movement which set in 
in July, and brown power-loom cloth for bleaching, dyeing, and 
dress purposes advanced considerably in price, and held firmly to 
the top rates down to close of the year. The home and export 
demand for finished brown goods was also of a very fair character, 
and the position of this branch of trade showed a decided 
improvement compared with previous year. Bleached goods 
were, however, much slower in responding to the improved 
position of the brown cloth market, and though some improve- 
ment in demand set in, and slightly better prices were obtained, 
the advance was not at all in proportion to that which the goods 
showed in the loom state. The anticipated recovery in trade in 
the United States was not realised, and demand both for the 
spring and fell season was of a very dull character ; the effects of 
the panic of 1873 being much more widespread and long continued 
than had been at all anticipated. We can only indulge the 
hope that by this time the force of this severe reverse Has almost 
spent itself, and that the year 1876 will witness a brighter state of 
things, and a gradual improvement in the industrial and com- 
mercial resources of that great country. The Exhibition in 
Philadelphia, which will be opened in May — in commemoration of 
the declaration of independence made a century ago — ^we think 
must give a fillip to trade, and stimulate commerce. Throughout 
the United Kingdom the year closes with a rather dull feeling, but 
though returns of trade exhibit a falling off" in nearly all the textile 
manufactures of the United Kingdom, the exports of linen yams 
and linen cloth show an improvement compared with last year. 
Our industry is in a much healthier condition than it was, and 
though financial difficulties involved the suspension of a few firms of 
long standing, the innate soundness of the trade has not been in any 
way affected. We therefore look forward with a hopeful feeling 
that, in recording the history of our staple industry next year, we 
shall have the satisfaction of noting a decided advance compared 
with the one which has passed away. 

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Though the flax crop of this year showed a decrease in the 
acreage sown of 5,702 acres, the yield was far superior to that of 
1874 ; and as farmers realised very high prices all through the 
season, it is fully expected that there will be a considerable 
increase in the acreage sown next year. 

1876. — In the year 187 1 steps were taken by the Legislature 
of the United States of America to commemorate, in the year 
1876, the one hundredth anniversary of American independence. 
An Act was, accordingly, passed, by the Senate and House of 
Representatives, in Congress assembled, the preamble of which 
runs as follows : — 

*' Whereas, — The Declaration of Independence of the United States of 
America was prepared, signed, and promulgated in the year 1776, in the City 
of Philadelphia ; and, whereas, it behoves the people of the United States to 
celebrate by appropriate ceremonies, the centennial anniversary of this memor- 
able and decisive event, which constituted the 4th day of July, 1776, the 
birthday of the nation ; and, whereas, it is deemed fitting that the completion 
of the first century of our national existence shall be commemorated by an 
exhibition of the natural resources of the country and their development, and 
of its progress in those arts which benefit mankind, in comparison with those 
of older nations ; and, whereas, no place is so appropriate for such an exhibition 
as the city in which occurred the event it is designed to commemorate ; and, 
whereas, the Exhibition should be a national celebration, in which the people 
of the whole country should participate, it should have the sanction of the 
Congress of the United States. Therefore — Section i. Be it enacted. . . . 
That an Exhibition of American and Foreign arts, products, and manufac- 
tures shall be held, under the auspices of the Government of the United 
States, in the City of Philadelphia, in the year 1876." 

Then follow details respecting the arrangements, &c. 

In 1874 the President was authorised by an Act of Congress 
" to extend, in the name of the United States, a respectful and 
cordial invitation to the Governments of other nations, to be 
represented and take part in the International exposition." 

Our Government having accepted the invitation, the British 
section is under the direction of the Lords of the Committee of 
Council for Education. His Grace the Duke of Richmond, K.G., 
Lord President of the Council, and Colonel Herbert Sandford, 
R.A., and Professor T. C. Archer, F.R.S.E., Joint Executive 

A brief description of the building in which the Exhibition 
will be held may be interesting. 

The main exhibition building is in the form of a parallelogram, 
extending east and west 1,880 feet in length ; and north and south 
464 feet in width. The larger portion of the structure is one 
storey high, and shows the main cornice upon the outside 
at 45 feet above the ground ; the interior height being 70 feet. 
Upon the corners of the building there are four towers 75 feet in 

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high. The roof over the central part, for 184 feet square, has 
been raised above the surrounding portion, and four towers 48 
feet square, rising to 1 20 feet in height, have been introduced at 
the corners of the elevated roof. The areas covered are as 
follows : — 

Ground floor, 872,320 square feet, 20.02 acres 

Upper floors in projections, 37,344 » '85 ,, 

Do. in towers, ... 26,344 „ .60 „ 

936,008 21.47 

Besides the main building, there is an Art Gallery, which is 
one of the affixes to the Great Exhibition, and is located on a line 
parallel with and northward of the main building. The materials 
are granite, glass, and iron; no wood is used in the building. 
This structure is 365 feet in length, 210 feet in width, and 59 feet 
in height, over a spacious basement 1 2 feet in height, surmounted 
by a dome. There is also a Horticultural building, 383 
feet long, 193 feet wide, and height to top of the lantern 72 feet. 
Besides this, there are Agricultural and Machinery buildings, 
to provide for the various departments; the following being a 
summary of the total available space : — 

Main building, ... covering 21.47 acres 

Art gallery, ... „ 1.05 „ 

Machinery building, „ 14. „ 

Horticultural building, ,, 1.05 „ 

Agricultural building, ,, 10.15 ,, 

The Exhibition will be held at Fairmount Park, in the City of 
Philadelphia, and will be opened on the loth of May, 1876, and 
closed on the loth of November following. 

In the departments there are ten classifications. Of these No. I. 
is devoted to raw materials — mineral, vegetable, and animal; 
and No. III. to textile and felted fabrics, apparel, costumes, and 
ornaments for the person. 

We have much pleasure in being able to announce that 
the Irish linen trade will be represented in this Exhibition, 
and although the number of exhibitors will be few, we have little 
doubt that our staple industry will, so far as excellence is con- 
cerned, fare well at the hands of those firms who, at very great 
trouble and expense, have imdertaken to contribute samples on 
this occasion. 

From inquiries which we have made we may mention the 
names of some of these, and also the goods which they intend 
sending out. The high position they hold is a sufficient 
guarantee that in the textile section our national reputation will 

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be fully sustained ; and we heartily wish these spirited firms the 
first rank in this special department. 

Messrs. John S. Brown & Sons, of Bedford Street, Belfast, 
will exhibit damasks, diapers, linens, and sheetings, in white and 
brown state, also handkerchiefs, &c. 

Messrs. Dicksons, Ferguson, k Co., Belfast, intend exhibiting 
linens unbleached and bleached ; sheetings, handkerchiefs, drills, 
glass towels, huckaback towelling ; also bleached damasks, Turkish 
towels, &c. 

Messrs. Dunbar, M*Master, & Co., Gilford (County Down), 
Ireland, flax spinners, linen thread manufacturers, and bleachers, 
will exhibit linen thread for hand and machine sewing, for knitting, 
and crochet ; for lace ; for fishing nets, <kc. ; for shoe and saddlery 
purposes, &c. Grey and bleached yarns for weaving linens, 
damasks, drills, cambrics, &c. 

Messrs. Fenton, Connor, & Co., Linen Hall, Belfast, intend 
exhibiting linens of all kinds, brown, white, and printed ; also 
damasks, handkerchiefs, drills, &c. 

Messrs. Henry Matier & Co., Clarence Place, Belfast, will 
exhibit handkerchiefs of all kinds, bleached, hemmed, hemstitched, 
printed, tucked, and embroidered ; bleached and printed linens, 
printed dresses, damasks, &c.; also embroidered cuffs and collars 
for ladies. In these samples of linens and handkerchiefs some of 
the finest manufactured goods will be shown. 

Messrs. J. N. Richardson, Sons, & Owden, Belfast, will show 
samples of shirting and fronting linens, diapers, damasks of finest 
makes, cambric and linen handkerchiefs, bordered and hemstitched ; 
pillow linens, sheetings, dress linens, hollands, &c. ; amongst these 
will be found samples of the most superior manufacture. 

Our little work has now come to a close, and we hope that the 
information collected may be found useful. In endeavouring to 
grasp a comprehensive subject like this, where an attempt has 
been made to compress a large amount of matter into narrow 
bounds, the difficulty of selecting materials from a mass of 
information, scattered through an innumerable number of books and 
documents of various kinds, was very great. Without unnecessarily 
encumbering the work with details, our aim has been to supply just 
sufficient to illustrate it in its several stages, and at same time, as 
far as practicable, to preserve an unbroken chain in the historic 
sketch. How far we have succeeded in this respect our readers 
will judge. The subject deserved better treatment than it has 
received; but, within the limits prescribed, we trust a fair view 

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has been presented of the linen manufacture in ancient and 
modern times. 

Appended to the Handbook will be found tables showing 
the Export trade in Linen Yarns and Cloth, during the past and 
present century. 

In another Appendix a condensed report is given of the textile 
factories of the Continent, and of the United Slates of America, 
compiled from Parliamentary blue books published in 1873. 
In addition to this, tables of Duties, charged by foreign countries, 
on the Flax Manufactures of the United Kingdom, are supplied. 

The Directory of the Irish Linen trade forms the concluding 
portion of our work. The names are not as complete as could be 
wished, but it was impossible in the first edition of the book to 
make this section quite accurate. In our next edition we hope to 
rectify any errors and omissions which were unavoidable in this, 
and shall be obliged if any of our readers will kindly supply us 
with the necessary information for this purpose. 

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An Account of Linen Cloth Plain, and Linen Yarn, Ex- 
ported FROM Ireland, between 1728 and 182 i.* 

ending at 


LINEN tarn 




ending at 








c. q. lbs. 


c. q. lbs. 



ii.4<;o 6 


2D 205.087 

30.598 3 5 



11.855 3 I 
10.088 I 9 


20. 502. 587 

36.152 2 5 





29.698 I 10 



13.746 6 



28.108 3 10 



15.343 2 16 



35673 15 



13.357 2 21 
18.122 22 



42.369 3 25 





37.202 2 



15.900 3 20 



28.187 3 



14.743 3 13 



35.812 3 23 


14.695 2 II 


33.013 2 15 



*i5 945 3 3 



28.842 I 5 



18.200 I 6 



31.062 20 



18.542 3 8 



31.049 2 



21.656 3 14 

• 1788 


27.275 II 



16.330 2 22 



28.742 2 



14.169 I 10 


37.322. 1^5 

31.572 3 20 



18.01 1 I 

1 791 


26.999 2 15 


7. 171.963 

22.066 I 25 



17.190 2 14 



27.741 3 20 



16.644 2 3 



28.910 2 20 



19.056 I 20 



19.418 6 



22.730 3 10 



21.694 20 



20.601 5 



23.373 5 



12.865 I 


12. 891. 318 

23.743 20 


33.497. 17* 

20.330 2 15 



23.407 5 


16.850 3 5 


10.41 1.787 

23.238 5 



12.201 I 



22.594 2 



II. 135 I 



27.948 3 7 



23.492 I 



26.997 15 


35.491. 131 




31.078 8 15 






31.995 15 











12. 048.881 

31.042 I 15 



8.705 2 


39.699 2 25 






35.950 I 25 





16.013. 105 

34.468 7 





15. 201.081 

31.715 1 25 



6.049 0. 








35.018 I 



21.043 I 



30274 3 






32.590 I 25 






37.037 20 






33.417 15 






34.166 10 



14.008 3 



32.441 2 25 



10.626 3 



28.078 3 25 



5-553 I 14 



39.194 I 10 



9.256 3 7 

• From Betonu published by Linen Trade Board in 1881. 

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Return of Linen Yarns and Linen Manufactures Exported 
FROM the United Kingdom from 1831 to 1875. 


LINEN manufactures. 


Quantity (lbs.) 

Declared Value. 

Quantity (yds.) 

Declared Value. 





no. 188 




• 1833 





















8. 373. TOO 




































I 050.676 


















11.722. 182 







1 11.259. 183 














1. 140. 565 





1. 154.977 

134. 165.291 





1 1 1. 648. 657 

4. 119. 043 




118.039. 721 





146.410. 188 













27 290.387 





31. 210.612 













5 131. 104 








3.010. 109 


















2.309. Ill 















2. 220. 103 





2. 141.649 










1. 72 1. 205 








The figures from 1881 to 1868 are thoM giren in " Warden's Linen Trade.' 

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The National Association of Factory Occupiers in Great 
Britain and Ireland having, on the nth July, 1872, presented a 
Memorial to the Government, praying ^*that authentic and 
reliable information might be obtained and published as to the 
hours of labour, the rates of wages, and the progressive increase 
of production in factories for the spinning and weaving of textile 
fabrics on the Continent, especially in Germany, Austria, Belgium, 
Holland, France, and Switzerland," the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department caused circular letters to be addressed to 
her Majesty's representatives abroad, requesting that they would 
furnish the Government with such information on the subject as 
they could ascertain. Accordingly, in the latter end of 1872, and 
during 1873, reports were forwarded to the Government, and 
from the Parliamentary books, published in 1873, we present the 
following abstract, so far as relates to flax spinning and weaving, 
and trust that the condensed summary will be found useful. 

This is the latest information we have of an official nature, 
and although published about two years and a half ago, in all 
probability the state of these factories on the Continent shows very 
little difference from the position then recorded ; as since that 
period trade all over Europe has been in a stationary position, or 
has barely maintained itself at the point reached when these 
reports were compiled. There is no report on the Manufactures 
of France, as when these books were published the Government 
had not received information on the subject. 


Almost the whole population of the two Flanders may be said to be 
engaged, directly or indirectly, in the linen trade, from the cultivation of flax 
on the banks of the Lys and steeping it in the adjoining ditches till the 
manufactured article is ready for sale. Almost all the finer qualities of Belgian 
flax, called "Flax of the Lys," from its being steeped in that river, is bought 
by England, and partly returned as yarn, Belgian spinners importing coarse 
Russian, and confining themselves ta the production of coarse yams. The 
spinning is done in eighteen or nineteen steam-power mills, containing about 
222,000 spindles, and employing 1 0,000 hands. The weaving, on the contrary, 
is mostly done by hand by the men working at home or in "ateliers 
d'apprentissage." There are, indeed, only three or four large steam-power 

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weaving factories in Belgium, it being the custom for manufacturers to supply 
artisans with yams to weave at home. 

With the exception of three large factories at Alost, producing linen 
sewing thread, the flax spinning trade has of late years been concentrated at 
Ghent, which city contains, among many others, two mills of great size, 
working 51,000 and 44,000 spindles respectively, and each employing 2,000 

In one of the smaller spinning mills, employing about 300 hands and 
working 700 spindles, I observed that in the first process, i.e., the cutting and 
cleaning of the flax, none but boys were employed, who earned from 50 to 75 
c. a day. The men employed for dressing and classifying the flax earned up 
to 2. 50 fr. per day. The rest of the work was done by women, who were 
paid up to 2 fr. per day. 

The hands worked for twelve hours daily, ue.y from 7 to 12 a. m., and 
from I to S p.m. without interruption, the occupier having suppressed the 
usual periods of repose at S a.m. and 4 p.m. at the request of his workmen, 
who preferred leaving ofl" work a little sooner. 

The wages in this mill are perhaps a little below the average, as only the 
coarser qualities of flax are employed. But 2 fr. per day are considered good 
wages for a woman in Ghent, and the Chamber of Commerce of Courtrai 
mentions, as a proof of the prosperity of trade in 1871, that weavers earned 
2 fr. 50 c. per day. I have obtained the following information respecting the 
wages, hours of labour, and expenses of the hands in a large linen factory in 
Ruysbroeck, near Brussels, employing about 800 operatives. 

Foremen receive 5 fr. and upwards per day, 1st class hands receive per 
day, 2 fr. 75 c; 2nd class, 2 fr.; 3rd class, I fr. 25 c; women, 1st class, 2 fr.; 
women, 2nd class, I fr. 75 c. ; women, 3rd class, i fr. 

During seven months of the year, working hours are from 6.30 a.m. to 
5.30 p.m., broken by intervals of repose, viz., at 8 a.m., half-an-hour ; at 
noon, one hour ; and at 4 p.m., a quarter of an hour. 

During the five summer months, the hours are from 5.30 a.m. till 7 p.m., 
with the same wages and intervals of repose. Extra work is paid for at the 
rate of 25 c. per hour. Children under 12 years of age are not, as a rule, 

The rent of a small house of four or five rooms, with a little garden, 
cellar, and garret, is from 10 to 12 fr. per month. 

The principal articles of food are bread, potatoes, bacon, cofiee, chicory, 
and white cheese. Chicory and bread for breakfast, potatoes and vegetables 
cooked with bacon at noon, and vegetable soup with bread and white cheese 
for supper. Light beer and water are the chief beverages. 

By joining a family, it is possible^for a single man to be lodged and fed 
for 35 fr. per month. 

The following remarks apply to the busy manufacturing towns of Alost, 
Ninove, Termonde, St. Nicolas, and Lokeren, lying together in East Flanders, 
the most densely populated portion of Belgium. The factories in these towns 
are not of great size. They manufacture goods of flax, cotton, wool, and 
mixed stuffs. The most important of these industries are the manufacture of 
blankets at Termonde, of sewing thread at Alost and Ninove, and the coloured 
cotton and wool mixed tissues at St. Nicolas. 

Alost contains four factories, employing about 2,500 hands, and Ninove 
nine, on a smaller scale, with 1,000 hands in all. These two towns contain 
nearly all the factories in Belgium for the manufacture of cotton and linen 
sewing thread. There are likewise sewing thread factories in West Flanders, 
near Roulers, but they are not flourishing, owing, it is said, to the greater 
importation of late of English thread, which is but lightly taxed in Belgium. 

The year 187 1 was favourable to this manufacture at Alost. From thc 

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month of March the demand was well sustained, and the rise in the price of 
flax foreshadowing a rise in that of linen thread, increased the demand. This 
prosperity is, however, due to temporary causes, and manufacturers complain 
much of the heavy duties which prevent their competing freely with neigh- 
bouring countries, as also of that on certain yams imported from England for 
manufacturing purposes. 

Here, and in many parts of East and West Flanders, a good deal of hand 
weaving is done at home, and some communes have established industrial 
schools to encourage the trade, such as those of Ypres, Passchendal, and 
Becelaire, the two former of which are doing well, but the latter is languishing, 
owing to the superior popularity of the trade of flax-peeling. These private 
looms work principally for manufacturers, the quantity sold on the market 
being quite insignificant. 

The "ateliers d'apprentissage," or schools where weaving is taught partly 
at the expense of the State and partly of the commune, were established by 
government during a period of distress amongst operatives in the flax trade, 
and have been productive of good results. The pupils are admitted at the age 
of 12, and receive a practical professional education in diff"erent branches of 
weaving. On leaving the school, if efficient weavers, the pupils receive a 
certificate. There are between 70 and 80 of these industrial schools, chiefly 
in West Flanders, all working for manufacturers, who provide the yam. By 
means of these schools a constant supply of good weavers is assured to linen 

This trade has made great advances in the last two years, the Alost factory 
having increased the number of its looms from 60 to 100, during that period 
producing linen tissues of great width and all qualities. 

The great demand for these articles during the late war induced a larger 
supply than could well be disposed of, but the steam factory at Alost is in a 
flourishing state, paying its hands 2 fr. per day. It may be noted that a daily 
increasing quantity of jute enters into the composition of these coarse fabrics. 

Alost possesses three factories of damask linen, all in good work, and a 
certain amount is also produced by private hands. Table cloths, napkins, and 
towels, grey and white, are the principal produce, for the latter of which, 
during the past year, the demand almost exceeded the power of supply. 

Damasked tissues for mattrasses are in little demand, being now for the 
most part replaced by stripped ticking. 

In the four large sewing thread factories of Alost, the wages and hours of 
labour are the same. The largest one employs 1,000 men and boys, and 150 
women. The men and boys are divided into five, and the women and girls 
into three classes. 

Children are employed from six and seven years of age and upwards. 

During the six summer months work commences at 6 a.m. and finishes 
at 8 p.m., with an hour's repose at noon, and a quarter of an hour at 8 a.m. 
and 4 p.m. 

During the winter months work commences at 7.3c a.m. and closes at 
8 p.m. ; with same intervals for repose. 

The factory operatives here live wretchedly ; their chief food consists of 
potatoes and dry bread. They inhabit small huts, many of them unfloored, 
and sleep on sacks filled with straw, with a sort of blanket made of coarse 
tow for bed-covering. Lodgings, composed of two rooms, can be had at 6 fr. 
per month. A young single workman, by joining a family, can be lodged and 
fed for I fr. 25 c. (is to is id) a day. All mill hands wear blouses and wooden 
shoes. A spinner can clothe himself at an average expense of 50 fr. a year. 

Provisions cost the same as at Ruysl^roeck, excepting that potatoes are a 
trifle cheaper. Butter-milk, costing about i^d per pint, enters largely into 
the daily consumption of food. 

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At Ninove, where there are five mills for spinning sewing thread, the 
largest employs 400 operatives. Foremen receive per day, 3 fr. 50 c. All 
other fill! grown operat ves earn from i fr. 50 c. to 2 fr. Children are admitted 
into the mill at eight )ears of age, and receive at once from 3 to 4 fr. a week, 
but after four or five years' employment they earn up to 12 and 13 fi-. a week, 
and are considered to be in their prime. Hardly any women are employed 

All hands work twelve hoiurs a day ; for any overtime work an extra 
quarter of the daily wage is paid. 

The ignorance and misery of the operatives is here great. Their lodging 
and food are the same as at Alost, but Ninove being a small country town, 
most families possess a plot of ground where vegetables are grown for family 

Termonde contains several factories of both cotton and flaxen goods. 
The principal trade of the town is in cotton blankets, which employs a large 
number of hands. 

With respect to wages and hours of labour, they are the same as at Alost 
and Ninove, excepting that at Termonde the operatives are sometimes em- 
ployed for fifteen hours a day in times of great activity. 

In these three places, and in the small factories abounding in this part of 
Flanders, the proportion of children employed is very large, and has a marked 
effect both physical and moral on the people. 

The position of the operative is perhaps worse here than elsewhere in 
Belgium. A first-class hand earns on an average about 700 fr., or £2%, a year ; 
whilst the smallest sum on which it is calculated a man can exist involves an 
expenditure of about 500 fr. (;^2o) a year (i fr. 25 c. for board and lodging 
per day, and 50 fr. per annum for clothing). Indeed, the possibility of exis- 
tence on such wages is only to be explained by the large proportion of children 
employed, who add to the resources of their families, and also in the country 
and smaller manufacturing towns, by the possession of a small garden, where 
vegetables, chiefly turnips and carrots, and sometimes potatoes, are raised. 

At Lokeren there is one mill for flax and four for hemp and tow ; at 
Tamise two for hemp and jute. These trades all prospered during 1871, the 
trade of Italy and Germany with France having been diverted to Belgium for 
such articles as saddlers' and shoemakers' thread, while the quantities of sack- 
ing demanded for the army gave an impetus to the coarser yarns. 

With the exception of the long-established export trade of Belgian jvooUen 
yams to Scotland, I may state, as the result of my inquiries, that there is little, 
if any, regular exportation of Belgian textile fabrics to Great Britain for con- 
sumption there. Occupiers of factories at Verviers assured me that they never 
exported a piece of cloth directly to England ; and the same story was repeated 
to me by millowners at Ghent in regard to yarns and tissues both of flax and 
cotton. One cotton mill at Ghent is said to have exported manufactured goods 
to Manchester to the amount of ;f40,ooo during 1871, but this was stated to 
be exceptional, and owing to the special circumstances of that year. I was 
also informed at Ghent that a certain amount of flax yam was regularly exported 
to Scotland, there to be mixed with cotton, and afterwards re-exported to 
Belgium for making lace. 

The reasons for the possible successful competition of Belgian with British 
textile fabrics must be sought for in the lower rate of wages, the longer hours 
of labour, and the. cheaper railway transport in Belgium as compared with 
Great Britain. 

But, notwithstanding these apparent advantages, it does not appear British 
manufacturers have anything to fear from their rivals in Belgium. 

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The Prussian factories are not generally concentrated in districts, one 
branch here, another there, and a third somewhere else, and so on ; but they 
are situated more or less equally over certain provinces, and no special branch 
is confined to one special district. 

In many of the Prussian industrial centres all branches are equally repre- 

Generally I am informed that there is a tendency to diminish the hours of 
labour to twelve, including two hours for rest, and to raise the rate of wages; 
but this increase, which is considerable in the case of male factory hands, is 
small as regards the women, who nevertheless form the greater portion of the 
hands employed in the spinning and weaving factories in this country. 

Girls from 14 to 16 years of age can never be made to work more than ten 
hours a day. The police come once a month, at least, to examine them and 
see that all the different provisions of the " gewerbe ordnung" (Industrial Code 
of 1869) are complied with. Girls under 12 cannot be admitted as factory 
hands, nor can any girl be employed in a factory until she has completed her 
schooltime and been confirmed. Certificates to this effect must be furnished to 
the employer before he ean admit any applicant, and must always be attached 
to the passbook of each child, which passbook the police examine and sign at 
each monthly visit. 

In addition to these monthly visits, quarterly inspections of the factory 
children are also made by superior officers of police. There is as yet no offcial 
supervision for women above sixteen years of age. They are left to make what 
bargains they choose with their employers, and practically work the same 
number of hours as the men. 

In some few cases these reports enter more into detail ; the Breslau 
report, for instance, says that at the flax spinning factory of Messrs. Gruschwitz 
& Sons, at Neusalz, the hands work from twelve to thirteen hours a day, 
women receiving from 6 to 13^ groschens. (7X<1 to i6d) per day, and the men 
receiving from 12 to 25 groschens (is 3d to 2s 6d) per day. These employers 
provide lodgings, which are let out at reduced rates to the persons employed in 
their factory. 

A factory owner who has kindly given me a good deal of information 
as^res me that, in his experience, so far from production having increased (I 
mean, of course, in ratio to the numbers employed) since wages have been 
raised, the contrary is the case. He finds his hands work less willingly and 
less carefully, are more insubordinate, and refuse to jdeld the same obedience 
which they formerly did. They know full well that if they are dismissed from 
the factory they can immediately find employment elsewhere in the large town 
on the outskirts of which his works are situated. The result, therefore, is, 
that /or higher wages he gets less work done than before, and if it were not for 
the improvements which have been invented in machinery, and which more 
than counter-balance the bad work of his factory hands, he would be carrying 
on his business at a loss. This gentleman also tells me that his workpeople 
are becoming more irregular in their attendance, especially on Mondays, and 
that they often refuse to work overtime in spite of the extra payment which 
they would receive for it. 

Wages paid in Messrs. Gruschwitz & Son's flax spinning mill— Girls, 3s 
9^d to 8s; women, 3s 9/^d to 8s; men, 7s 6d to 15s 6d. 

Great difficulty was experienced in getting statistical information regarding 
the flax factories in Prussia, and no details given in this report. 


Work in the Austrian weaving establishments goes on throughout the 

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whole year, with the exception of Sundays, the Church festivals, and oertain 
national or local festivals. 

The number of working days, therefore, in most manufactories is about 
300. It exceeds this average in some, while in others it sinks to 290. The 
daily hours of work amount to 12 here and there, more especially in summer 
to 13 in other places, and in winter to 10 or 11. 

The rate of wages varies according to the fluctuation of the average market 
price and the price of provisions in different districts. It adjusts itself further 
according to the description and sex of the labourer. In the year 1870 the 
daily wages of a labourer employed in the manufacture of textile fabrics, at their 
highest average, were as follows : — 


Lower and Upper Austria ... ... ... 80 to I florin. 

Voralberg ... ... ... ... 65 

Tyrol ... ... ... ... .. 60 

Bohemia (flat, or low, country) ... ... 50 

Galicia ... ... ... ... ... 40 to 45 

Other districts ... . ... .. 55 

Since then there has been everywhere an increase in wages, which amounts 
to and even exceeds 20 per cent. 

With reference to the question of the increase of the produce of the loom 
in Austrian manufactories, no sufficient information can be given, because it is 
only latterly that statistical data have been collected on the advancement of 
industrial products. As far as can be gathered from them, the production of 
flax manufactures in Austrian establishments during the year 1870 are valued at 
5,cxx),ooo florins of Austrian currency. 

The manufacture of linen, especially in Bohemia, Silesia, and Moravia, is 
carried on principally by means of hand looms. 

Spinning by machinery is being only very slowly established. The number 
of machine looms in use amount to 346, of which 294 are in Silesia, 30 in 
Moravia, and 22 in Tyrol. 

In the year 187 1 there were about 25,000 joch (one joch equal to about two 
acres) under flax cultivation in Hungary and Transylvania; in the former 
country the average yield was 6*65 cwt. seed, and 3*16 cwt. flax per jocH, in 
the latter 379 cwt. seed and 3*15 flax. 

The following countries are those in which the greatest extent of land was 
under flax cnltivation : — 


Zips ... ... ... ... ... 3,343 

Eisenburg ... ... ... ... ... 2,091 

Sdros ... ... ... ... ... 1,947 

Jorda .. ... ... ... ... 1,671 

Pest ... ... ... ... ... 1,486 

Ama .. ... ... ... ... 1,037 

Csongrad ... ... ... ... ... 1,027 

Trenesin ... ... ... ... ... 1,025 . 

In none of the okher countries did the extent of land so cultivated exceed 
1,000 joch. 

The amount of linseed produced in Hungary and Transylvania was 105,668 
cwt., and the amount of flax was 30,309 cwt. 

As regards textile fabrics it must be remarked that in the northern districts 
of Hungary and Transylvania a considerable quantity of flax is woven by the 
pea.sants in their leisure hours, and that the comparatively small number of 

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professional weavers is a matter of little import. Their number may be stated 
at 7,970» but many of them only work in winter. * 

The number of looms is much greater, as in the above-mentioned districts 
almost every peasant's house is provided with a loom, from which during the 
winter the members of the family not only supply their own wants, but also 
produce fabrics of very fair quality for sale. 

The produce of flax in Croatia, Slavonia, and the military frontier, amounts 
to about 60,000 cwt 


The manufacture of linen is verjr ancient in this country, a damask weav- 
ing factory and a linen company havmg been founded by Duke Frederick I,, in 
Urach, as early as 1597. Once the glory of Wurtemberg, it had already, at the 
commencement of this century, dwindled from its former high position ; nor 
did its decrepitude stop then. The Napoleonic wars and continental system, 
the competition of England in transatlantic markets, her application of me- 
chanism to flax spinning, above all, the extraordinary development of the cotton 
industry — nay, even the very whims of modem fashion — all contributed to its 
decay. The whole of Europe participated in the results produced by the above 
circumstances, under which England attained and maintained llmt prepon- 
derance against which, with varying effect, the struggle is continued up to the 
present day. In this peaceful conflict Wurtemberg has played a gallant, though 
a modest, part ; and as long ago as the Munich Exhibition, she had the satis- 
faction of hearing the judgment that, in the imitation of Irish bleaching, finish- 
ing, and preparing for market, the Wurtembergers carried off" the palm. 

This was a great step towards recovery of lost ground, but it was not 
made in a day. First among the measures which prepared the regeneration of 
the linen industry, was the introduction of machine spinning. Up to the year 
1840 the yarn was all prepared by hand. After two unsuccessful attempts in 
earlier years, a mechanical flax-spinning factory was at length successfully es- 
tablished, with the help of Government assistance, in Urach, in the year 1840, 
employing 4,200 spindles. In this same year was organised a society *' for 
the improvement of flax eultivation and the linen industry." The finest seed 
was next brought from Kiga; premiums were given for the cultivation of the 
plant; and Government introduced the latest machinery for its preparation. 

The second measure, and that which mainly contributed to insure the 
above award at Munich, was the amelioration of the processes of bleaching," 
preparing, and finishing up of linen goods for market. This too was the work 
of the Government which introduced an Irish expert in the trade together with 
English machines, and established the now celebrated bleaching establishments 
in Blaubeuren and Heidenheim, equal to the best in Germany in those arts, 
which if they add but slightly to the worth, increases so much the beauty of 
linen goods. 

Another establishment which has become the property of the State exists 
at Weissenau, and there is also a very ancient one at Urach, besides many 
others less important in differeni parts of the country. 

By the year 1861, the number of flax-spinning factories had only advanced 
to three workings, in all 5,896 spindles. In 1865 arose another factory with 
1,752 spindles, and in 1868 a fifth with 1,000 spindles making the total at this 
latter date 10,944 spindles, or 5,048 more than in 1861.* At the same time 
the number of hands employed in the spinning of flax, hemp, and tow was 756 
including women and children. 

In Wurtemberg linen weaving is .still at the present day mostly done by 

^Xbese Btatistics include the spinuing of hemp aud tow. 

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hand. Until the establishment of- the mechanical weaving factories at Blaa- 
beuren in 1858, thi^was universally the case. Besides the larger manufacturers 
and dealers, the trade is followed by the so-called ** Kaufweber** who either, 
work on their own account for sale in the country markets, or by commission 
for private persons, or for larger dealers, and themselves employ a certain 
number of hired weavers usually paid by the piece. The more important 
dealers both employ hands in factory buildings, and also give out yam to be spun 
at home. A decided majority of the weavers work in summer in the fields, and 
the largest portion of the looms are only in motion some 60 or 80 days per annum 
(1861). Now, as a loom, to give a man a living, must be worked 280 or 300 days 
in the year, it was calculated, in 1861, that not above 3,000 master weavers 
could be said to live by weaving alone. Formerly, the weavers were much in 
the habit of wandering over the country to effect a sale of their wares, by 
peddling in which more evil was done against good manners than gain secured 
•by good bargains; 

The number of weavers, including those who lived by the trade, and those 
who only worked at it occasionally, was estimated in 1829 at 29,804; in 1835 
at 24,441; in 1852 at 26,000, and in 1861 at 19,507, showing, after some 
fluctuations, a decrease of over 8,000 persons in thirty years. In the latter 
year the number of looms was 19,379, 43*1 P^r cent, of which were calculated 
to be regularly worked, and 56*9 per cent, only as an auxiliary means of live- 
lihood. The amount produced was estimated at 22,304,040 ells, worth 
7,261 000 fl. (about ;f 605.080). The large decrease of numbers after 1850 may 
in great measure be accounted for by the fact that, at that time, a great number 
of weavers, seeing the promise of obtaining more ample means of subsistence 
in that direction, went over to the cotton trade. 

Exact statistics of the condition of this branch of industry later than the 
above do not exist, and German conscientiousness is not easily brought to 
approximate estimates, every fraction of which cannot be sworn to. 

As in the spinning so in the weaving trade, the increase in the number 
or size of the better kind of establishments has of late years gone steadily 
on, and though it may be long before the poor weaver has altogether 
given place to the power-loom, the small end of the wedge is well in. 
In 1866, forty new looms were added at Blaubeuren and more in 1871. 
The reports of 1869 and of 1872 also speak of increase in the amount 
produced in the country. At the end of 1868 a second mechanical 
weaving establishment arose at Ravensburg, twenty looms being then 
at work out of eighty which it was proposed to set up. In Laichingen, 
one of the principal seats of the manufacture of sheets, damask, quilts, &c , 
there were in 1871, 621 looms (still divided among 254 establishments) all the 
pattern and broad looms, and twenty of the smaller ones being of Irish con- 
struction. Here the employment of bleached yam seems to be coming more 
and more into favour. A Laichingen manufacturer informed me that most of 
the produce of that place found a market in the country, being either too little 
known or too costly to bear a distant destination ; a small portion, however, 
finds its way to Italy. 

The principal wares produced are : — Household linen, unbleached or half- 
bleached, and, of a very solid description, linen for shirts and pocket handker- 
chiefs, table linen of good quality, Jacquard damask, packing stuff for sacks, 
&c., and stiff linen cloth. 


In the spinning factories the time of labour which formerly used to vary 
from thirteen to fourteen hours a day (deducting the intervals allowed for 
breakfast, dinner, and tea), has been reduced to twelve hours, especially since 

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187 1. The efforts made by the working men in some places — for instance, in 
Chemnitz — in the sense of a further reduction have as yet proved ineffectual. 

In some factories for the spinning of flax, on the contrary, the time of 
work has been reduced to ten hours. 

In weaving manufactories where machines are used, the time of labour 
likewise extends now mostly to twelve hours a day. Altogether, where opera- 
tives are kept working together, the hours of labour are generally the same in 
the various industrial establishments of a place, whatever may be the branch of 
industry to which they belong. 

In some few places, e.g.y in the neighbourhood of Zittau, the time of labour 
has been reduced from twelve to ten hours. 

The spinning of flax, which is, for the present moment, rather in an un- 
favourable position, has taken much greater dimensions since the last ten or 
twelve years ; in the year 1861 there were 13,000 spindles — now we may safely 
assume that there are 36,000. 


Switzerland, in spite of her remote inland position, the conformation of 
her soil, which presents great obstacles to internal communication, her want of 
capital, as of most of the first elements of commercial prosperity, has, after a 
long and severe struggle, become entitled to rank as an important manufacturing 
State. Her textile fabrics, for instance, penetrate to the most distant quarters 
of the globe, where they now find as ready a sale as others longer and better 
known. Her silk manufacturers boldly assert that, especially as regards cheap 
silks and silk ribbons, they are able at last not only to undersell on the Con- 
tinent the British producer of similar articles, but even to compete with him in 
the home markets of Great Britain. In the production of all goods, em- 
broidered whether by machine or by hand, she has completely distanced her 
Scotch and Saxon competitors, and now has a virtual monopoly of this im- 
portant branch of industry. 

Silk holds the first place, owing as much to the great value as to the 
enormously increased exportation of the manufactures of this staple. Cotton 
manufactures are the next in importance to silk. The exports of woollen yams 
and manufactures have increased even at a more rapid rate than those of silk 
and cotton, but the total amount is insignificant, and scarcely deserving of 

The exports of linen fabrics is even less than that of woollen as the follow- 
ing 'figures will show : — Quantity exported in i860, 296,4261bs. ; in 1871, 
3i9j392lbs. ; increase, 7g per cent. ; estimated value, ;^26,928 in i860, ;f 25,888 
in 1 87 1 ; decrease, 3* per cent. 

Up to the present moment, the average length of the working day through- 
out Switzerland is twelve hours, exclusive of the time necessarily required for 
the different meals, and a short rest in the middle of the day. Although the 
rates of wages in Switzerland have risen rapidly within the last two or three 
years, they must even now be at least from 40 to 50 per cent, below those 
actually ruling in England. The exports both of linen and woollen fabrics are 
so unimportant as not to require any special notice. These two branches of 
Swiss industry are in a comparatively backward state, and their produce gene- 
rally of a coarse quality, is mostly consumed in the country itself. 


Labour throughout the Netherlands is comparatively cheap, and wages, 
notwithstanding the rise which has taken place in some of the large towns, are 
still considerably below those paid in England. 

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15S Irish unen TkADk 

As a general, indeed almost invariable, rule, the Dutch as well as the 
foreign employers dispense with any but native labour, except in the case of 
skilled foremen. 

The question of wages has been occupying public attention for some time 
past, and it is not improbable that before long the position of the working 
classes may be improved in this respect ; directly, through a general advance 
on the present rate ; indirectly, by the lowering of prices through the estab- 
lishment of co-operative stores, and by the formation of industrial schools, 
where the workman may have the opportunity of increasing his knowledge, 
and thereby the productiveness of his labour. 

There is a general opinion, not unfrequently shared by the workmen them- 
selves, that the Dutch labourer is not equal in point of skill to the foreign 
workman — that he is slower at his work, and turns it out in a less finished 
state. Possibly there may be some grounds for this opinion as regards highly 
skilled and factory hands ; but with respect to the ordinary labourer, it is 
doubtful whether any very marked difference exists. 

The system of paying labour in the Netherlands is either by the week, or 
by the hour, or by the piece ; the two latter plans having become very general 
of late, especially that of pa)ring by the hour, as it is found that the men have 
an interest in working as long as their employers will permit. 

There is no law limiting the hours of labour, or prohibiting children under 
a certain age from working in the factories. As a general rule, the hours of 
labour vary from ten to fifteen a day, including intervals for at least two meals. 

The variation in the rate of wages is so great in different factories that it 
would be a difficult matter to strike a very exact average. 

Statistics of cotton and woollen manufactures are given, but none regarding 

In the larger towns, and in districts where skilled labour is in demand, a 
good factory hand may be supposed to earn, on an average, from I2s to 15s a 
week, in other places from 8s to los. In no factory, however, could the 
maximum wage exceed 20s a week (i2fl.). 

Factory hands are kindly treated by their employers, and although their 
wages are lower and their hours of labour longer than in England, they will 
generally be found to be a more contented class than the workmen at home. 

Doubtless their claim to higher wages will shortly receive favourable con- 
sideration; but, except in the case of children, it is unlikely that the Legislature 
will interfere in the matter of hours of labour. 


Husking (Coarse Linen) and Linen Weaving. — This branch of industry, 
which in North Brabant provides for the support of so many families, is not in 
a flourishing state. Ever3rwhere complaints are made of the diminished demand 
for this article, by which the production decreases. 

Foreign competition, especially by Belgian linen, appears to contribute 
much to this state of affairs; according to the opinion at least of some manufac- 
turers in this province, foreign markets may be regarded as closed with respect 
to these manufectures by the higher import duties levied in other countries on 
this article, whilst the corresponding dues with us are so much lower, and 
therefore facilitate importation. 

On the weavers, who with one, two, or at the most three looms work at 
home with the help of their families, these unfavourable circumstances operate 
very injuriously. Their number seems to become le^ every year. 

All these weavers work by the piece, and are paid by the metre, from 10 
cents (2d) to 25 cents (Sd). The price, of course, is regulated according to 
the greater or less fineness of the linen. 

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HAND Book. 159 

These linen weavers are met with in many districts in this province. 
Some of them work for manufacturers, some for mdividuals, but mostly for 
the latter. 

The farmers in this province have very touch the practice of cultivating a 
little flax and having it woven. But this custom also decreases, for the farmers 
of sandy soils are brought slowly to the conviction that linen acquired in this 
way costs them very dearly. 

A weaver working at home, and clever at his work, appears to be able to 
earn about lo cents (2d) per hour. For husking, or coarse linen, and damask 
weaving, skilful hands are able to stipulate for higher wages. 

The condition of the linen factory at Stryp is stationary, at the same time 
fears are entertained that the future will bring rather a diminution than an 
increase of production. 


It is difficult to furnish the approximate rate of wages paid to factory 
hands in Sweden; it depends mainly on the locality. The further north, the 
higher the wages. 

There is no restriction as to the hours of labour in Swedish factories 
affecting adults of either sex, but a Royal Statute dated the i8th of June, 1864, 
prescribes that children who have not completed their twelfth year may not be 
employed in factories, nor can workmen under eighteen years of age be em- 
ployed for night work (9 o'clock p.m. to 5 o'clock. a.m.). During^ the current 
year the hours of labour have been generally reduced, sixty-five hours may be 
taken to represent the present fixed amount of weekly labour in Swedish 

lonsered's factory, near Gothenburg (flax and hemp spinneries). There is 
also a weaving house for sail cloth, tent cloth, sack cloth, and linen fabrics. 
It works 10,000 spindles and 100 power looms, and employs 600 hands. 

Flax factories are very few, and the information given in the report for 
this country relates chiefly to cotton fabrics. 


The linen industry is the most truly national one. 

Flax is a growth especially suited to the soil and climate of the Northern 
Governments of Russia. The Baltic Provinces and the neighbouring Govern- 
ments supply the best ; the more Northern Governments, such as Viatka, the 
coarser qualities. Flax is also grown in the Governments bordering on the 
Black and Azov Seas. 

The value of the flax and linseed exported from Russia may be taken on 
an average as forming rather more than a quarter of the total exports. 

Owing to the inferior quality, or preparation of Russian flax, the finer 
sorts of linens are still brought from abroad, yet the extension of the Russian 
linen trade has been most considerable, and the exports, notably of the coarser 
kinds, promise large development. 

Linen was manufactured in Russia in the reigns (1645-76) of Michael and 
Alexis Romanow, who may almost be called the founders of the Russian 
manufacturing industry. Ever since that time it has made progress ; but it 
was the war in the United States, causing the temporary cessation of the 
imports of American cotton, which gave the greatest impetus to the Russian 
linen trade. During this crisis much capital was invested in linen mills 
(especially in the Kostroma Governments) and peasants in certain districts 
sowed every available acre with flax, tempted by the high prices which then 

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The statistics of Russian industry are still sbmewhat rough and imperfect, 
and there exists considerable divergence between the two most reliable and 
official sources of information — viz., the statistical work of M. Timiijasew, 
published in 1869, and the report dated 1870 of the Ministry of Finance. 
Thus, according to the latter, Russia, including Finland and Poland, had ic8 
flax and linen mills, emplo)dng 27, 700 hands, and producing annually goods 
to the value of ;f 1,432, 600; whilst M. Timirjasew states that, in 1867 (the 
latest date of the return) the number of mills, exclusive of those in Finland and 
Poland, was iii, with only 18,723 hands, and a production of ;£"!. 400,000. It 
is presumable, however, that the figures of both, even for 1867, were consi- 
derably below the truth ; for the number of hands employed by only 28 linen 
mills, represented at the St. Petersburgh Exhibitiion of 1070, and the value of 
their production, considerably exceeded that given by M. Timirjasew for the 
whole of Russia three years previously. 

The amount of linen cloth manufactured at home by peasants cannot be 
estimated, and there can be no doubt that, in Russia and Finland, home woven 
linen forms a very large part of native manufactures. 

The flax and linen industries have made most advance in the Jaroslaw and 
Moscow Governments, whilst in the St. Petersburgh Government they do not 
seem to thrive so well, some mills having of late stopped work. 

The linen manufacture is almost entirely in . the hands of the Russians ; 
which fact, though accounted for by the connection of this industry with the 
agricultural interest, is deserviug of mention, as so many branches of industry 
in this country are to a great extent followed by foreigners. 

The insufficient machinery employed, indeed its almost total absence in 
some districts, accounts for the great differences between the productiveness of 
labour in the different Governments. Jaroslaw is evidently the most advanced 
as regards the system of linen manufacture, since the value of production per 
workman in its flax spinning mills is, according to Timirjasew, about £20% in 
the linen mills ;^I20 ; whilst the Government of Wladimir is almost the last, 
for the average production of each workman is only ;f 59 in the spinning, and 
about ;^3i in the linen mills. 

It is, perhaps, by comparing the number of hands employed with the 
results obtained that the healthy progress of the Russian manufactures may be 
tested ; and there is no doubt that in this as well as ia all other branches of 
Russian industry, there is at present immense waste of labour, and consequent 
room for improvement. Still the state of the linen industry in Russia is emi- 
nently healthy, and the only limit to its development will be found in the 
tendency of cotton to supplant linen in many articles of use, and the general 
consequent torpor of the linen fabrication. In the coarser linen goods Russia 
should always hold her own. 

On the whole, it may be said of the Russian linen manufacture, that it has 
at length reached a point at which it is equal, so far as regards the middling 
and coarser qualities, not only to sustain foreign competition at home, but also 
to take part in foreign markets ; the more so, as Russian linen has already the 
character, unlike the Silesian and many German linens of being remarkably 
pure and free from mixture of cotton and other materials. 

Averse to allow Russia to depend entirely upon foreign manufacture for the 
principal want of its people, the Imperial Government has protected by duties, 
which in most cases are virtually prohibitive, the native manufacture. Under 
this forcing system the cotton industry in this empire has thriven amazingly 
during the last twenty or thirty years. Much foreign capital has, in conse- 
quence, been attracted to this country, and a large number of workmen are 
giving during the whole year, under the comparative discipline of the mills, a 
greater amount of useful agricultural pursuits ; for not only is the Russian 
peasant, as a rule, loth to till more land than is absolutely necessary for his 

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own modest wants, but, owing to the severity of the cKmate, his agricultural 
pursuits are suspended during a great portion of the year. 

As an incentive to labour is the great desideratum in RussFa, it may not be 
for the present an unmixed evil that the Russian peasant may be forced to give 
a higher price for the native manufacture than that which, under a free trade 
system, he would pay for foreign. The more his wants are increased, the more 
labour he is forced to give to his land or his trade. 

It is for the future to justify or condemn the policy of the Imperial Govern- 
ment in thus declining to be led by the liberal commercial principles held as 
axioms in some countries, who are at a more advanced stage of their develop- 
ment; at present it is only evident that Russia, with her newly-emancipated 
peasantry, should not be judged by exactly the same rules, as regards the appli- 
cation and productiveness of labour, as the older European nations or even 
other younger countries, such as the United States of America or the Austral- 
asian Colonies, peopled by an energetic and self-reliant population. 

As a general rule, in the cotton and linen trades the mills, except in dis- 
tricts where hand-loom spinning and weaving prevail, are on a far larger scale 
than is usual in England; that is to say, more capital is required, so that a 
laige proportion of the mills are owned by companies. Indeed, it has been 
found that small undertakings are frequently unsuccessful in Russia. The 
chief reason for that is the general want of capital amongst the middlemen, 
which compels the manufacturer to sell his goods at long credits; this system, 
as the commercial exactitude of the native trader is too frequently lax, results 
in an accumulation of bad debts, which, to a small industrial, might prove 

Regarding labour, besides Sundays, there are about twenty-four holy days 
in the year when no work is allowed. Some are Saints* days, others State 
holidays. In some localities one day is made a holiday, in another a different 
holy day may be observed; but, on the whole, it may be stated that, for the 
purpose of industry, there are somewhat less than 290 working days in the 

In the central Governments many cotton mills work night and day; in 
this case the hours of labour are naturally shorter than those given above, the 
hands relieving each other every twelve hours. 

There is, perhaps, no country where the hours of labour in every branch 
of industry are so long- as in Russia; thirteen hours per day being the general 
average, children generally working the same time as men. 

As before stated, there is great waste of labour in all the Russian industries. 
The first and principal cause of this is the want of proper mechanical appliances; 
but even in the mills where the best and newest machinery is used, it is found 
necessary to have a larger number of hands than is actually required, and this 
on account of the irregularity in attendance of the hands. Indeed, it has been 
found necessary in some cases to limit the gains of the piece workers. For 
instance, in England a spinner at the mules, with his helps, will attend to 
about 2,cxx) spindles; in Russia he is never given more than 1,000 spindles — 
generally 500. Again, in the weaving mills a Russian rarely has the care of 
more than two looms, whilst in Engjand a weaver will frequently look after six; 
had the Russian six looms under his care he would earn about 6s or 7s a-day 
(he can weave a piece, for which he receives a little more than is, at each loom 
daily). These large earnings would find their way to the **vodki" (brandy) 
shop) and irregularity of attendance would be the result. 

Strikes are by no means unusual in Russia, but there is no general 
organisation of the labouring classes; strikes when they occur are generally 

The Russians, being quick to learn and naturally fine-fingered, show con- 
siderable aptitude for factory labour, and they are especially good mechanics; 

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indeed, in this latter particular they are scarcely surpassed; but they have little 
pride in their work and are careless, which latter fault often causes great losses 
in the mills. 

English, German, or other foreign foremen are generally employed; in the 
larger mills the former earn from ;^30O to ;^45o per annum, with lodging, fuel, 
&c.; but this is often not the case: thus one of the largest mills in the St. 
Petersburg Government — the GoIenischtchefT cotton mill — employs exclu- 
sively Russians. . 

In conclusion, it may be stated, that in general the textile industries in 
Russia have of late years made considerable advance. 

The condition of the linen industry is especially healthy; but more care in 
the preparation of the raw material, and better machinery in the manufacture, 
are still urgently required, the latter want being felt in all the Russian textile 

The price of labour varies enormously in different parts of the Empire and 
according to circumstances; and it would be extremely difficult, indeed almost 
impossible, to give a correct general average of the wages paid in each branch 
of the textile industries of Russia. 

Wages are highest in the St. Petersburg district, lowest in the country 
districts of the centre. In and about St. Petersburg they have risen, on an 
average, about 15 per cent, within the last three years. 

As a market for foreign textile fabrics, Russia will probably, for a long 
period, continue to be a consumer of the finer descriptions of manufactures 
from abroad; but it is scarcely likely, unless an entire change of the tariff 
system should take place, that the lowest priced classes of foreign textile goods 
will ever, to any large extent, be imported to this country. 


The linen industry has not as yet attained to any position of importance 
in the United States. 

The progressive production, according to the census statistics is as follows: — 

1850 i860 1870 

' % £ % £ $ £ 

Flax dressing, ) (165,404= 34,400 815,010=142,700 

Linen goods > 351,808 = 73,000 < 
and thread ) (655,000=136,400 2,178,775 = 372,700 

The hemp and cordage have remained stationary. The linen manufectures 
have increased 170 per cent, since i860, and the jute industry has sprung up 
since that year. It consumed, in 1870, 5,800 tons of jute ; and its value is 
included in the returns for bagging and hemp dressing. 

In i860 it was remarked that, ** the manufacture of linen goods has made 
little progress in this country. A {^\^ mills, chiefly in Massachusetts, make 
crash and other coarse fabrics ; the largest two in the State produced 6,000,000 
yards in i860. Others are extensively engaged in making twines, shoe, and 
other threads. It is' to be regretted that the manufacture of flax has not 
attained greater magnitude in a country where the raw material is so easily 
and cheaply grown. Farmers throughout the West have raised the crop simply 
for the seed, and thrown out the fibre as valueless." 

As regards the manufacture of linen goods, I think that it is fair to say 
that there is no manufacture of fabrics from flax of any importance, excepting 
** crash" and bagging. An attempt by manufacturers of wealth, a few years 
ago, to establish the manufacture of the finer linens failed within a short 

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period. The protected products could not compete with the English goods. 
The failure was owing in a great degree to a duty, running up to 300 per cent, 
on fine yarns, which could not be spun in the States ; and also to the determi- 
nation of the imported hands, who soon found out their power, to obtain 
higher and yet higher wages. The machinery was, of course, also imported. 

As to the growth of flax for the linen manufacture, I beg to quote the 
following remarks, which, although made in 1856, are said to be almost equally 
applicable at the present time : — 

"The cultivation of flax has fallen off, not because it yielded no return 
for capital and labour, but because other crops yielded a much larger return 
In other words, *it did not pay,* and the farmers have ceased to raise it. 
Flax is a profitable crop to raise in Europe — why is it unprofitable here ? 
Because of the difference in climate and soil ; of the want of the skill and 
knowledge, acquired only by long experience, reauisite to its successful cultiva- 
tion and preparation for the spindle ; because of the differences in the character, 
habits, and wants of the agricultural population, male and female, in the two 
countries ; because cotton is relatively higher there than here, and because of 
many other reasons apparent to the thoughtful mind. 

**I was not long in arriving at the conclusion that, under this state of 
things, no bleached fine linen goods could be profitably made in this country. 
The only road which seemed to run out of this difficulty was the one leading 
to such improvements in the husbandry and preparation of ilax for the spindle 
as would reduce its price. After visiting most of the flax-growing districts in 
the United States, it appeared evident that the chief causes of the greater cost 
of producing flax here than abroad, was due to the greater cost of pulling and 
retting it. 

" In many parts of the country, particularly in Ohio, flax is largely sown 
for the seed only. It is mown in the same manner as grass, and thrown upon 
the threshing floor, and cattle are driven over it until it is threshed, and the 
straw, tow and all, is thrown into the roads for their improvement. Latterly, 
attention has been turned to the saving of this waste product, and a kind of 
tow has been reclaimed, to some profit, from which coarse goods have been 
successfully made. It has been thought that fine, or a good quality of white 
paper, could be made from this material, but the difficulty of bleaching the 
*' shoves," without destroying the fibre, has been found to be so great that the 
attempt has been abandoned. 

** It is not probable that fine linens can be profitably made from flax grown 
in this country for a number of years ; but there is no doubt but that coarse and 
cheap goods, for which there is a large demand, if advantage is taken of all the 
knowledge we now possess of the growth and preparation of flax, can be made 
with a fair margin of profit. 

** After our farmers have been educated, for a generation, in the cultivation 
and husbandry of flax, and our mechanics and artizans have had the same 
length of time in which to acquire experience and knowledge relating to its 
manufacture, the production of finer fabrics can be profitably maintained, and 
not till then." . . . " I do not think that in the present condition of this 
country the European methods of cultivating and husbanding of flax, which 
are the only ones that can succeed where the finer qualities are sought for, can 
be profitably introduced." 

As to wages, I can quote the following particulars : — 

In Massachusetts they were in 1871-72, on an average — Men, 7s 8^d ; 
women, 3s 8^d ; young persons, 3s 4d ; children, 2s iX^- 

The hours of labour in mills were per week, 72 in 1839, 66 in 1849 and 
1859. In 1869 they were usually 66, but are now (in 1873) in many cases 
reduced to 64^, in some mills to 62, and in some hosiery and thread mills to 
^. In this last case the day averages 10 hours, and in the other cases there 

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are five days of 1 1 hours and a short Saturday. In a few cotton mills, in seve- 
ral woollen mills, and in some other mills, the hours of labour exceed 66 hours, 
and reach sometimes even to 72 hours a-week. 

The flax mills in the United States in 1872 appeared to be as follows :— 





I trimmings, I cord, &c. 



5 tow, I bagging. 

6 tow, I bagging. 



I tow. 



I flax and hemp bagging. 
I crash and table-cloths. 



3 crash, &c., I linen goods, i braids. 




1 bagging. 

2 tow. 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey* 
New Yorkt 





3 bagging. 

I linens, 2 burlaps, carpets, &c. 
I bagging, 2 cordage and twine. 
3 linens and yarn, 6 twine, Ac. 



35 tow, 7 bagging. 
I thread. 



2 tow. 


* In New Jersey are also 3 mills making flax, hemp, and jute goods, 
t In New York the goods made at 35 of the mills are not known to me. 

As regards the future position of the linen industry, it will, I think, be 
evident from what has already been stated, that there is no immediate prospect 
of the uprising of an important linen manufacture in the United States. 

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Rates of Import Duties levied by Foreign Countries on the Linen 
Manufactures of the United Kingdom. Compiled from Returns 
presented to Parliament in 1869. 

NOTB.— J< ihitH tableg cure the latest ones of an official nature^ published by Parliament^ we 
believe they will be found substantially correct. We shall, however, be obliged, if any of our readers 
detect errors^ that they will be good enough to notify Mtne, with a view to correction in subsequent 


Tariff Classification. 

Tariff Rates 
of Duty. 


Russia : — 

Rbl. cop. 

£ s d 

Yams and threads, all kinds 

Poud 4 00 

Cwt. r 19 5 

Sweden : — 

R.d.m ore. 

Linen yams, undyed or unbleached 

Skal. 10 

„ 13 4 

„, dyed or bleached 

„ 20 



Sewing thread, unbleached .... 

„ 20 


,, bleached or dyed . 

» 30 

„ I 19 II 


Norway :— 

Spd. sk. 

Yams and threads, undyed* .... 

Fund 02 

„ I 18 2 

„ dyed and twisted . 

„ 10 

Denmark : — 

Rd, sk. 

Yams and threads, undyed .... 

» 03 
„ 08 


dyed .... 

„ 19 I 


Zollverein : — 

Thlr. sgr. 

Yams and threads, single unbld. machine spun 

Centr. 15 

„ I 6J 

„ „ hand spun . 



„ bleached, improved or dyed 

„ I 20 


„ twisted, all kinds 

„ 4 00 

„ 12 2 

Hamburg : — 

Yams and threads, all kinds 



Bremen :— 
Yams and thread, stamp or registration duty . 
On first transfer and sale . 

«1 grot per 1001 

I dollars value) 

5d^i6 13 4 


/j 0/0 adval. 

On subsequent transfers 


J 0/0 ad vol. 


FL cts. 

Unbleached yam 



Sewing thread and shoemakers' thread . 00 

Cwt.o 8 6 

3ailpm ..,,.,. 

„ I op 


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TarifC Olassiflcatioii. 

Tariff Bates 
of Duty. 


Belgium : — 
Measuring 20.000 mkres, or less, to the kilo, 
giamme, or 2J lbs. avds. . 
Not twisted nor dyed . 
Twisted or dyed 
Measuring more than 20.000 metres to the 
kilogramme, or 2J lbs. avds. 
Not twisted nor dyed . 
Twisted or dyed 
Unbleached of 6,000 metres or less to the 

kilogramme, or 2J lbs. avds. 
Above 6,000 metres and under 12,000 
„ 12,000 „ „ 24,000 

,. 24,000 „ „ 36,000 

„ 36,000 „ „ 72,000 

„ 72,000 „ and above . 
Bleached or dyed. Of 6,000 metres or less to 

the kilogramme .... 
Above 6,000 metres and under 12,000 

„ 12,000 „ 
„ 24,000 „ 
„ 36,000 „ 
„ 72,000 „ 
Portugal : — 

Single, unbleached 
„ bleached 
„ dyed 

Twisted, imbleached 
„ bleached 
„ dyed 


an$l above 


Spain : — 
Single, unbleached, bleached, half bleached, 

or dyed 

Twisted of two or more strands, unbleached, ' 

bleached, or dyed - - - . 

Italy :— 
Single, unbleached, improved or bleached 

» dyed 

Twist, unbleached, improved or Reached 

Papal States :— 

Unbleached, single .... 

„ twisted - - - - 

Bleached or dyed • . • • 

Frs, cts. 

100 Ks. 10 06 

„ 15 00 

20 00 
30 00 

15 00 

20 00 
30 00 
36 00 
60 00 
100 00 

20 00 
27 00 
40 00 
48 00 
80 00 
133 00 





„ 2060 

In Spanish 
Esc, Mill. 
iooKs.ii 000 
„ 49 000 
In Foreign 
Esc. Mill. 
i00Ks.1i 500 
„ 49 500 
Lire cts. 
looKs. II 50 
„ 17 10 
„ 23 10 


100 Lbe. 7 50 
„ 10 00 
„ 20 00 

£ s d 

Cwt. 041 

„ o 6 I 

o 12 2 



o 12 2 

•o 14 8 

2 o 5 







„ 2 18 
» 5 17 
» II 15 
„ 17 13 
« 23 II 
„ 9 7, . 
In Spanish 
£ s d 
Cwt o II 2 
„ 2 9 10 
In Foreign 

£ s d 

Cwt o II 8 
„ 2 10 4 


„ o 8 n 

„ O II II 

f, I 3 " 

Digitized by 




Tariff Classification. 

Austria : — 

Handspun, unbleached - - - - 

Machine spun, not bleached, dyed, or twisted 

Bleached, improved or dyed, but not twisted 


Switzerland :— 

Coarse yam, for making packing cloth - 

Single, unbleached and undyed. 

Bleached or dyed, all kinds - - - 
Greece : — 

All yams (except for embroidery) with 500/0 de- 
duction for reels - . - - 
,, fine for embroidery 
Turkey : — 

All kinds - - 

United States:— 

Carpet yafns not exceeding 8 lea, and valued 
at 24 cents, or less per lb. - 

,,^ above 24 cents per lb. 

Flax or Imen thread, not otherwise provided for 

Tariff Bates 
of Duty. 

Fl kr. 


Centner o 75 

i> 2 50 

,, 6 00 

Swiss Fr. cts. 

Quintal o 30 

„ 2 00 

» 3 50 

Dr, lep, 

Oke I 00 

„ 4 00 

7.20 0/0 advcU 

30 0/0 adval 
35 *^/o adval, 
40 0/0 adval. 


£ s d 


Cwt. o I 6J 


„ o 12 2 

7.20 0/0 adval 

30 0/0 ad vol, 
35 0/0 ad val, 
40 0/0 ad val. 


Russia : — 

Tissues, twilled, or with woven patterns, such 
as table linens and towels, also painted or 

printed linens 

Drills of all kinds 

Sailcloth, ticking; dmggeting and carpeting, 
either of all flax or mixed - - - - 

Coarse linen bags 

Batiste and lawn, white linens and Unen hdkfs. 
Sweden : — 
Canvas, sacking, &c. - - - - - 
Ticking . ----.- 

Batiste, cambric> muslin, linen cloth, and damask 
Sail and tent cloth ---..- 

Other kinds, including diapers and drills 
Norway : — 
Drills and damasks, also handkerchiefs not 
otherwise provided for - - - - 
Close woven tissues weighing 1 1 lods or more 
per square ell (6,0504 per 4X square feet) 

bleached or not 

Unbleached - - 

Dyed, of one colour, or bleached - 

Do., several colours, not printed - - - 


Rbl cop. 



„ o 15 
M o 30 

30 0/0 adval, 
R.d.m ore, 

Skalp. o 15 
„ o 40 
» o 75 
„ o 08 
» o 65 
Spd, sk. 

Fund o 16 

£ s d 16 o 
„ 7 10 o 

„ 2 10 o 


30 0/0 ad val, 

Cwt o 19 II 
„ 2 13 2 

»» 4 19 9 
,, o 10 8 
»» 4 6 5 

3 I 


15 3 

1 10 6 

2 5 6 

3 16 4 

Digitized by 




Tariff Classification. 

Tariff Bates 
of Duty. 


Denmark ; — Rd, sk. 

Unbleached tissues, containing less than 24 
threads to the square % inch, or weighing 
44 quints. (3^ lbs. avds.) or above to square 

ell 24|< inches Fund o 02 

Damask, drills, &c. „ o 20 

Undyed plain tissues ,,012 

Zollverein :— Thlr» sgr. 

Unbleached linen, twilling, or drilling - - Centnr.4 00 

Bleached, printed, or dyed, or otherwise 

dressed; table, bed linen and towelling 

unbleached, bleached or made up - - ,, 10 00 

Batiste and lawn „ 10 00 

Hamburg :— 
Atlas drill, batiste, cambric, lawn, damask, 
ticking, drill, towelling, Russia duck, shirts, 

handkerchiefs, &c. Free 

Other kinds ioj^advaL 

Bremen :— 
Manufactures of all kinds . ^ , 

Stamp or registration duty - - - -{dffiTaluej 
Duty on transfer or sale : 

On first transfer or sale - - - ' I2 ^/° ^ ^^* 
On subsequent transfers • - - - \^Jq ad vol, 
Holland :— F7. cts. 

Sailcloth Roll o 30 

All other manufactures ^ oJq ad vaL 

Belgium :— 

Manufactures of all kinds (except lace) - - 10 0/0 ad vol, 
France : — 
Tissues of linen, plain linens and diapers, having 
in the warp in the space of 5 millimetres (i-5th 
of an inch) : — ' 

Unbleached : Frs, cts, 

5 threads or less lOoKls. 5 00 

6, 7, and 8 threads - - - - ,, 28 00 
9, 10, and II threads - - - - ,, 55 00 

12 threads „ 65 00 

13 and 14 threads - - - - ,, 90 00 
15, 16, and 17 threads -. - - „ 115 00 
18, 19, and 20 threads - ^ - „ 170 00 
21, 22, and 23 threads - • - „ 260 00 
24 threads and above - - - - „ 300 00 

Bleached, dyed, or printed : 
8 threads or less - - - - „ 38 00 

9, 10, and II threads - - - - „ 70 00 

12 threads »» 95 00 

13 and 14 threads ----,, 120 00 
15, 16, and 17 threads -^ - - „ 155 00 
18, 19, and 20 threads - - - ,; 230 00 

£ s d 

Cwt 049 

„ o 12 2 

I 10 6 
I 10 6 

' Free 
i 0/0 ad vol, 

^^/i6 13 4 

5 oJq ad vol, 
J 0/0 ad vol. 

Roll 006 
5 0/0 ad vol, 

10 0/0 ad vat. 








































4 13 


Digitized by 




Tarifl Classiflcation. 

Tariff Rates 
of Duty. 


France — Tissues of Linen, &c. — contintud, 
21, 22, and 23 threads 
. 24 threads and above - - - - 
Drills, plain or figured, unbleached, bleached, 

dyed, or printed 

Damasks - 

Cambrics and lawns 

Handkerchiefs, bordered, not embroidered 

„ embroidered 

Drill or damask for clothing ... 

Other linen 

Note, — Unbleached linen and unions are ad- 
mitted free when temporarily sent to be 
printed or dyed for re-exportation. 
Portugal : — 
Packing, and other coarse cloth 
Sailcloth, bleached or not - - - - 


Unbleached linen - . - - - . - 
Bleached - - - - 
Damasks • - - - • 

Spain : — 
Tissues plain, up to 10 threads inclusive in the 
square of six millimetres 
,, „ 1 1 to 24 threads 

,, ,» 25 threads and over 

Tissues, twilled or figured 

Italy :— 
Tissues of Pure Linen :- - 
Of less than 6 threads in the warp in the 
space of 5 millimetres (i-5th of an inch): 
Unbleached or bleached 
Dyed or made of dyed threads - 
Of 6 threads or more in the space of 5 
millimetres : 

Unbleached, bleached, or half-bleached 
Dyed or made of dyed threads - 


Papal States : — 
Coarse unbleached cloth - - - . 
Linen cloth dyed, or in any way dressed - 
Tissues of linen, white or grey, plain or worked, 
or woven in colours 

Frs. cts. 
lOOKs.350 00 
„ 400 00 

160/0 ad vol. 

£ s d 

Cwt. 723 


16 0/° ad vol. 

Same duty as on plain linens 

10 0/0 adval. 10 0/0 ad vol. 
16 0/0 adval. 16 0/0 adval, 
15 ^\q adval. 15 0/0 adval. 









In Spanish 


Esc, mill. 

Kilog.o 500 

„ I 000 

„ I 700 

,, o 800 



Esc. mill. 

Kilog.o 505 

I 005 

I 705 

o 805 

Lire cts. 

lOoKs. 23 10 

» 38 00 

• ,. 57 75 

„ 90 00 

„ 115 00 

Lire cts. 

iooLib.17 90 

» 32 25 

M 53 75 

£ s 
Cwt. o 16 


1 15 I 

2 18 9 
5 5 II 
8 16 6 



Cwt 2 10 10 
„ 8 12 9 
» 4 I 4 



Cwt. 211 4 
.» 8 13 3 

o 15 5 

1 16 7 

I I 4 

I 18 6 

3 4 3 

Digitized by 




Tariff Glaasification. 

Tariff Rates 
of Duly. 


quintal 8 oo 

» o 75 

Dr, Up, 

Oke 8 oo 

Austria : — PL kr. 

Linen cloth bleached, dyed, or printed, up to 

50 warp threads, per Vienna inch - - Centnerio 00 
Batiste, lawn, gauze, and other open woven 
wares (with certain exceptions) - ■ „ 60 00 

Switzeriand : — 
Stuffs and ticking, bleached, dyed, dressed, or 
printed, batiste, lawn, and handkerchiefs, 

without embroidery 

Common unbleached packing cloth, not ex- 
ceeding 25 threads in warp and wefts in 
space of I Swiss inch (1.39 sq. inch) - 
Greece :— 

Batiste of all kinds 

Drills, ducks, ravenducks, linen cloth for 

sailors, &c. 

Cloth, of all kinds, for shirts, sheets, table- 
cloths, cloths and other tissues lor dresses, 
pure or mixed with cotton - - - 

Handkerchiefs, common .... 
,, fine (batiste) plain - 

,, head 

Turkey : — 
Linen, brown or white, with coloured stripes, 

25 to 27 inches wide 

Irish linen cloth and sail-cloth . - - 

Ravenduck, 25 to 27 inches wide, 36 to 40 yards 

United States :— 

Canvas, black, woven, or made in forms or 

patterns of such size and shape exclusively 

for buttons, shoes, or bootees ... 

Brown and bleached linens, ducks, canvas, 

diapers, crash huckaback, handkerchiefs, 

lawns, or other manufactures not otherwise 

specified, or which flax, hemp, or jute is 

the chief component material : 

Valued at 30 cents or under per square 


„ at over 30 cents per square yard - 

Russia and sheetings 

Ravenduck and sail-cloth - - - . 

Bagging or other similar material composed 

wholly or in part of hemp, jute, or flax : 

Valued at less than ro cents per square yard 

„ above 10 cents per square yard - 

All other manufactures of linen, flax, hemp, 

or jute, pure or mixed with cotton, of which 

linen is the chief ccwnponent material - 

o 80 

, I 06 

, I 50 
, 9 00 

, 3 00 


Yard o 94 
Piece 7 88 

10 0/0 advoL 

35 °/o adval. 
40 0/0 adval, 
35 **/o adval. 
30 0/0 adval, 

Doll, cts. 

Lb. o 03 

„ o 04 

40 0/0 adval. 

£ s d 

Cwt. I o 4 

„ 6 I II 


,, II 6 8 

„ 12 15 o 

Yard 002 
J. 200/0 ad vol. 
Piece o i 5 

10 0/0 ad val. 

35 °/o ad vol. 
40 0/0 ad val, 
35 0/0 ad val, 
30 0/0 ad vtU, 

Cwt. o 13 10 
., o 18 5 

40 0/0 ad val. 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


^^ In the general Alphabetical List of NamiSy a fuller description of 
many Firms will be found, 

Tht names of Scutch-mill proprietors an not included in the general list. 

Digitized by 




The following is a List of Names of the Proprietors of Scutch Mills in 
Ireland^ so far as could be collected for present edition. With a viav to make the 
next list more complete, correspondents will much oblige by furnishing names of 
those omitted, and also by noting any corrections required to be made in this. 

Abbot, Francis, Legacuny, Lisbum. 

Adams, John C, Milltown, Monaghan. 

Allen, Edward, Drumnabruze, Liirgan. 

Allen George, near Comber. 

Anderson, George, Tullywiggan^ Cooks- 

Anderson, J., Drumacanver, Madden, 
Co. Armagh. 

Anderson, J., Ballyloughan, Richhill. 

Andrews, W., Templemoyl, Dungiven. 

Annesley, Geo., Drumenagh Flax Mill, 

Armour, John, Top, Ballymoney. 

Baird, Wm., Castlefin, Strabane. 

Baird, Captain, Tullyard, Strabane. 

Ballagh, John, Moys, Castleshane. 

Barefoot, H., Killyleasky, Cookstown. 

Baron, Newel, Q.C., J. P., King Hill, 

Basken, Moses, Ballynamullen, Omagh. 

Baxter, Jas. B., Breagh, Taitmayham, 

Beckett, John, Dervock, Ballymoney. 

Bell, J., Coagh. 

Bennett, John, Solitude, Ballygowan. 

Bennett, T. Clonakilty. 

Best, James & Sons, Armagh. 

Birch, Miss, Lurganearly, Castleblayney. 

Black, Richard, Coikhill, Cookstown. 

Black, J. B., Broughshane, Ballymena. 

Boyd, John, Kirkcubbin. 

Boyd, Wm., Bally william, Comber. 

Boyland, Chas , Batteagh, Macosquin. 

Boyle, Alex., Drumsurn, Limavady. 

Boys, James, Money more. 

Brady, H., Millquarter, Toome Bridge. 

Bratton, John, Garmullen, Fintona. 

Brown, John, Knockalery, Cookstown. 

Bryan. J. J., Kill)meill, Silverstream. 

Buchanan, Wm., Raphoe, Strabane. 

Burnett, Robert, Ahoghill. 

Cambell, Robert, Tullyown, Strabane. 

Campbell, — near Downpatrick. 

Campbell, Wm. , Tamlagh, Limavady. 

Carbrey, Wm. Tullynure, Cookstown. 

Cargill, Wilson, near Glasslough. 

Carmichael, D. & W., Millisle, Co. 

Carraher, Arthur, Cremarten, Castle- 

Carson, C. L., Lissaginny, Clontibret. 

Carson, Thos., Ballaghy, Armagh. 

Casey, Richard, Dunmore, Cookstown. 

Caughey, — Ballywalter, near Down- 

Chambre, J. Stewartstown. 

Charles, R., Knockalery, Cookstown. 

Chesnut, J. , Dungorberry, Ballymoney. 

Clarke, Wm., Ballymorran, Armagh. 

Clement, R. S., Blackforth, Fintona. 

Cokely, Dan, Rosscarb'ery. 

Coleman, Alex., Killigan, Cloughmills, 

Colhornn, Robt., Carrick, Strabane. 

Connolly, Thos., Shantonagh, Castle- 

Cook, Andrew, Dungiven. 

Corbitt, R., J. P., Lisnasreay House, 

• Rathfriland. 

Corrigan, Samuel, Fairlawn, Moy. 

Cotter, Joseph, Dunmanway. 

Cotton, Geo., Dunnard, Cookstown. 

Coulter, John, Killinchy, Co. Down. 

Cowan, John, Annahavill, Cookstown. 

Cowan, W., Drumrankin, Cullybackey. 

Cox, James, Artigarven, Strabane. 

Coyle, James H., Coleraine. 

Craig, Robt., Ballymarlow, Ballymena. 

Cramsie, Alex., Coldah, Ballymoney. 

Crawford, Chas., Aughafatton, Brough- 

Crawford, Jas., Knockmughy, Omagh. 

Crawford, Joseph, Straw, Dungiven. 

Digitized by 




Cromey, Mrs.. Balljmamagne, Rathfri- 

Grieve Scutch Mills, Ballybay. 
Crooks, Wm„ Mone)nnore. 
Crouthers, S., Bally loughan, Richhill. 
Cunningham, D., Dyan Mills, Caledon. 
Cunningham, J., Dullehan, Dromore. 
Curry James, Bushmills. 
Davison, A., Mill Brook, Randalstown. 
Delayney, Patrick, Hilltown. 
Devenny, Robert, Strabane. 
Dickson, A., Tulnacross, Cookstown. 
Dinsmore, J. D., Killigan, Cloughmills, 

Dinsmore, Wm., Dimley, near Belfast. 
Donnelly, Chas., Castleroddy, Omagh. 
Donnelly, John, Mullaghmore, Omagh. 
Dougan, Samuel, Mohan, Armagh. 
Dougan, Wm., Drummully, Emyvale. 
Douglas, Henry, Glenbum, Tassagh, 

Douglas, J. S., Rosebrook, Dungiven. 
Dugan, James, Ardma, Downhill. 
Dunbar, J. M., Ballina. 
Duncan, Andrew, Gardum, Dromore, 

Co. Tyrone. 
Duncan, J. , Ballypatrick, Ballycastle. 
Dunlop, John, Rasharkin. 
Dunlop, Joseph, Killigan, Cloughmills, 

Dunlop, Mrs., Dernaghey, Lisbum. 
Eaton, John, Killyrea, Clough. 
Eccles, Samuel, Kildress, Cookstown 
Eakin, Charles, Glennan, Glasslough. 
Evans, David, -Ballynabuoy, Cullan. 
Ewart, Captain, Donaghadee. 
Ewart, F., near Millisle, Co. Down. 
Farreli, G., Corlelackagh, Castleblayney. 
Feagan, T., Drumlough, Rathfriland. 
Ferguson, R., near Ncwtownards. 
Finlay, Robert, Tullyrap, Strabane. 
Finlay, J., Killinchy. 
Fitzherbret, Thomas R., Shantonagh, 

Fletcher, Mr., Glascar, Rathfriland. 
Frazer, John, Legacurry, Lisbum. 
Gage, W. C, Ballykelly. 
Galway, Mrs., Millmount, Dundonald. 
Gardner, Robert, Lisnoe, Lisbum. 
Gardner, William, Ravamette, Lisbum. 
Gault, John, Harr3rville, Ballymena. 
Given, Wm., Terrydremout, Limavady. 
Glasgow, Mrs., Rasharkin. 
Glass, Hugh, Clady, Armagh. 
Glenn, Robert, Tullyard, Strabane. 
Gormley, R., Ballymagony, Strabane. 

Grahames, Jas.,Ballyboggy, Bushmills, 

Grehames, M., Burren, Ballymadigen, 

Gray, Gordon, Clady, Armagh. 

Gray, James, Bryandram, MarkethilL 

Gregg, John, Tellydinnell, Raphoe, 

Greer, Mrs., Annarca, Richhill. 

Gribben, A. , Aughafatton, Broughshane. 

Haire, James, Rosskey, Monaghan. 

Hall, IL T., Hilltown. 

Hamilton, Jas., Mosside, Ballymoney. 

Hamilton, M., Trenta, Strabane. 

Hamilton, Mrs., Drumbeg, Strabane. 

Hamilton, R., Skerry, Broughshane. 

Hanna, Aiidrew, Cloughmills. 

Hanna, — Strangford. 

Hanna T., Ballynamagne, Rathfriland. 

Harkness, Wm., Tintagh, Cookstown. 

Harper, John, Caddy, Randalstown. 

Harpur, Joseph, Greenhill, Raphoe, 

Harris, A., Tullyhamet, Castleblayney. 

Harrison, W., Dram leek, Castleljlayney. 

Hart, S., near Ballymoney. 

Heney, Patrick, Tintagh, Cookstown. 

Holland, Wm., Ballylintagh, Coleraine. 

Hooey, Thos., Ballyloughan, Richhill. 

Hood, John, Cloughmills. 

Hunter, A., Corratduty. Castleblajmey. 

Hunter, John, Chattam Hall, Annoy, 

Hunter, John, Straidarren, Feeny. 

Hunter, Leslie, MuUaliinch, Aghadowey, 

Hutchinson, W. F., Stranocum, Bally- 

Hutchinson, William, Markethill. 

Hyde, Robert, Cranagill, Loughgall. 

Irwin, James, Drammond, Limavady. 

Jamison, Robt, Quiglough, Ballinode. 

Johnston, G. P., Bally macash, Lisbum. 

Johnston, Wm., Dunded, Cookstown. 

Jolly, W. J., Ballyboy, Ballycastle. 

Kenedy, John, Lackan, Rathfriland. 

Kennedy, H., Moneynick, Randalstown. 

Kennedy, Samuel, Caheney, Kilrea. 

Kerr, Jas., Creggan. Randalstown. 

Kerr Robert, Articlave, Garvagh. 

Kidd, Mrs., Tassagh, Armagh. 

Kiigore, Wm, Balljrmahoy, Strabane. 

Killen, John, The* Green, Strabane. 

Killen, William, Flushtown, Strabane. 

Kilpatrick, John, Clady, Armagh. 

Kilpatrick, Wm., Cullybackey. 

King, Michael, Dungiven. 

Digitized by 




Kinison, W., Doneymanagh, Strabane. 

Kinkead, Wm., Sloyback, Strabane. i 

Kircubbin Coy., Limited, Kircubbin, 
Co. Down. i 

Kirkpatrick, Saml., Balnahone, Pharis, 
Ball)maoney. I 

Kirkpatrick, Wm., Drumrankin, Cully- ' 
backey. j 

Kyle, J., Tullynahinan, Portglenone. ! 

Lamont, John, Granshaw, Comber. i 

Lavelle, James, Corfinlough, Ballibay. ; 

Lavender, A , Knockboy, Ballymena. 

Leckey, James, Dromore, Strabane. 

Leckey, Robert, Carrick, Strabane. 

Lees, John, Ringsend, Garvagh. 

Lepper, Jas., Wellbrook, Cookstown. 

Lindsay, The Misses, Ballyaughian, 

Lorden, John, Enniskean. 

Lougherry, W., Walkmills, Limavady. 

Lowry, Henry, Drumcaw, Strabane. 

Lowry, H., Castlemellon, Strabane. 

Lowry, — Kilmore, near Crossgar. 

Lowry, Mrs., Balljrmaconnell, Bangor. 

Lynd, John, Killure, Coleraine. 

Lyons, Mrs., Tullyquilly, Rathfriland. 

Macauley, John, Bushmills. 

Magaw, J., Moneymore. 

Magill, Patrick, Cullane, Pharis, Bally- 

Mallon, James, Drumart, Loughgall. 

Marks, W. J., Camearney, Ahoghill. 

Marshall, Roger, TuUyglush, Kane, 

Martin, Israel, Ballyhenry, Limavady. 

Marten, Samuel, Milltown, Strabane. 

Martin, John, Hilltown. 

Martin, J. . near Killyleagh. 

Martin, Mrs., Dunmore, Cookstown. 

Martin, Samuel, Clady, Armagh. 

Martin, Wm., Laughan, Coleraine. 

Millar, — near Portaferry. 

Millar, Wm., Galvin, Dungiven. 

Millar, Alexander, Killycan, Dungiven. 

Miller, T., Back, Cookstown. 

Minnis, Michael, Rosscarbery. 

Montgomery, J., Tamlat, Monaghan. 

Mooney, John, Macosquin. 

Moore, A., Broughshane, Ball3rmena. 

Moore, J., MuUaghduff, Armoy, Bally- 

Moore, L., Dervock, Ballymoney. 

Moore, Samuel, Laughan, Coleraine. 

Moore, William, Loughness, Strabane. 

Moore, W. J., Advemess, Macosquin. 

Morris, James, Leap. 

Morrow, James, Windsor Hill, Rath- 

Morrow, Robert, L^acurry, Lisbum. 

Moses, David, Leskinore, Fintona. 

Muldoon, Mrs. , Gortreragh, Cookstown. 

Munford, J., Broughshane, Ballymena. 

M*Alister, J., Beragh. 

M'Alister, R., Beragh. 

M*Alister, J., Dunsemick, Ballintra. 

M'Alister, R., Bushmills. 

M'Alister, Robert, Clare, Cookstown. 

M'Alister, S. & J., Tirkeeran Mills, 

McAllister, Alex., Tirkeeran, Garvagh. 

M'Aughey, Saml., Broughshane, Bally- 

M*Beth, Robt, Ballendrait, Strabane. 

M*Bimey, A., Culloville, Castleblayney. 

M*Bride, William, J.P., Moneyslone 
House, Rathfriland. 

M'Camon, Andrew, Nulgrove, Seaford. 

M *Caw, John, Drumnefivey, Stranocum, 

M*Can, T., Killycogan, Portglenone. 

M*Cauley, John, Bushmills. 

M*Cleery. R., Magherahand, Strabane. 

M*Clelland, J., Balljrmore, Limavady. 

M'Closkey, J., J. P., Keeley, Aghadoey, 

M*Clure, D., DerryhuUough. Randals- 

M'Clure, J., Ballycregagh, Stranocum, 

M'Conaghy, Dr., TuUydonnell, Raphoe 

M'Cormick, T., Brookend, Cookstown. 

M'Crea, Robert, Lisan, Cookstown. 

M'Croberts, L., Rideman, near Cross- 

M*Crum, James, Drummond, Madden, 
Co. Armagh. 

M*CulIoch, T., Derryvally, Ballibay. 

M*Cullough, John, Mountnorris. 

M*Cullough, John, Granshaw, Comber. 

M*Dowell, W.J., Granshaw, Comber. 

M*Fadden, J., Ballywollen, Garvagh, 

M'Fetridge, Thos., Brookficld, Agha- 
doey, Ballymoney. 

M *Ginnis, Michael, Shanmullagh, 

M'Grath, Mr., Tynan. 

M 'Guile, Robert, Warren, Ballycastle. 

M'llhatten, A., Kingariff, Stranocum, 

M'llhone, Mrs., Lisan, Cookstown. 

M'llwaine, William, Dundonald. 


d by Google 



M'Kane, John, Raheney, Fintona. 
M*Kay, junr., Geo. Portinaghy, Glass- 
M*Kay, Joseph, Drumsum, Limavady. 
M*Kean, Henry, Benburb, Co. Armagh. 
M'Kee, Wra., Tullycarey, Greyabbey. 
M'Keever, Hugh, Cloughmills. 
M *Kibbin, Samuel, near Comber. 
M'Kindry, Edward, Lurgan More, 

M'Kinlay, William, Rasharkin. 
M'Kimer, Miss, Rasharkin. 
M'Losky, J., Feeggaron, Cookstown. 
M'Laughlin, Mr., Aughadarra, Dro- 

more, Co. Tyrone. 
M*Mahon, Thomas, Tandragee. 
M'Math, Andrew, Thomford House, 

M'Mordie, — near Crossgar. 
M'Morran, George, Comber. 
M*Neill, John, Buckna, Broughshane. 
M 'Reynolds, P., Altmover, Dungiven. 
M*Reynolds, Thomas, King's Mill, 

Neill, George, Ballybreagh, Richhill. 
Nery, Robt., Little Bridge, Cookstown. 
Newell, Wm., Derriaghy, Lisbum. 
Nevin, James, Camglass, Portrush. 
Nevin, James, Walkmill, Bushmills. 
Nevin, J., Greenshields, Bally money. 
Nugent, James, Edagold, Fintona. 
Nugent, Thos., Castleroddy, Omagh. 
Oliver, Joseph, Readuff, Castleblayney. 
O'Rourk, B., Inniskee, Dundalk. 
Orr, Blakely, Ballystockard. 
Osborne, Wm., Altmover, Dungiven. 
Parker, J., Kells Water, Ballymena. 
Parks, Mrs., Walk Mill, Strabane. 
Parks, Joseph, Ballinderry. 
Patten, Wm., Gortileck, Strabane. 
Patterson, William, Killinchy. 
Perkins, T. C, Ballina. 
Perry, Joseph, near Downpatrick. 
Porter, A., Kate's Bridge, Rathfriland. 
Price, John, Ballinlea, Moyarget, 

Priestly, Mn, Saintfield. 
Quin, James, Downhill. 
Quin, James, Douglass, Strabane. 
Rankin, Samuel, Rustican, Strabane. 
Rea, Mrs., Ballyholy, Strabane. 
Reed, Thomas, Lemreulla, Ballinode. 
Reed, Thomas, Teravety, Scotstown. 
Redmond, John Walter, Sandymount, 

Reade^ R., near Ballygowan. 

Robb & Reade, Ballygowan. 
Robertson, J. , Ballyteagh, Middletown 
Robinson, Mr., Craigs, Cully backey. 
Robinson, Thomas, Killinchy. 
Ross, David, Jonagh, Fintona. 
Ross, David, Raheney, Fintona. 
Roulston, A., Castletown, Strabane. 
Roulston, Robert, Ardagh, Strabane. 
Ruddell, John, Ballybay Flax MUl, 

Russell, James, Killen, Strabane. 
Rutherford, Wm., near Cookstown. 
Sayers, Hugh, Cloughmills. 
Scott, Robert, Knockmaghy, Omagh. 
Shaw, Fred, near Killinchy. 
Shaw, James, Buckna, Broughshane. 
Silcock, James, near Crossgar. 
Simpson, George, Moyasick, Ahoghill. 
Simpson, Robt., Kingsmill, Cookstown. 
Sinclair, Mr., Spamount, Cookstown. 
Sinton, Thomas, Hamiltonbawn, Co. 

Small, James, Straid, Ahoghill. 
Smith, Hugh, Drummond, Madden, 

Co. Armagh. 
Smith, Thomas, Bolea, Limavady. 
Smyth, E., Clonakilty. 
Smyth, James, Ballyrashane, Coleraine 
Smyth, William, Altrest, Strabane. 
Smyth, William, Drumenie, Strabane. 
Smyth, Wm., Kirkistown, Coleraine. 
Spamount Spinning Co., Spamount, 

Stewart, G., Galvin, Dungiven. 
Stewart, Hugh, Cloughmills. 
Stewart, William, Boghill, Coleraine. 
Stewart, Wm., Shankey, Cookstown. 
j Stinton, John, Dunman, Cookstown. 
I Stockdale, George, Downpatrick. 
I Story, Robert, Coagh. 
\ Strahan, Thomas, Corby, Clough. 
I Strahan, Thomas, Clinty, Ballymena. 
I Stuart, John, Cloughmills. 
Stuart, Wm., Ballyrashane, Coleraine. 
I Swanzy, Hugh, Castleblayney. 
Thomson, George, Moycraig, Mosside, 

Thompson, S. , Ballymadigan, Garvagh. 
Thompson, W., Buckna, Broughshane. 
Todd, William, Fryfin, Castlederg. 
Toner, Thos., Rosebrook, Dungiven, 
Waddell, Robert, J.P., M^heralin. 
Wallace, H., J. P., Morenis, Garvagh. 
Wallace, John, Crockindolg, Garvagh. 
Wallace, Wm., New Mills, Portglenone. 
Wallace, Wm., Forth, Limavady. 

Digitized by 




Walsh, Alexander, Fintona. 
Warden, James, Cunningbum, Ards. 
Warnock, Thomas, Corclea, Keady. 
Wamock, Thos.,.Laughan, Coleraine. 
Waterson, Jas., Ballynagappog, Rath- 

Watson, Henry, Rock, Cookstown. 
Webb, Bros., Randalstown. 
Weir, Alex., Straid, Ahoghill. 
White, Geo., Thorn Hill, Strabane. 
White, Robert, Kenbilly, Ballymena. 
Wiggins, H., Eglinton, Derry. 
Wightman, J., Springmount, Clough- 

Wilson, Charles, Milltown, Raphoe, 

Wilson, James, Ballyaggon, Garvagh. 

Wilson, James, Shanevagh, Dromore, 

Co. Tyrone. 
Wilson, Mrs., Meath Park, Coleraine. 
Wilson, Mrs. Maria, Collins, Aghadoey, 

Wilson, Thos., Drummond, Madden, 

Co. Armagh. 
Wilson, Thos., Derrycheer, Dungiven. 
Wilson, Wm., Ardbrim, Rathfriknd. 
Wilsom, William, Drumaney, Raphoe, 

Woodbum, Wm., Gortfad, Garvagh. 
Woods, Wm., Rathfriland. 
Wright, Thos., Drumilly, Loughgall, 

Co. Armagh. 
Young, John, Cavanalee, Strabane. 

Wholesale Flaxseed Merchants and Agents. 

Andrews, S., Victoria st, Belfast. 
Beattie, James, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Bell, Richard, & Co., Linen Hall,Belfast. 
Boyd, Robert, Armagh. 
Brown, Corbitt, & Co., Victoria st, 

Dickson, Thomas A., Dungannon. 
Faren, Joseph, & Sons, Waring street, 

Fiddes & Co., M. J., Donegall place, 

Finlay, Brown, & Co., Police square, 

Glenn, James, Corporation st, Belfast. 
Harper, Martin, & Son, Victoria street, 

Henderson, David, lo, Corporation st, 

Hunter, John, jun., & Co., Corporation 

street, Belfast. 

Lytle, John, & Sons, Victoria street, 

Mead ley, Thomas, Corporation street, 

MuUan, William, Victoria st, Belfast, 
Munster, Alfred, Victoria st, Belfast. 
M*Blain & Co., Newry. 
M*Causland, Samuel, Victoria street, 

Patterson, R. Lloyd, & Co., Corpora- 
tion street, Belfast. 
Preston, John, & Co., Calender street, 

Reynolds, Archibald, Corporation st, 

Richardson, Bros., & Co., Donegall pi, 

Belfast, and Dublin, Corl^ and 

Gal way. 
Smith, J. & T., Tomb street, Belfast. 
Smith, John A., & Co., Londonderry. 

Flax and Tow Merchants and Commission Agents. 

Adams, William, Strabane. 
Beattie, James, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Bell & Co., Richard, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Bell, Timothy, Corporation st, Belfast. 
Beverley, Alexander, Belfast. 
Bingham, G. Gerald, Waring street, 

Boyd, Robert, Armagh. 

Connolly, Henry, Eliza street, Belfast. 

De Bruyn, H. T., Victoria st, Belfast. 

Devlin, W. J., Cookstown. 

Finlay, Brown, & Co., 20, Police sq, 

Grailey, Daniel, Coleraine. 

Digitized by 




Gordon, George, & Son, Ann street, 

Halferty & Son, John, Londonderry. 
Henry, Bernard, Cookstown. 
. Henderson, David, lo, Corporation st, 

Hogq: & Co., John, 2, Corporation st, 

Hunter, jun., & Co., John, Corporation 

street, Belfast 
Hyndman, James, Commercial court, 

Kamcke & Co., W. R., Linen Hall, 

Kelly. Francis, & Co. , Monaghan. 
Lavender, Wm. J., Ballymena. 
Linden & Co., AC R., 35, Police sq, 

MacGeagh & MacLaine, Ann st, Belfast 
Meadley, Thomas, Corporation street, 

M*Closkey, James, Ballymoney. 
M'CuUough, Archibald, Commercial 

court, Belfast. 
M 'Donald, Francis, Cullingtree road, 

M'Kinley, David, & Son, Armagh. 
M*Mahon, James, Armagh. 

Nicholl, Parker, & Co., Donegal! st, 

Oulton & Co., John, 37, Don^^all st, 

Patterson & Co., R. Lloyd, 22, Cor- 
poration street, Belfast 
Plunkett & Son, F. , Corporation street, 

Preston & Co., John, 20, Calender st, 

Rafter, W. P., Wellington pi, Belfast 
Reade, Clarke, & Co., 62, Upper Queen 

street, Belfast 
Reilly, Edward. Waring st, Belfast 
Reynolds, Archibald, Corporation st, 

Richardson, Bros., & Co., Donegall pi, 

Savage & Co., Sir John, 46 k 48, 

Victoria street Belfast. 
Smyth & Co., J. A., Londonderry. 
Stevenson & Douglass, Dungannon. 
Thompson, W.*G., Moneymore. 
Trimble, James, Strabane. 
Williamson, J. , 28, Grattan st, Belfast 
Wilson Bros., North street, Belfast. 
Wilson, John, Newry. 
Woods, James, Cootehill. 

Flax and Tow Yam Spinners. 

Adair, Thomas, & Co., Cookstown. 

Andrews, John, & Co , Comber. 

Barbour, William, & Sons, I^isbum. 

Belfast Flax and Jute Co. (Limited), 

Bells and Calvert, Whitehouse. 

Bessbrook Spinning Co., Bessbrook. 

Blackstaff Spinning and Weaving Co. 
(Limited), Durham street, Belfast 

Braid water Spinning Co. (Limited), 

Broadbent, Samuel E., Cogry, Doagh. 

Brookfield Linen Co. (Limited), Done- 
gall street, Belfast. 

Balnamore Spinning Co., Ballymoney. 

Buncranagh Spinning Co., Buncranagh. 

Campbell, Henry, & Co., Mossley Mill, 

Craig, Samuel, Ballymoney. 

Dempster, Robert, Newry. 

Duff Bros., Coagh, Moneymore. 

DuflRn, Charles, ^ Co., Lagan village, 

Dunbar, M'Master, & Co., Gilford. 
Edenderry Spinning Co. (Limited), 

Crumlin road, Belfast. 
Eliza Street Spinning Co., Eliza street, 

Emerson, John, Ballysillan, Belfast. 
Ewart, William, & Son, Crumlin road, 

and Bedford street, Belfast 
Falls Flax Spinning Company (Limited), 

Conway street, Belfast. 
Fenton & Co., S. G., Lmen Hall, 

Gordon & Co., North Howard street, 
Greeves, J. & T. M., Falls rd, Belfast 
Gunning & Campbells (Limited), North 

Howard street, Belfast. 
Hale, Martin, & Co., Dungannon. 
Hay, James, Grove Mill, Belfast. 
Hayes, F. W., & Co., Banbridge. 
Herdmans& Co., Sion Mills, Strabane. 
Hind, John, & Sons, Durham st, Belfast. 
Hursts, Drumaness, Ballynahinch. 
^Irvine, Hill, .Newry. 

Digitized by 




Island Spinning Co. (Limited), lisburn. 
Johnston, Philip, & Sons, Jennymount, 

Killyleagh Flax Spinning Company 

(Limited), Killyleagh. 
Kirk, W. M., & Co., Darkley, Keady. 
Lawrence Bros., Coleraine. 
Ligoneil Spinning Co ,Ligoneil, Belfast 
Limavady Spinning & Weaving Co. 

(Limited), Limavady. 
Lisdourt Spinning Co., Ballygawley. 
Martin, John, & Co. (Ld. ), Killyleagh. 
Milewater Spinning Co., Milewater, 

Milfort Spinning Co., Falls rd, Belfast. 
Mitchell Bros., Crumlin road, Belfast. 
Moore, W. T., & Co., Ld., Monkstown 

Mill, Belfast. 
Moreland Brothers, Loopbridge Mill, 

Murland, James, Castlewellan. 
Murphy & Reynolds, Armagh. 
M'Cleery & Reynolds, Doagh. 
M'Kean, Sons, & Co., Ca>tleblayney. 
Northern Spinning & Weaving Co. 

(Limited), Falls road, Belfast. 
Roan Spinning Company, Coalisland, 

Ross, William; & Co., Clonard Mill, 

Belfast. ' 

Savage, Sir John, & Co., Crumlin rd, 

Shaw, Edward, & Co., Celbridge and 

Shaw, Joseph, Celbridge. 
Shaw, William, & Co., Cork. 
Sinton, Thomas, Tandragee. 
Smithfield Flax Spinning & Weaving 

Co. (Limited), Smithfield, Belfast. 
Smyth, Robert, Emyvale. 
Spamount Spinning Co., Spamount 

Mill, Castlederg. 
Stewart, Robert, & Sons, Lisburn. 
St. Mary*s Flax Spinning • Co., 

Taylor, James, & Sons, Carrickfergus. 
Ulster Spinning Co. (Limited), Bath pi, 

Falls road, and Linfield, Belfast. 
Walker, George, Newtownards. 
Wallis & Pollock, Cork. 
Weir, A. C, & Co., Dmimurry. 
Whiteabbey Flax Spinning Co. (Ld), 

Whiteabbey, Belfast. 
Whitehouse Spinning Co., Whitehouse, 

Wilson, Abraham, Newry. 
Wolfhill Spinning Company, Wolfhill, 

York Street Flax Spinning Company 

(Limited), Henry street, Belfast. 

Linen Yam Merchants and Commission Agents. 

Anderson, James, Lurgan. 
Anderson, Wm. Ballymena. 
Bell & Co., R., Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Betzold & Co., George, Fountain lane, 

Brookfield Linen Co. (Ld.), Donegall 

street, Belfast. 
Capper May, & Co., Upper Queen St., 

Close, Robert, Ballymena. 
Collins, & Co., John, Queen street, 

Dickson, Robt., Donegall sq. North, 

Duffin & Co., Charles, Waring street, 

Ewart & Son, Wm., Bedford street, 

Fenton & Co., S. G., Lmen Hall, 


Fiddes & Co., M. J., Wellington pi., 

Finlay Bros. & Co., Corporation st, 

French, Duncan & Co., 31, Rosemary 

street, Belfast. 
Gaffikin & Co., Thos., Bedford street, 

Herdmans & Co., Donegall sq. south, 

Hunter, jun., & Co , John, Corporation 

street, Belfast. 
Jaffe Bros., & Co., Donegall sq. east, 

Johnston, W. Sibbald, Bedford street, 

Johnston & Allen, Lurgan. 
Kamcke & Co., W. R., Linen Hall, 

Lipman ^ Co., Bedford street, Belfast. 

Digitized by 




MacGeagh & MacLaine, Ann street, 

Moore & Weinberg, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Moreland Bros., Donegall pi., Belfast 
Murphy, Joseph, Lurgan. 
Patterson, White, & Co., Corporation 

street, Belfast, and Lurgan. 
Pirn Bros, & Co., Upper Queen street, 

Preston & Co., John, Calender street, 

Reade, Clarke, & Co., Up. Queen st., 

Richardson Bros, k Co., Donegall pi., 

Richardson, Grubb, & Co., Donegall 

sq. south, Belfast. 

Savage k Co., Sir J., Victoria street, 

Shaw & Co., Edward, Victoria street, 

Ulster Spinning Co. (Ld.), Falls road, 

Vance, Gilbert, Donegall street, 

Wallis & Pollock, Cork. 
Wilson Bros., Winecellar entry, Belfast 
Wood, John, Donegall square North, 

Workman J. & R., Bedford street, 

York Street Flax Spinning Company 

(Limited), Henry street, Belfast 

Linen Manufacturers (Power and Hand-loom), Linen 
Merchants, and Commission Agents. 

Acheson k Smith, Castlecoalfield, Dun- 

Adair & Son, Thomas, Greenvale, 

Adams, R. J., Howard street, Belfast. 
Adams & Co., John, Ballydevitt, Bally- 
Addy, Wm., Allistragh, Armagh. 
Agnew, Wm., Ahoghill. 
Aickin, William, Cullybackey. 
Alexander, Saml. Maxwell, J. P., D.L., 

Anderson, J., Ahoghill. 
Anderson, J., Tubberhead, Maghera- 

felt, Co. Deny. 
Andrews, Archibald, near Ballymena. 
Andrews, M., Ardoyne, Belfast. 
Andrews, W. J., near Ballymena. 
Armstrong, Robt.y Hudson St. Factory, 

Arthur k Son, John, Strabane. 
Banford Bleach works Co mpy., Banford 

Green, Gilford, Co. Down. 
Bann View Weaving Factory, Gar- 

vaghey road, Portadown. 
Barcrofts & Co., Redford Mills, Moy. 
Barklie, J. & A., Inver, Lame. 
Barklie & Co., Thomas, MuUamore, 

Bedford Street Weaving Co., Bedford 

street, Belfast, 

Begg k Co., Alexander, Londonderry. 
Bellas, J. H. & G., Ballymena. 
Bell k Co., Thomas, Lurgan. 
Bell & Co., R., Linen Hall, Belfast 
Bell, W. L. & H. H. & Co., Bedford 

street, Belfast. 
Bessbrook Spinning Co., Bessbrook, 

Best & Co., W. J., Dunadry. 
Betzold & Co., Geoi^e, Fountain lane, 

Black & Co., Jas., Dunmaul House, 

BlackstafF Spinning and Weaving Co. 

(Limited), Durham street, Belfast. 
Blakely, Thomas, Bleary, Lurgan. 
Boal, J. & H., Slatt, Ballymena. 
Brookfield Linen Company (Limited), 

Donegall street, Belfast. 
Brown & Co., Drapersfield, Cookstown. 
Brown, J. S., & Sons, Bedford street, 

Brown, Robt., k Co., Donegall square 

north, Belfast. 
Bryson, Wm. , Waring street Belfast. 
Bullock, G. A., Bedford street, Belfast 
Bullock Bros., Donegall square south, 

Bullock k Co., Linen Hall st, Belfast. 
Bums & Macaulay, James st. South, 


Digitized by 




Calder k Co., J. M., Bedford street, 

Calwell, Andrew, Clough. 
Cameron, James, Bally money. 
Cameron, Hugh, Ballymena. 
Campbell, B., Clare, Laurencetown. 
Can'pbell, S., Ballylumin, Ahoghill. 
Carey, M'Clelland, & Co., London- 
Carter & Sons, Thos. Up. Queen St., 

Caruth, R., Craigywarren, Ballymena. 
Castleisland Linen Co., Office— Linen 

Hall, Belfast ; and Portadown. 
Cautherwood, M.,Craigs, Cullybackey. 
Chaine & Son, William, Muckamore, 

Charley, & Co., J. & W., Dunmurry. 
Charley, Telford, & Co., Howard St., 

Charley, Wm., & Co., Lisbum. 
Chesney, R., Grange Comer, Toome 

Christian, j. R., 8, Donegall sq. south, 

Cinnamond, Park, & Co., Linenhall 

street, Befast. 
Clark, Robert, Moy, Co. Tyrone. 
Clarke, John, Dromore. 
Clarke, William, Portrush. 
Clendinning, J., High St., Lurgan. 
Clibbom, Hill, & Co., Banbridge. 
Close, Robert, Ballymena. 
Conland & Sons, John, Alfred street, 

Connor, Foster, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Cordner, Alexander, Lurgan. 
Coulson, & Co., James, Lisbum. 
Coulson, William, & Sons, Lisbum. 
Cowdy, Anthony, Portadown. 
Craig, Mrs., Strabane. 
Crawford & Co., Glenbana, Gilford. 
Crawford & Co., George, Hazelbank, 

Crawford & Lindsays, Banbridge. 
Crosbie, G., Dromore. 
Currell Jt Co., Daniel, jr., Linenhall St., 

Currell, Andrews, Ballymena. 
Curry, Samuel, Ballymena. 
Darbishire Bro., Fountain lane, Belfast. 
Davison, M., Ballyscullian, Co. Derry. 
Davison & Co., Robert, Bedford street, 

Dawson, T., Charles street, Portadown. 
Pevlin, James, Cookstown. 

Dickson & Sons, Peter, Castledawson. 
Dickson, Robert, Bedford st., Belfast, 
Dickson, Thos. A., Milltown Factory, 

Dicksons, Ferguson, & Co., Linenhall 

street, Belfast. 
Dixon, John M., Tullycaim, Dromore. 
Doherty, James, Finvoy, Ballymoney. 
Doherty, John, Rasharkin. 
Douglas, T., Donegall street, Belfast, 
Douglas, John, & Sons, Lurgan. 
Duffin, E. G., & Co., Little Sackville 

street, Belfast. 
Duke, Graham, & Lockwood, Clarence 

street, Belfast. 
Dunbar, M*Master, & Co., Gilford. 
Dunlop, Wm., Kells, Ballymena. 
Dunlop, W. H., Linenhall street, 

Dunseath & Sons., James street South, 

Eakin, S., Rock Spring, Moneymore. 
Eakin, Samuel E., Coagh. 
Easdale, Wm., Castledawson. 
Eliza Street Spinning Co. , Eliza street, 

Elliott, John, Lurgan. 
Elliott, John, & Co., Bedford street, 

Ellison, John, Flax Works, Lisbum. 
English, Wm., Howard St., Belfast. 
Ennis, Thomas, & Co. , Drogheda. 
Ewing, Son, & Co., Donegall square, 

south, Belfast. 
Falloon, John, Lurgan. 
Falls Flax Spinning Co., Falls road, 

Fenton, Connor, k Co., Linen Hall, 

Ferguson, J. , & Co. , Linenhall street, 

Ferguson, & Co.. T., Edenderry. 
Ferris & Co., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Fiddes, M. J., & Co., Wellington pi., 

Finlay Bros. & Co., Corporation st., 

Fleming, James, Franklin pi., Belfast. 
Flinn & Co., N., Drogheda. 
Forestbrook Linen Co., Rostrevor. 
Fulton, Joseph, & Co., Howard street, 

Gaffikin, Thos., k Co., Bedford st., 

Gamble, Shillington, k Co., Broadway, 


Digitized by 




Gibson, George, & Co., Queen street, 

Gibson, Ranger, & Co., Londonderry. 
Gibson, Robert B., Londonderry. 
Giffen, James, Ballymena. 
Gihon, W., jun., Clonavon, Ballymena. 
Gilles Linen Co., Armagh. 
Gilmer, William, Ballymena. 
Girdwood, Maxwell, & Co., Linen 

Hall, Belfast. 
Glass Bros. & Co., Franklin street, 

Glass, J., & Co., Portglenone. 
Glass, John, King street, Belfast 
Glass, R., & Co., West st, Portadown. 
Goodbody, J. & F., Clara, King's Co. 
Gordon Brothers & Co., Lawn brook 

Factory, Belfast. 
Grant & Co., Alex., Londonderry. 
Gray, George, & Sons, Glenanne, 

Grenier, P. & Co., Franklin pL, Belfast. 
Greenham, George, Athy. 
Greenmount Spinning Co., The, Up. 

Queen street, Belfast. 
Gribbon, Alexander, Bedford street, 

Gribbon Edward, & Sons, Coleraine. 
Guild, Alexander, ifc Co., Bedford 

street, Belfast. 
Gunning & Son, John, Cookstown. 
Guynet & Co., L. H., Chichester st., 

Hale, David, Drumavaddy. 
Hanna, William, jun., Castlewellan. 
Hanna, William J., Cloughmills. 
Harbison, James, Magherafelt. 
Harden, Charles, Thomas st., Porta- 
down and Tandragee. 
Harrison, Brothers, Dromore. 
Harden Bros., Harrison & Co., Belfast 

and Lurgan. 
Hazelton, Dawson, Killyman, Moy. 
Henderson, J., Sherrygroom Factory, 

Henning & Son, John,-Waringstown. 
Henry, A. & S., &Co., Wellington pi., 

Henry & Haig, Bedford Street, Belfast. 
Henry, James, Tyanee, Co. Derry. 
Henery,Thos., Ballygronan, Co. Derry. 
Herd, M. C. Franklin street, Belfast. 
Heron & Lutton, Lurgan. 
Heron, W. & Co., William st., Lurgan. 
Hind & Sons, J., Durham St., Belfast. 
Hilton, John, Portglenone. 

Hilton & Co., J., Portglenone, 
Hilton, Robert, Cullybackey, 
Houston, W. W. & Co., James street 

south, Belfast. 
Hughes, George, & Co., Donegall sq. 

south, Belfast. 
Hull, Henry, & Co., Drogheda. 
Hutchinson, Richard, Broughshane, 

Island Spinning Co. (Ld.), Island 

Mills, Lisbum. 
Jaffe Bros., Donegall sq. south, Belfast 
Jardine, William, Dromore. 
Jefferson, Wm., & Co., Foyle street, 

Johnston, Jas., Commercial Chambers, 

JohnstoQ, James, Castledawson. 
Joy mount Manufacturing Co., Carrick- 

Kamcke & Co., W. R., Linen Hall, 

Kelly, D., Sandymount, Castledawson. 
Kelly, James, Ball)mease, Co. Derry. 
Kelly, T., New Ferry, Toome Bridge. 
Kennedy, D., Church street, Belfast. 
Kennedy, H., Milltown, Toome Bridge. 
Kennedy, James, Strabane. 
Kennedy, Patrick, Grange, Milltown, 

Toome Bridge. 
Kemahan, Thomas, Portadown. 
Kirk, David, Moorfield, Ballymena. 
Kirk, W., & Son, Bedford St., Belfast, 

and Keady. 
Kidd, Tassie & Co. Bedford street, 

Lamont, & Son, Samuel, Eden, Bally- 
Langtry, Fred, Moira. 
Lawson, Alexander, Lurgan. 
Lecky, F. B., Donegall square north, 

Lee, James, Randalstown. 
Liddell, William, & Co., Bedford street, 

Lindsay, G. & J., Banbridge. 
JLindsay, Maurice, Dromore. 
Lindsay, R., & Co., Victoria st, Belfast 
Lipman & Co., Bedford street, Belfast. 
Livingston, J., Fountain St., Belfast 
Livingston, T. , & Co., Linenhall street, 
Lennon, T. & Co., Linenhall street, 

Luke, Joseph, Ahoghill, Co. Antrim. 
Lutton, Andrew J., & Son, Linenhall 

street, Belfast. 

Digitized by 




Lyn, Wm., Little Bridge, Cookstown. 
Maclean, S. T., Linenhall St., Belfast. 
Macoun, W. & J. Lurgan. 
Macoun, & Co., James, Lurgan. 
Macoun, John R., Lurgan and Belfast 
Macneary, Henry, Coleraine. 
Magee Bros. & Co., Lurgan. 
Magee, & Co., Jas. R., Bedford St., Belfast 
Magee, Thos. H., Clarence St., Belfast. 
Magee, W. J., Lisburn. 
Major Bros., James st. south, Belfast. 
Malcolm «fc Pent land, Bedford street, 

Belfast and Lurgan. 
Malcolmson Bros., Portlaw. 
Mann, W. C, Hill Head, Castledawson. 
Martin, H., & Co., Clarence place, 

Martin, R. & D., Linenhall st, Belfast. 
Masson, Kennedy, & Co., Strabane. 
Matier, & Co., Henry, Clarence place, 

Mawhinney, Wm., Hill Head, Castle- 
Maxwell, William, Lurgan. 
Miller, H., Greenhall, Castledawson. 
Miller, T., Greenhall, Castledawson. 
Mitchell, Bros., Crumlin Road, Belfast. 
Monejrpenny & Watson, James street 

south, Belfast. 
Montgomery & Co., Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Moore, Jas., jun., Ballyconley, Cully- 

Moore, J. & J. R., Ballyconley, Cully- 

Moore & Weinberg, Linenhall street, 

Moreland Bros., Donegall pL, Belfast. 
Morton, James, Bellaghy, Co. Deny. 
Murland, James, Annsborough, Castle- 

M*Bride, Robert, & Co., Bedford street, 

M*Bride, S. W., & Co., Lurgan. 
M*Caughey & Co., Lui^an. 
M*Caw, W. & J., Portglenone. 
M*Clelland, Robt, & Sons, Banbridge. 
M*Convill, Thomas. Lurgan. 
M*Corry, Jas., & Co., Linenhall street, 

Belfast, and Lurgan. 
M*Cosh, R., Broughshane, Ballymena. 
M'Crory & Sons, William, Lurgan. 
M*Crum, Robert, & Co., Armagh. 
M*Crum, Watson & Co., Bedford st, 

M*Cullough, R.y -14, James st south, 


McDonald, J., near Moy. 
M*Fadden, James, Portglenone. 
M*Ferran & Co., J. H., Donegall sq. 

west, Belfast. 
M'Gaghey, Robert, Cookstown. 
M*Geagh, John, Cookstown. 
M 'Govern, M., & Son, Drogheda. 
M*Guckin, Neal, Ballinderry Bridge, 

M'llveen, H. & S., Donegall sq. north, 

M 'Ilveen, J. T. , Donegall square north, 

M'Intyre, Hogg, A Co., Londonderry. 
M'lver, Robert, Cookstown. 
M*Kane, R., Tullygarley, Ballymena. 
M*Kean, Hall, & Co., Clarence place, 

M*Kean, Sons, & Co., Castleblayney. 
M'Lernen, Hugh, Ballymoney. 
M'Master & Gray, Portadown. 
M*Mullan, James, Portglenone. 
M 'Murray, Thos., & Co., Dromore. 
M*Neay, H., Aghadowey, Ballymoney. 
M*Neice, James, near Moy. 
M*Whirter, Thomas, Ballymena. 
Nelson, H., Crosskeys, Toome Bridge. 
Nelson, M., Crosskeys, Toome Bridge. 
Nelson, T., Crosskeys, Toome Bridge. 
Nelson, W. R., Lurgan. 
Nicholl, W., Ballyconley, CuUybackey. 
Northern Spinning and Weaving Co. 

(Limited), Falls Factory, Belfast. 
O'Neill, H., Moy. 
O'Neill, J. B. , Donaghmore. 
O'Neill, John, & Co., Foyle street, 

Orr, Joseph, Loughgall. 
Orr & Sons, Strangmore, Dungannon. 
Pauley & Sands, James street south, 

Patrick, John, & Sons, Balljnnena. 
Patterson, D., Rasharkin, Ballymoney. 
Paul, William, Cookstown. 
Perry, Miss, Strabane. 
Philipp& Co., Linenhall st., Belfast 
Pike & Son, Jonathan, Dungannon. 
Pirn Bros., & Co., Upper Queen street, 

Preston, Smyth, & Co., Donegall sq. 

south, Belfast 
Reid & M*Ilveen, Linenhall st., Belfast. 
Reade, Clarke, & Co., Upper Queen 

street, Belfast 
Richardson Brothers & Co., Donegall 

place, Belfast 


Digitized by 




Richardson & Niven, Lambeg Factory, 

Richardson, R. K., Franklin street, 

Richardson, Sons, & Owden, J. N., 

Donegall square north, Belfast. 
Robb, Hamilton, Portadown. 
Ross, John, Kells, Ballymena. 
Ross, John, & Co., Lurgan. 
Savage, John, Point. 
Sayers, Andrew, Cloughmills. 
Sefton, J. R., & Co., Adelaide place, 

Shaw, Edward, & Co., Victoria street, 
- Belfast 
Shillington Bros., I, Adelaide Place, 

Belfast and Lur^n. 
Shillington, Henry, Aghalee. 
Shillington, J. J., & Co., Broadway, 

Shillington, J. W., Adelaide pi., Belfast. 
Sinclair, S. & Co., Franklin St., Belfast. 
Sinton, .Thomas, Tandragee. 
Smithfield Flax Spinning Co. (Limited), 

Smithfield, Belfast. 
Smyth, John, Clady, Co. Derry. 
Smyth, Robert, Broughshane. 
Smyth, Thos., Hazelview, Rasharkin. 
Sm)rth, William, & Co., Banbridge & 

Donegall square west, Belfast. 
Sprott, Wm., & Co., Dromore, Co. 

Stevenson & Clarke, Coalisland, Dun- 

Stevenson, Douglass, & Co., Dun- 

Stewart, A. T., & Co., WeUington pL, 

Stewart, John, Clintagh, Coleraine. 
Stewart & Co., R. W., Donegall street, 

Stewart, S., & Co., Donegall street, 

Stewart & Sons, Wm., Bedford street, 

Belfast, and Lurgan. 
St. Mary's Flax Spinning Company, 

Thompson, W. G., Coagh, Moneymore. 
Thompson, James, & Sons, Ormeau 

Road, Belfast. 

Thompson, Joseph, Balljonena. 
Thompson, R., Son, & Co., Don^^ 

square south, Belfast. 
Thompson, William, k Co., Lagan 
* Factory, Lisbum. 
Thompson, Kelly & Co., Linenhall 

street, Belfast. 
Tillie & Henderson, Londonderry. 
Tilly, James, Gaskin place, Belfast. 
Todd, M*Call A Co., Lmenhall street, 

Trinker, Wm., & Co., James street 

south, Belfast. 
Turtle, William L., Aghalee. 
Ulster Damask and Linen Co., Linen 

Hall, Belfast. 
Vallely, J. L., Glengall place, Belfast. 
Vance, Gilbert, Donegall street and 

York lane, Belfast. 
Walker, Wm., & Co., Banbridge. 
Watson, Armstrong, & Co., Donegall 

square west, Belfast, and Portadown. 
Watson, W. K., Franklin st, Belfast. 
Wasson, Samuel, Ballymena. 
Watson & Sons, R, Lurgan. 
Watson, Valentine & Co., Amelia st., 

Waugh & Co., Wm., Banbridge. 
Webb Brothers, Randalstown. 
Weir, James, Ahoghill. 
Weir, William, Cookstown. 
Welch, Margetson, & Co., Londonderry. 
Whearty, John, & Co., Duleek, near 

Whiteabbey Bleaching Co., White- 
abbey, Belfast. 
Whiteside, Mrs., Prockless, Randals- 
Wilkinson & Turtle, Linenhall street, 

Woodlock, Duke, & Co., Lurgan. 
Woods, C, Moygashel, Dungannon. 
Wood, J., Donegall sq. north, Belfast. 
Wylie, Samuel, Ballymena 
Wynne, Thomas, & Co., Armagh. 
York Street Flax Spinning Company 

(Limited), Henry street, Belfast. 
Young, J. & R., Ballymena, and 

Donegall square north, Belfast. 

Digitized by 

Google ' 



Bleachers^ Dyers, Printdrs, &o. 

Adams, J., <Sk Co., Ballydevitt, Bally- 

money, and Howard street, Belfast. 
Addy, Wm., AUistragh, Armagh. 
Andrews, Michael, Ardoyne, and Kal- 

root, Carrickfergus. 
Banbridge Bleaching Company, Ban- 
Banford Bleach Works Co., Banford 

Green, Gilford. 
Barbour, Samuel, Clanwilliam,Lisbum. 
Barbour, W., & Sons, Lisburn. 
Barcrofts & Co., Dundrum Bleach 

Works, Keady, and Redford Mills, 

Barklie, T. & A., Inver, Lame. 
Barklie, Thos., & Co., blrs., MuUamore, 

Best, W. J., & Co., Dunadry. 
Brookfield Linen Company (Limited), 

Donegall street, Belfast. 
Brown, John S., & Sons, Bedford street 

and Edenderry, Belfast. 
Burrows, Thos., Stoneyford, Lisburn. 
Carey, M*Clelland, & Co., Ardmore 

Green, Londonderry. 
Chaine, William, & Son, Muckamore. 
Charley, J. & W.,& Co., 22, Wellington 

pi., Belfast, and Dunmurry. 
Charley,- Telford, & Co., 14, Howard 

street, Belfast. 
Clady Bleach Works Co., Dunadry. 
Clarke, John A., & Co., Castledawson. 
Clonard Print Works Co., Falls Road, 

Connor, Foster, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Crawford, Thomas, Dunmurry. 
Crawford & Lindsays, 3, Adelaide place, 

Belfast, and Banbridge. 
Darbishire Bros., 9, Fountain lane, 

Dicksons, Ferguson, & Co., Linenhall 

street, Belfast, and Banbridge. 
Dickson, T. A., Milltown Factory, 

Dunbar, M 'Master, & Co., Gilford. 
Ewart, Wm., & Son, Bedford street, 

Belfast, and Glenbank. 
Ewing, Son, & Co., Donegall square 

south, Belfast. 
Fenton, Connor, & Co., Linen Hall, 

and Hyde Park, Belfast. 
Fenton, S. G., & Co., Lmen Hall, 


Ferguson, John S., & Co., Linen Hall, 

Ferguson, James, & Sons, Newforge, 

Gihon, Wm., jun., Lisnafinlen Bleach- 
ing Company, Ballymena. 
Glenalina Bleaching Co., Bedford St., 

Glenwood Dye Works Co., Shankhill 

road, Belfast. 
Gordon Bros. & Co. (Ld. ), Lawnbrook 

Factory, Belfast. 
Gribbon, Edward, & Sons, Bleach 

Green, Dundarg, Coleraine. 
Gunning, J., & Son, Millburn Works, 

Hanna, John, Kildrum, Ballymena. 
Hilton, John, Portglenone. 
Hyde Park Bleaching Co., Mallusk, 

Jaffe Brothers, Donegall square south, 

Belfast, and Gilford. 
Joymount Finishing Co., Carrickfergus. 
Kennedy, W. J., Moorfields, Ballymena. 
Kirk, Daniel, Tannybrake, Ballymena. 
Kirk, W., Crevilly Valley, Ballymena. 
Kirk, W., & Son, Bedford St., Belfast. 
Lee, J., HoUybrook House, Randals- 

Liddell, Wm., & Co., Bedford street, 

Lisnafillan Bleaching Co., Ballymena. 
Malcolm & Pentland, Bedford street, 

Belfast, and Lurgan. 
Malcomsom, Wm., & Co., Donegall 

square west, Belfast. 
Martin, R. & D., Rostrevor, and 

Linenhall street, Belfast 
Matier, H., & Co. , Clarence pi., Belfast. 
Moore, D., Ballyleyland, Ballymoney. 
Moore & Weinberg, Linenhall street, 

Morton & Simpson, Cullybackey. 
Murland, James, Annsborough, Castle- 

M'Kean, Sons, & Co., Lara Mills, 

M*Murray, Thomas, & Co., Dromore, 

Co. Down. 
Old Park Printing Co. (Ld.) Old Park, 

Pike, J., & Son, Dungannon, Co. 


Digitized by 




Preston, Smyth, k Co., Donegall square 
south, Belfast. 

Richardson & Co., Lambeg, Lisbum. 

Richardson, J. N., Sons, & Owden,(Ld). 
Donegall sq. north, Belfast. Bleach- 
works Lisbum. 

Sloan, J., & Sons, Cookstown. 

Ross, John, Kildrum, Ballymena. 

Smyth, Gilmore, & Co., Ballymena. 

Smyth, Wm., & Co., Milltown, Ban- 

Sprott, Wm., & Co., Dromore. 

Springfield Bleaching Co., Donegall sq. 
west, Belfast. 

Stewart, Robt. , & Sons, Lisbum. 

Stevenson, Douglass, & Co., Dun- 

Suffolk Linen Co., Dunmurry. 

Ulster Damask and Linen Co. , Linen 
Hall, Belfast. 

Uprichard, J. T. & H., Springvale and 
Millbank, Gilford. 

Wallace & Magill, Kells, Ballymena. 

Webb, Bros., Randalstown. 

Whiteabbey Bldlachmg Co., White- 
abbey, Belfast. 

Whitewell Printing Co., Whitewell, 

Wynne, J., Ballyards, Armagh 

Wynne, T., & Co. , Lislea, Armagh. 

York Street Flax Spinning Co. (Ld. ) 

Young, J. A R., Ballymena. 

Digitized by 




(Exclusive of Scutch Mill Proprietors). 

Abbreviations.— p. l, mfrs.t power loom manufacturers; h, I, n^frs.y hand loom fnanu- 
facturers; I. y. mcht., linen yarn merchant; hlr.^ bleacher. 

Acheson & Smith, p. 1. mfrs., Castlecoalfield, Dungannon 

Adair, Thos., & Co., spinners, Greenvale Mills, Cookstown 

Adair, Thos. , & Son, p. 1. linen manufacturers, Cookstown 

Adair, Thos., & Son, linen merchants. Cookstown 

Adams, J , & Co., nifrs. and blrs., Ballydevitt, Ballymoney, and Howard St., 

Adams, Wm., flax mcht, Strabane 

Addy, Wm., mfr. &c., Allistragh, Armagh 

Agnew, Wm., h. 1. mfr., &c., Ahoghill 

Aicken, Wm., h. 1. mfr., &c., Cullybacky 

Alderdice, Thos., lin. com. agt., Franklin street, Belfast 

Alexander, Saml. Maxwell, p. 1. mfr., Limavady 

Anderson, J., h. 1. mfr., Ahoghill 

Anderson, James, 1. y. mcht., Lurgan 

Anderson, J., h. 1. mfr., Tubberhead, Magherafelt 

Anderson, William, 1. y. mcht., Ballymena 

Andrews, Archd., h, 1. mfr., near Ballymena 

Andrews, John, & Co., flax and low spinners, Comber (Co. Down) 

Andrews, S., f.seed mcht., Victoria street, Belfast 

Andrews, Michael, linen and damask manufacturer and bleacher, Ardoyne, 
Belfast. London warehouse, 25, Milk street, Cheapside, E.C. 

Andrews, W. J., h. 1. mfr., near Ballymena 

Armstrong, Robt., mfr., Hudson St., Belfast 

Arnold, Edgar, lin. com. agent, Brunswick street, Belfast 

Arthur, John, & Son. shirt mfrs., Strabane 

Balnamore Spinning Co., spinners, Ballymoney 

Banbridge Bleaching Co., bleachers, &c., Banbridge 

Banford Bleach Works Co., linen merchants and blieachers, Banford Green, 
Gilford (Co. Down) ' 

Bann View Weaving Factory, Garvaghey road, Portadown 

Barbour, Samuel, bin, &c., Clanwilliam, Lisbum 

Barbour, Wm., & Sons, flax spinners, yam bleachers, dyers, and thread manu- 
facturers, I-.isburn 

Barcrofts & Co., p. 1. mfrs. and finshrs., Redford Mills, Moy 

Barklie, J. & A., mfrs. and blrs., Inver, Lame 

Barklie, Thos., & Co., mfrs., &c., MuUamore, Ballymoney 

Beattie, James, fseed and flax commission merchant. Linen Hall, Belfast 

Bedford St. Weavmg Co., mfrs. andmchts., Bedford St., Belfast 

Digitized by 



B^g, Alex., & Co., mfrs., Londonderry 

Belfast Damask and Linen Co., Linen Hall. Belfast 

Belfast Flax and Jute Co. (Ld.) spinners, Donegall place, Belfast 

Belfast Linen Collar Co. , Franklin street, Belfast 

Bellas, J. H. & G., p. 1. mfrs., Ballymena 

Bell, Richd., & Co., f.seed, yam and lin. mchts.. Linen Hall, Belfast 

Bell, Thos., & Co., linen and cambric handkerchief manufacturers, &c., 

Bellevue, Lurgan 
Bells & Calvert, spinners, Whitehouse 
Bell, Timothy, flax mcht.. Corporation St., Belfast 
BeU, W. L. & H. H., & Co., lin. mchts., Bedford st., Belfast 
Bessbrook Spinning Co., spinners and p. L mfrs., Bessbrook 
Best, W. J., & Co. , mfrs. and finishers, Dunadry 
Betzold, George, & Co., manufacturers of linens and handkerchiefs, and linen 

yam merchants, 24 and 26 Fountain street, Belfast 
Beverley, Alex., flax mcht.. North street, Belfast 
Bingham, G. Gerald, flax com. agt.. Waring st, Belfast 
Black, James, & Co., manufacturers of 18 to 43 inch plain linen, linen and cotton 

checks, linen stripes, hair cord, huckaback towels, drill, Arabian stripes, 

mosquito nettings, unions, Indian scarfs, linen handkerchiefs, lawns, &c, 

Dunmaul House, RandalstowTi 
Blakely, Thos., mfr.. Bleary, Lurgan 

Blackstaff" Flax Spinning and Weaving Co. (Ld.) Durham St., Belfast 
Boal, J. & H., h. 1. mfrs., Slatt, Ballymena 
Boyd, Robert, f.seed and flax mcht., Armagh 
Braid water Spinning Co. (Ld.) The, spinners of line and tow yams, Ballymena. 

Agents in Belfast — ^James and Robert Young 
Broadbent, Samuel E., flax spinner, Cogry mills, Doagh 
Brookfield Linen Co. (Ld. ) flax spinners, power loom linen manufacturers, 

linen and linen yam merchants, Donegall st., Belfast 
Brown, Corbett, & Co., f.seed mchts., Victoria st, Belfast 
Brown & Co., mfrs., Drapersfield, Cookstown 
Brown, J. S., & Sons, p. 1. mfrs. and mchts., Bedford st., Belfast 
Brown, Robt., & Co., mchts., Donegall square north, Belfast 
Bryson, Wm., fancy linen manufacturer, 20, Waring St., Belfast 
Bulloch, G. A., mfrs. and mchts., Bedford st, Belfast 
Bulloch Bros., mfrs. and mchts., Linen Hall St., Belfast 
Bulloch & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Donegall square s., Belfast 
Buncranagh Spinning Co., Buncranagh 
Bums & Macaulay, mchts. , James st. south, Belfast 
Burrows, Thomas, finishers, &c., Stonejrford, Lisbum 
Calder, J. M., & Co , p. 1. mfrs. and mchts., Bedford street, Belfast 
Calwell, Andrew, h. L mfr., Clough 
Cameron, Hugh, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Cameron, James, h. 1. mfr., Ballymoney 
Campbell, B., h. 1. mfr., Clare, Laurencetown 
Campbell, Henry, & Co., flax and tow spinners, Mossley, Belfast. Town 

office — Castle Buildings 
Campbell, S., h. 1. mfr., Ballylumin, Ahoghill 
Capper May, & Co., 1. y. mchts.. Upper Queen street, Belfast 
Carey, M*Clelland, & Co., linen manufacturers and linen merchants, bleachers 

and finishers, Ardmore Bleach Green, Londonderry 
Carter, Thos. & Sons, h. 1. mfrs.,&c.,Portadown and Upper Queen street, Belfast 
Camth, R., h. 1. mfr., Craigy warren, Ballyjnena 

Castleisland Linen Co., p.L mfrs. and mchts., Portadown, and Linen Hall, Belfast 
Catherwood, M., h. I. mfr., Craigs, Cullybackey 

Digitized by 



Chaine, Wm., & Son, linen merchants and bleachers, Muckamore, Antrim 
Charley, J. & W., & Co., linen merchants and bleachers, Dunmurry, near 

Belfast, and 22, Wellington place, Belfast 
■ Charley, Telford, k Co., mchts. and blrs., Howard street, Belfast 
Chesney, R. , h. 1. mfr. , Grange Comer, Toome Bridge 
Christian, J. R., & Co., mchts., Donegall sq. south, Belfast 
Cinnamond, Park, & Co., mchts., &c., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Clady Bleach Works Co., Dunadry 
Clark, R., mfr., Moy 

Clark, John A., & Co., dyers, finishers, and mchts., Castledawson 
Clark, Wm., mfr., Portrush 

Clarence Street Weaving Co., p. 1. mfrs., Clarence street, Belfast 
Clendinning, James, cambric handkerchief manufacturer, 54, High street, 

Lurgan. Agents — W. Wallace, 12, Bread Street, London. Duke, 

Graham, & Lockwood, 84, Leonard street. New York. 
Clibbom, Hill, & Co., linen merchants, Banbridge 
Clonard Print Works Co., bleachers, dyers, printers and finishers of linen and 

cotton goods, cambric handkerchiefs, lawn dresses, padded and printed, 

drills, &c.. Falls road, Belfast 
Close, Robert, lin. andl. y. mcht., Ballymena 
Collins, John, & Co., 1. y. mchts., Upper Queen street, Belfast 
Conland, John, & Sons, mchts., Alfred street, Belfast 
Connor, Foster, mfr., bin, and mcht. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Connolly, Henry, flax merchant, Eliza street, Belfast 
Cordner, Alexander, mfr., Lurgan 
Coulson, James, & Co., damask, sheeting, and linen manufacturers, Lisbum ; 

London, 11, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
Coulson, Wm., & Sons, mfrs., Lisbum 
Cowdy, Anthony, & Sons, mfrs., Portadown 
Craig, Samuel, tow spinner, nail bagging manufacturer, Liscolman Mills, 

Crawford, Thomas, printer of linen, cambric, cotton, and hemstitched handker- 
chiefs, in all styles and colours ; dyer and finisher of linens, lawns, unions, 

drills, duck coating, French elastic canvas, &c , Dunmurry, Belfast 
Crawford, Geo., & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Donegall square south, Belfast 
Crawford & Lindsays, mfrs., mchts., and blrs., Banbridge 
Currell, Daniel, jr., & Co., p. 1. mfrs., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Curry, Samuel, L 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Darbishire Bros., manufacturers, bleachers, and finishers, 9, Fountain lane, 

Davison, M., h. 1. mfr., BallyscuUian, Co. Derry 
Davison, R., & Co., linen mchts, Bedford street, Belfast 
Dawson, T., h. 1. mfr., Charles street, Portadown 
De Brayn, H. T., flax, hemp, tow merchant and agent, 16, Victoria chambers, 

Dempster, Robert, spinner of dry spun tows in flax, hemp, jute, &c., Spinning 

Mills, Newry 
Devlin, James, h.-l. mfr., Cookstown 
Devlin, W. J., flax mcht., Cookstown 
Dickson, Peter, & Sons, h. L mfrs., Castledawson 
Dickson, Robert, 1. y. mcht., Bedford street, Belfast 
Dicksons, Ferguson, & Co., linen and damask manufacturers and bleachers, 

Linenhall street, Belfast. Works at Banbridge, Co. Down. London, 49, 

Bread street, E.C. Manchester, 76, Mosley street 
Dickson, Thomas A., linen manufacturer, by power, of damasks, drills, ducks, 

diapers, huckabacks, and plain linens, Dungannon, Co. Tyrone 

Digitized by 



Dixon, John M., h. 1. mfr., Tullycaim, Dromore 

Doherty, James, h. 1. mfr., Fin voy, Ballymoney 

Doherty, John, h. 1. mfr., Rasharkin 

Donnelly, John, flax com. agt., Omagh 

Douglas, John, h. 1. mfr., Donegall street, Belfast 

Douglas, John, & Sons, h. 1. nifrs., Lurgan 

Duff Bros., spinners, Coagh, Moneymore 

Duffin, Charles, & Co., tow and jute spinners, Lagan village, Belfast 

Duffin, E. G., & Co., mfrs., Little Sackville street (Wilson street) Belfast 

Duke, Graham, & Lockwood, lin. mchts., Clarence street, Belfast 

Dunbar, M*Master, & Co., spinners, and power loom manufacturers, and bleachers, 

Gilford, Co. Down 
Dunlop, Wm., h. 1. mfr., Kells, Ballymena 
Dunlop, W. H., mcht., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Eakin, S., h. 1. mfr.. Rock Spring, Moneymore 
Easdale, Wm. , mfr., Castledawson 
Edenderry Spinning Co. (Ld.), The, flax and tow spinners. Messrs. Richardson 

Bros. & Co., Belfast, agents for sale of yarns 
Eliza Street Spinning Co. , spinners, Belfast 

Elliott, John, & Co., mfrs. & mchts., Bedford street, Belfast, and Lurgan 
Ellison, John, mfr. , Lisbum 
Emerson, John, spinner, Ballysillan 
English, Wm., & Co., collar mfrs., Howard St., Belfast 
Ennis, Thomas, & Co., mfrs., Drogheda 
Ewart, Wm.', & Son, spinners, p. 1. manufacturers, bleachers, and merchants, 

Bedford street, Belfast 
Ewing, Son, & Co., lin. merchants, &c., Donegall square south, Belfast 
Falls Flax Spinning Company (Ld.), spinners & mfrs., Conway street, Belfast 
Faren, Joseph, & Sons, f.seed mchts.. Waring street, Belfast 
Fenton, Connor, & Co., spinners, manufacturers, bleachers, dyers, and 

finishers of all classes of linen and union goods, for home and foreign 

markets. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Fenton, S. G., & Co., linen yam merchants, Linen IJall, Belfast 
Ferguson, J. S., & Co., lin. mchts., Linen Hall, Belfast 
Ferguson, t., & Co., lin. mchts., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Ferguson, James, & Sons, linen, and linen yarn bleachers, Newforge, Belfast 
Fiddes, M. J., & Co., flaxseed, linen yam, and linen mchts., Wellington 

Place, Belfast 
Finlay Bros. & Co., linen, and linen yam commission merchants, £6, Corporation 

street, Belfast 
Finlay, Brown, & Co., flaxseed and flax merchants, Police square, Belfast 
Flinn N., & Co., lin. mfrs., Drogheda 
Forestbrook Linen Co., p. 1. mfrs., Rostrevor 
Franklin Street Collar Co. (Ld. ) Franklin street, Belfast 
French, Duncan, & Co., 1. y. com. agts., 31, Rosemary street, Belfast 
Fulton, Joseph, & Co., lin. mchts., Howard street, Belfast 
Gafiikin, Thos., A Co., lin. and 1. y. mchts., Bedford St., Belfast 
Gailey, Daniel, flax merchant, Coleraine 
Gamble, Shillington, & Co., Broadway damask factory, Belfast 
Gibson, George, & Co., mchts., Up. Queen street, Belfast 
Giffen, James, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Gihon, Wm., jun., linen merchant, Clonavon, Ballymena 
Gilles Linen Co., mfrs., Armagh 
Gilmer, William, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Gird wood, John, & Co., 1. y. mchts.. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Girdwood, Maxwell, & Co., p. 1. mfrs., &c., Linen Hall, Belfast 

Digitized by 



Glass Bros. & Co., merchants, Franklin street, Belfast 

Glass, J., h. 1. mfr., Portglenone 

Glass, James, & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Bedford street, Belfast, and Lurgan 

Glass, R. , & Co. , mfrs. , Portadown, and Donegall square East, Belfast 

Glenalina Bleaching Co.. bleachers and mchts., Bedford street, Belfast 

Glenn, James, f.seed mcht.. Corporation street, Belfast 

Glen wood Dye Works Co., Shankhill road, Belfast 

Goodbody, J. & F., mfrs., Clara 

Gordon Brothers & Co. (Ld.) mfrs., blrs.,and finishers, Lawnbrook, Belfast 

Gordon, George, & Son, flax mchts., Ann street, Belfast 

Gordon & Co., spinners. North Howard street, Belfast 

Gray, George, & Sons, p. 1. mfrs., Glenanne, Markethill 

Greenmount Spinning Co., The: cotton spinners; cotton and linen manufac- 
turers of damasks, drills, ducks, towellings, plain linens, &c.. Up. Queen 
street, Belfast. Factory at Harold's Cross, Dublin 

Greeves, J. & T. M., flax and tow spinners, Belfast ; Agent for France and 
Belgium — Thomas MacGeagh & Co., Courtrai. Agent for Westphalia — 
William Gnuse, Bielefeld 

Grenier, P. & Co., mchts., Franklin place, Belfast 

Gribbon, Alexander, lin. mcht., Bedford street, Belfast 

Gribbon Edward, & Sons, mfrs., Coleraine 

Gunning, John, & Son, linen merchants, manufacturers and finishers, by power, 
of plain linens in all widths : Milburn Works, Cookstown. Agents in 
London — Gunning & Quarrell, 31, King street, Cheapside, and 12, 
Lawrence Lane. Manchester — A. B. Moore, 116, Portland street 

Gunning & Campbells (Ld.), spinners, North Howard street, Belfast 

Guynet, L. H., & Co., lin. mchts, &c., Chichester street, Belfast 

Hale, David, h. 1. mfr., Druinnavaddy, Lurgan 

Hale, Martin, & Co., spinners, Dungannon 

Halferty, John, & Son, flax mchts., Londonderry 

Hanna, John, dyer, &c., Kildrum, Ballymena 

Hanna, W. J., h. 1. mfr., Cloughmills 

Harbison, James, flax mcht. and h. 1. mfr., Magherafelt 

Harden, Charles, h. 1. mfr., Portadown and Tandragee 

Harden Bros., Harrison & Co.. linen and cambric handkerchief manfrs., 
Franklin street, Belfast, and Lurgan 

Harper, Martin, & Son, fseed mchts., Victoria street, Belfast 

Harrison Bros., h. 1. mfrs., Dromore 

Hay, James, spinner. Grove Mill, Belfast 

Hayes, F. W., & Co., spinners, Banbridge 

Henderson, David, flax, tow, and flaxseed merchant, 10, Corporation street, 

Henderson, John, manufacturer of linen and cotton tapes, Venetian webs, 
chairwebs, mattress bindings, &c., frame tapes, stay bindings; agent in 
London — Charles Sessons ; agent in Glasgow — A. M. Stewart, Virginia 
Buildings. Works — Sherrygroom Factory, Dungannon 

Henning, John, & Son, h. 1. mfrs., Waringstown 

Henry, A. & S., & Co., lin. merchants, &c., Wellington place, Belfast 

Henry, Bernard, flax mcht., Cookstown 

Henry & Haig, linen collar manufacturers, 33, Bedford street, Belfast 

Henry, James, h. 1. mfr., Tyanee, Co. Deny 

Henrey, Thomas, h. L mfr., Ballyronan, Co. Deny 

Herd, M. C, lin. mcht, &c., Franklin street, Belfast 

Herdmans & Co., spinners, Sion Mills, Strabane. Office — Donegall square 
south, Belfast 

Heron k Lutton, h. 1. mfrs., Lurgan 

Digitized by 



Heron, W., & Co., h. 1. mfrs., Lurgan 

Hilton, John, dyer, &c.,*PortgIenone 

Hilton, J., & Co., h. 1. mfrs., Portglenone 

Hilton, Robert, h. 1. mfr., Cullybackey 

Hind, John, & Sons, spinners, p. 1. manufacturers and merchants, Durham st , 

Hogg, John, & Co., flax and tow merchants, 2, Corporation street, Belfast 

Holland, Wm., lin. mcht., &c., Linen Hall, Belfast 

Holmes, W. P., & Co., lin mchts.. Upper Queen street, Belfast 

Houston, W. W. & Co., h. 1. mfrs., James street south, Belfast 

Hughes, George, & Co., lin. mchts., Donegall square south, Belfast 

Hull, Henry, & Co., linen manufacturers (by hand and power) of sheetings, 
diapers, hucks, bed ticks, rollerings, Drogheda linens, and bordered and 
check glass cloths. West street, Drogheda. Agent in London— Mr Edward 
Willcocks, 4, Gresham street 

Hunter, John, jun., & Co , f*seed, flax and 1. y. mchts., Corporation St., Belfast 

Hunter, B. M., flax com. agt. Limavady 

Hunt, Nicholson, & Co., mchts., Bedford street, Belfast 

Hursts, spinners of line yams from No. 50 to No. 120, and tow yams from 
14s to 30s, Dramaness Mills, Ballynahinch 

Hutchinson, Richard, h. 1. mfr., Broughshane, Ballymena 

Hyde Park Bleaching Co. , bleachers and finishers, Hyde Park, Mallusk, Belfast 

Hyndman, James, flax mcht.. Commercial court, Donegall street, Belfast 

Irish Linen Shirt Co., shirt and coll. mfrs., Great Victoria street, Belfast 

Irvine, Hill, flax spinner, Dromalane Spinning Mill, Newry 

Island Spinning Co. (Ld.), spinners, Lisburn 

Jaffe, Bros., & Co., 1. y. mchts., Donegall square east, Belfast 

Jaffe Bros., 10, Donegall sq. south, Belfast. Manufactory at Lurgan. Bleach- 
works at Gilford 
{ardine, William, mfr., Dromore 
efierson, Wm., & Co., lin. mfrs., Londonderry 

Johnston <fc Allen, 1. y. mchts., Lurgan 

Johnston, Allen & Co., manufacturers, Lurgan 

Johnston, Jas., & Co., lin. mchts., &c., Waring street, Bel^t 

Johnston, James, mfr., Castledawson 

Johnston, Philip, & Sons, spinners, Jennymount, Belfast 

Johnston, W. Sibbald, 1. y. mcht., &c., Bedford street, Belfast 

Joymount Finishing Co., Carrickfergus 

Kamcke, W. R., & Co., flax, linen yarn, and linen merchants, Linen Hall, 

Kelly, Francis, k Co., flax mchts., Monaghan 

Kelly, D., h. 1. mfr., Sandymount, Castledawson 

Kelly, James, h. 1. mfr., Ballynease, Co. Derry 

Kelly, T., h. 1. mfr., New Ferry, Toome Bridge 

Kelly, Thomson, & Co., linen manufacturers, merchants, and bleachers, 22, 
Linenhall street, Belfast. Agents — George W. Wilson & Co., 69, 
Piccadilly, Manchester. Frederick Knight, 3, Carey lane, London 

Kennedy, H., h. 1. mfr., Milltown, Toome Bridge 

Kennedy, James, shirt mfr., Strabane 

Kennedy, Patrick, h. 1. mfr.. Grange, Toome Bridge 

Kennedy, W. J., dyer, &c., Moorfield, Ballymena 

Kemahan, Thomas, h. 1. mfr., Portadown 

Kidd, Tassie, & Co., lin. merchants, &c., Bedford street, Belfast 

Killyleagh Flax Spinning Co. (Ld)., Killyleagh 

King Street Embroidered Linen Co., King street, Belfast 

Kir^ Daniel, dyer, &c., Tannybrake, Ballymena 

Digitized by 



Kirk, David, h. 1. mfr., Moorfield, Ballymena 

Kirk, Wm., & Son, linen manufacturers by power, bleachers, dyers, and 

finishers, Bedford St., Belfast. Works — Annvale, Keady 
Kirk, W., dyer, &c., Crevilly Valley, Ballymena. 
Kirk, W. M.j & Co., spinners and mfrs., Darkley, Keady 
Lamont, Samuel, & Pon, h. 1. mfrs., Eden, Ballymoney 
Law, W., linen merchant, Donegall square south, Belfast 
Lavender, Wm. J., flax mcht., Ballymena 
Lawrence Bros., spinners, Coleraine 
Lawson, Alexander, mfr., Lurgan 

Lecky, F. B., lin mcht., &c., Donegall square north, Belfast 
Lee, James, h. 1. mfr., finisher, &c., Randalstown 
Lennon, T. &'Co., mchts., &c., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Ligoneil Spinning Co., spinners and mfrs.,Ligoneil, Belfast 
Liddell, William, &Co., p. 1. mfrs., mchts., &c.. Bedford street, Belfast 
Limavady Spinning & Weaving Co. (Lcl.) Limavady 
Linden, M. R., & Co., flax mchts., Police square, Belfast 
Lindsay, Maurice,* h. 1. mfr., Dromore 

Lindsay, Robt., & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Victoria street, Belfast 
Lipman & Co., lin. mchts, &c., Bedford street, Belfast 
Lisdourt Spinning Co., Ballygawley 

Lisnafillan Bleaching Co. , bleachers, dyers, and finishers, Ballymena 
Livingston, J., h. 1. mfr., Linenhall street, Belfast, and Lurgan 
Luke, Joseph, h. 1. mfr., AhoghiU 
Lutton, Andrew J., & Son, linen manufacturers and merchants, 7, Linenhall 

street, Belfast. Manufactory at Portadown 
L)m, William, h. 1. mfr., Little Bridge, Cookstown 
Lytle, John, & Sons, f. -seed mchts., Victoria street, Belfast 
MacGeagh & MacLaine, flax, tow, and lin. y. mchts., Ann street, Belfast 
Maclean, S. T., com. mcht., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Macoun, James, & Co., p. 1. mfrs., &c., Lurgan 
Macoun, John R., mfrs., &c., Moyraferty, Lurgan, and Belfast 
Macoun, W. & J., mfrs., &c., Lurgan 
Macneary, Henry, h. 1. mfr., Coleraine 
Magee Bros., & Co., mfrs., &c., Lurgan 

Magee, Jas. R., & Co., lin. mchts., &c., Bedford street, Belfast 
Magee, Thos. H., lin. mchts., &c., Clarence street, Belfast 
Major Bros., lin. mchts., &c, James street south, Belfast 
Malcolm & Pentland, manufacturers and bleachers of cambric, Imen and 

cambric handkerchiefs, lawn, &c., Bedford street, Bellast. London, , 

31, King street, Cheapside, E.C. Works at Lurgan 
Malcomson Bros., spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Portlaw 

Malcomson, Wm., & Co., mfrs. and mchts., &c., Donegall square west, Belfast 
Malcomson & Wilson, h. 1. mfrs., Portadown 
Mann, W. C, h. 1. mfr.. Hill Head, Castledawson 
Martin, John, & Co. (Ld. ) spinners, Killyleagh 
Martin, R. & D., linen merchants and bleachers, Kilbroney Rostrevor, and 

12^, Linenhall street, Belfast. Agent in London — W. G. Coles, 7a Falcon 

square, E.C. 
Masson, Kennedy, & Co., shirt mfrs., Strabane 

Mantel, Louis, & Co., lin. com. mchts., &c., Donegall sq. east,' Belfast 
Matier, Henry, & Co., manufacturers and bleachers of cambric and linen 

handkerchiefs, linens, &c., Clarence place, Belfast 
Mawhinney, Wm., mfr., Hill Head, Castledawson 
Maxwell, William, mfr., Lurgan 

Maze, S. & Son, mfrs. and mchts., Clarence Place, Belfast 

Digitized by 



Meadley, Thomas, f.seed and flax mcht., Corporation street, Belfast 
Milewater Spinning Co., spinners, Milewater, Belfast 

Milfort Spinning Co., spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Donegall square west, Belfast 
Miller, Wm., & Co., lin. mchts., Donegall sq. s., Belfast ' 

Mitchell, Bros., spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Crumlin road, Belfast 
Monej^enny & Watson, lin. mchts., &c., James street south, Belfast 
Montgomery, C, & Co., lin. mchts, &c.. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Montgomery, Druitt, & Co., lin. mchts., &c.. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Moore, D., dyer, Ac., Ballyleyland, Ballymoney 
Moore, James, jun., h. 1. mfr., Ballyconley, Cullybackey 
Moore, J. &J. R., h. 1. mfr., Ballyconley, Cullybackey 
. Moore, W. T., & Co. (Ld.) spinners, Monkstown Mill, Belfast 
Moore & Weinberg, manufacturers, bleachers, and merchants, Linenhall street, 

Moreland Bros., spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Donegall place, Belfast 
Morton, James, linen manufacturer, Bellaghy, Co. Derry 
Morton & Simpson, dyers, Ac, Cullybackey 
MuUan, William, f seed mcht. , Victoria street, Belfast 
Munster, Alfred M., & Co., f seed mchts., Victoria street, Belfast ' 
Murland, James, spinner, linen manufacturer, and bleacher, Annsborough, 

Castlewellan. Agents in London — Messrs Gunning AQuarrell. New York — 

Mrjno. Stewart. Berlin — Mr D. Gidion 
Murphy, Joseph, 1. y. mcht., Lurgan 
Murphy & Reynolds, spinners, Armagh 
Murphy, Wm., & Co., mfrs., Donegall square north, Belfast 
M*Blain & Co., f seed mchts., Newry 

M*Bride, Robert, & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Bedford street, Belfast 
M'Caughey & Co., cambric handkerchief and linen manufacturers, Lurgan 
M*Causland, Samuel, f seed mcht., Victoria street, Belfast 
M*Caw, W. & J., h. 1. mfrs., Portglenone 
M*Caw & Carlisle, h. 1. mfrs., Lurgan 
M*Cleery & Reynolds, spinners, Doagh 
M*Clelland, Robt., & Sons, p. 1. mfrs., Ac, Banbridge 
M*Closkey. James, flax mcht., Ballymoney 
M*Conville, Thomas, mfr., Lurgan 

M*Corry, James, & Co., mfrs, &c., Linenhall street, Belfast, and Lurgan 
M'Cosh, K., h. 1. mfr., Broughshane, Ballymena 
M'Crory, William, & Sons, mfrs., Lurgan 
M*Crum, Robert, & Co., p. 1. mfrs., Armagh 
M*Crum, Watson & Co., p. 1. mfrs., &c., Bedford street, Belfast 
M'CuUough, Archd., flax mcht., Commercial court, Belfast 
M'Donald, Francis, flax and tow com. mcht., Cullingtree road, Belfast 
M*Elderry, T. &J., flax com. agts., Ballymoney 
MTadden, James, h. 1. mfr., Portglenone 

M*Ferran, J. 11., & Oo., lin. comn. agt., Donegall sq. west, Belfast 
M*Gaghey, Robert, mfr., Cookstown 
M*Geagh, John, mfr., Cookstown 
M'Govern, M., & Son, mfrs., &c., Drogheda 
M*Guckin, Neal, h. 1. mfr., Ballinderry Bridge, Monejmaore 
M*Ilveen, H. & S., mchts., &c., Donegall sq. north, Belfast 
M'llveen, J. T., mfr. and mcht, Donegall square north, Belfast 
M*Intyre, Hogg, A Co., shirt mfr."., Londonderry 
M*Kane, R., h. 1. mfr., Tullygarley, Ballymena 
M'Kean, Sons, A Co., flax, tow, and jute spinners and manufacturers, Lara 

Mills, Castleblayney 
M'Kinley, David, & Son, flax mchts., Armagh 

Digitized by 




M*Lernen, Hugh, h. 1. mfr., Ballymoncy 

M*Mahon, James, flax mcht., Armagh 

M* Master & Gray, p. 1. mfr., Portadown 

M*Mullan, James, h. 1. mfr., Portglenone 

M 'Murray, Thos., & Co., linen and cambric manufacturers and bleachers, 

Dromore, Co. Down 
M*Neay, H., h. 1. mfr., Aghadowey, Ballymoney 
M *Neese, Felix, h. 1. mfr., near Moy 
M'Whirter, Thomas, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Nelson, H., h. 1. mfr., Crosskeys, Toome Bridge 
Nelson, M., h. 1. mfr,, Crosskeys, Toome Bridge 
Nelson, T., h. 1. mfr., Crosskeys, Toome Bridge 
Nelson, W. R., mfr., Lurgan, and Clarence street, Belfast 
Nicholl, Parker, & Co., flax mchts., Donegall street, Belfast 
NichoU, W., h. 1. mfr., Ballyconley, Cullybackey 
Northern Spinning and Weaving Ca. (Ld.), Falls Factory, Belfast; office— 9, 

Donegall square west 
O'Brien, Geo., & Co., mchts., &c., Franklin St., Belfast 
Old Park Printing Co., Ld., Old Park. Office-— Calender street 
O'Neill, H., h. 1. mfr., Moy 
O'Neill, J. B., h. 1. mfr., Donaghmore 
O'Neill, John, & Co., h. L mfr., Londonderry 
Orr, Joseph, h. 1. mfr,, &c., Loughgall 
Orr & Sons, mfrs., Strangmore, Dungannon 
Oulton, John, & Co., flax and tow commission merchants, 37, Donegall street, 

Patterson, D., h. 1. mfr., Rasharkin, Ballymoney 
Patterson, R. Lloyd, & Co., flaxseed and flax mchts., 22, Corporation street, 

Patterson, White, & Co., linen yam merchants, 22, Corporation street, Belfast, 

and Lurgan 
Paul, Wm., mfr., Cookstown 

Pauley & Sands, h. 1. mfrs. and mchts., James st. south, Belfast, and Porta- 
Perry, Miss, shirt mfr., Strabane 
Philipp & Co., 1. mchts., Linenhall street, Belfast 

Pike, Jonathan, & Son, manufacturers, bleachers, and finishers of linens, lawns, 

handkerchiefs, &c., also finishers of brown goods, brown dress linens and 

unions. Postal address — Dungannon, Co. Tyrone. Telegraph address 

— Coalisland only. Agents in Manchester — S. Daniel & Sons, 

Pim Bros, & Co., linen yarn and linen merchants, and commission agents. 

Upper Queen street, Belfast 
Plunkett, F., & Son, flax mchts., Corporatipn street, Belfast 
Portadown Linen Co., mfrs., Portadown, and Upper Queen street, Belfast 
Preston, John, & Co., linen yarn, flax and flaxseed merchants, and agents, 

20, Calender street, Belfast 
Preston, Smyth, & Co, linen manufacturers, bleachers, dyers, and finishers, 

Donegall square south, Belfast 
Rafter, W. P., flax com. mcht., Ac, Wellington place, Belfast 
Reade, Clarke, & Co., linen, yam, and flax commi.ssion merchants, 62, Upper 

Queen street, Belfast 
Reid & M*Ilveen, linens, lawns, cambric, and linen handkerchief manufacturers, 

17, Linenhall street, Belfast, and Portadown 
Reilly, Edward, flax mcht.. Waring street, Belfast 

Reynolds, Archibald, flax merchant— agent for A, Ellerman, Rotterdam — 
Rosemary street, Belfast 

Digitized by 



Richardson, Bros., & Co., linen yarn, linen, flax, and flaxseed merchants and 
commission agents, 30, Donegall place, Belfast 

Richardson & Co., blrs., Lambeg, Lisburn 

Richardson, Grubb, & Co., 1. y. inchts., Donegall square §outh, Belfast 

Richardson & Niven, p. 1. mfrs., Lambeg Factory, Lisburn 

Richardson, J. N., Sons, & Owden, (Limited), linen manufacturers and 
bleachers of all classes of Irish linens, sheetings, table damasks, diaper, 
linen and cambric handkerchiefs, dowlas, &c. Warehouse — i & 3, 
Donegall square north, Belfast. Manufactory at Lurgan. Bleachworks 
at Lisburn. London warehouse at 36, Bread street. New York warehouse, 
at 62, White street 

Roan Spinning Company, spinners, Coalisland, Dungannon 

Robb, Hamilton, h. h mfr., Portadown 

Ross, John, h. 1. mfr. finisher, Kells, Ballymena 

Ross, John, & Co., h. 1. mfrs., Lurgan 

Ross, William. & Co., flax and tow spinners, Clonard Mill, Belfast 

Savage,. John, h. 1. mfr., Point 

Savage, Sir John, flax mcht. and spinner, Victoria street, Belfast 

Sayers, Andrew, h. 1. mfr., Cloughmills 

Sefton, J. R., & Co., mfrs. and mchts., Adelaide place, Belfast 

Shaw, Edward, & Co. , spinners, linen yam, and linen merchants, Victoria 

street, Belfast 
•Shaw, Joseph, spinner, Celbridge 

Shaw, William, & Co., spinners, Cork, and Donegall square south, Belfast 

• Shillington Bros. , linen and handkerchief manufacturers, i, Adelaide place, 
Belfast. Manufactory, Craigvilla, Lurgan. 

Shillington, J. J., & Co., 1. y. mchts., &c., Broadway, Belfast 

Sinclair, S. & Co., mchts., Franklin street, Belfast 

Sinton, Thomas, spinner and p. 1. mfr. , Tandragee 

Sloan, Black, & Co., mchts.. Upper Queen street, Ftelfast 

Sloan, J. & Sons, finishers, &c., Cookstown 

Smithfield Flax Spinning and Weaving Co. (Ld.), spinners and p. 1. mfrs., 
Smithfield, Belfast 

Smith, J. & T., fseed mchts.. Tomb street, Belfast 

Smyth, Gilmer, & Co., bleachers, &c., Ballymena 

Smyth, John A., & Co., f.seed and flax mchts., Londonderry 

Smyth, J., h. 1. mfr., Clady, Co. Derry 

Smyth, Robert, h. 1. mfr., Broughshane 

Smyth, Robert, spinner, Emyvale 

Smyth, Thos., h. 1. mfr., Hazelview, Rasharkin 

Smyth, Wm. , & Co. , linen manufacturers, bleachers, and merchants, Milltown, 
Banbridge, and 2, Donegall square west, Belfast. 5a, Lawrence lane, 
London, and 23, Brown street, JVIanchester 

Spamount Spinning Co. , spinners, Spamount, Castlederg 

Springfield Bleaching Co. , Donegall square west, Belfast 

Sprott, Wm., & Co., linen, sheeting, cambric handkerchief and shirt front 
manufacturers, and bleachers, Dromore, Co Down. London warehouse — 
26, Aldermanbury, E.C. Glasgow warehouse — 77, Queen street 

Stevenson & Clarke, p. 1. mfrs., Coalisland, Dungannon 

Stevenson & Douglass, flax dressers, flax and tow merchants, dressed flax of 
every description kept in stock or made to order ; sorts suitable for sail- 
cloth yarns, threads, &c., always in stocky Dungannon, Co. Tyrone 

Stevenson, Douglass, & Co. , linen manufacturers by power, bleachers, dyers, 
and finishers, Moygashel Mills, Dungannon 

Stewart, A. T., & Co., linen merchants, &c., Wellington place, Belfast 

Stewart, John, h. l. mfr., Clintagh, Coleraine 

Digitized by 



Stewart, R. & W., & Co., mfrs., &c., Donegall street, Belfast 

Stewart, Robert, & Sons, spinners, &c. , Lisburn 

Stewart, S., & Co., linen, and linen drill manufacturers, 103, Donegall street, 

Stewart, Wm., & Sons, mfrs. and tnchts., &c., Bedford street, Belfast, and 

St. Mary*s Flax Spinning Company (late Gradwell, Chadwick, & Co. ) flax 

spinners and linen manufacturers, Drogheda 
Suffolk Linen Co., finishers, &c., Dunmurry 
Taylor, James, & Sons, spinners, Carrickfergus 
Thompson, James, & Sons, 1. mchts., &c., Havelock street, Ormeau road, 

Thompson, Joseph, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Thompson, Robt., Son, & Co., 1. mchts, &c., 1 1, Donegall square south, 

Thompson, Wm. , k Co. , p. 1. mfrs. , Lagan Factory, Lisburn 
Thompson, W. G. , flax mcht. and mfr. , Coagh, Moneymore 
Tillie & Henderson, shirt mfrs., Londonderry 
Todd, M*Call 4 Co., lin. mchts., &c., Linenhall street, Belfast 
Trimble, Jariies, flax mcht., Strabane 
Turtle, William L., h. 1. mfr., Aghalee 

Ulster Damask and Linen Co., mfrs. and mchts, &c.. Linen Hall, Belfast 
Ulster Spinning Co. (Ld.), spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Bath place. Falls road, and 

Linfield, Belfast 
Uprichards, J. T. & H., bleachers, Springvale and Millbank, Gilford 
Vallely, J. L., linen manufacturer, &c., 4, Glengall place, Belfast 
Vance, Gilbert, 1. y. mcht., power and hand loom linen and cotton manufac- 
turer, Donegall street and York lane mills, Belfast 
Wallace ^ Magill, dyers, &c., Kells, Ballymena 
Wallis & Pollock, flax spinners and rherchants, Cork 
Walker, George, spinner, Newtownards 
Walker, William, & Co., manufacturers, by hand and powet-loom, of linens, 

sheetings, cambric and linen handkerchiefs, &c., Banbridge 
Wasson, Samuel, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 
Watson, Armstrong, & Co., p. 1. mfrs. and mchts., Portadown and Donegall 

square west, Belfast 
Watson R., & Sons, mfrs., Lurgan, and Amelia Street, Belfast 
Watson, Valentine & Co., p. 1. mfrs., mchts.*, &c., Amelia street, Belfast 
Watson, W. K., 1. mcht., Franklin street, Belfast 
Waugh, Wm., & Co., mfrs., &c., Banbridge 
Webb Brothers, manufacturers of plain linens, Randalstown. Agencies — Belfast, 

Manchester, and London 
Weir, A. C, & Co., spinners, Dunmurry 
Weir, James, h. 1. mfr., Ahoghill 
Welch, Margetson, & Co., 1. mchts., Londonderry 
Whearty, John, & Co., mfrs., Duleek, near Drogheda 
Whiteabbey Bleaching Co., bleachers and linen merchants, Whiteabbey: office, 

Clarence street, Belfast 
Whiteabbey Spinning Co. (Ld.), spinners and p. L mfrs., Whiteabbey, Belfast 
Whitehouse Spinning Co., spinners and p. 1. mfrs., Whitehouse, Belfast 
Whiteside, Mrs., h. 1. mfr., Prockless, Randalstown 
Whitewell Printing Co., printers and finishers, Whitewell 
Wiggelsworth, A., & Co., lin. mchts., James street south, Belfast 
Wilkinson & Turtle, linen collar and cuff manufacturers, I, Alfred street, 

^Williamson, J., flax mcht, 28, Grattan street, Belfast 

Digitized by 



Wilson, Abraham, spinner, Newry 

Wilson Bros. , flax and 1. y. mchts. , North street, Belfast 

Wilson, Irvine & Co., manufacturers, Portadown 

Wilson, John, flax mcht., Newry 

Wolfhill Spinning Company, flax spinners, Wolfhill Mill, Ligoniel, Belfast 

Woods, C. , h. 1. mfr. , Moygashel, Dungannon 

Woods, John, flax mcht., Newry 

Wood, Jphn, lin. yam, and com. mcht, Donegall square north, Belfast 

Woodlock, Duke, & Co., mfrs., Lurgan 

Workman, J. & R., mfrs., &c., Bedford street, Belfast 

Workman, W. S., mchts., Bedford street, Belfast 

Workman, T. & G. A., mfrs., Bedford street, Belfast 

Wylie, Samuel, h. 1. mfr., Ballymena 

Wynne, J., blr. and fin., Ballyards, Armagh 

W)mne, Thos., & Co., blrs., mchts., Ac, Lislea, Armagh 

York Street Flax Spinning Co. (Limited), flax spinners, and linen manufac- 
turers, and bleachers, Henry street, Belfast Branch Hovises — New York, 
154, Church street ; Paris, 38, Rue des Jeuneurs. Agencies — London, 
2, Russia Row, Milk street, E. C. Manchester, 12, Piccadilly 

Young, J. & R., mfrs., blrs., and mchts, Ballymena, and Donegall square 
north, Belfast 

Digitized by 





JANSSENS, FRERES, Courtrai, Belgium.— Linen Manufacturers, 
Linen Yam Merchants, and Flax Commission Merchants. 
Agents for Brookfield Linen Co. (Limited), Belfast; Messrs. Kay 
■& Co., Pendleton Flax Mills, Manchester, and Messrs. John 
Birley & Sons, Kirkham, Lancashire. 


TH. BOITTIAUX, Lille, Rue du Molinel, 57 & 61. Flax and Tow 
Merchant. Irish Agent — ^James Beattie, Linen Hall, Belfast. 

CURTIS & CIE, Lille. — Agents de Maisons Russes, pour Lins Chanvres et 
Graines. N^gociants Commissionaires en Fils de Lin et Toiles 
de Jute. 

GALLAND RUSKONE & FILS, Cambrai (Nord.)— Importation et Ex- 
portation. Fils de Lin et D'Etoupes, Fran^jais, Beiges et An- 
glais. Specialite de Fils Fins pour Nouveaute Toile et Batiste. 

L. LEROY-CREPEAUX, Lille. —Flax Merchant. Store in Courtrai, Rue 
Neuve 4. 

AUGte. LONGHAYE, Lille— N^gociant en Lins, Fils, Graines; Agent de 
Maisons Russes. 


Genossenschaft, in Bielefeld, — Fabrikation durch Hand- 
weberei von Bielefelder rohen und gebleichten Leinen, geklarten 
und ungeklarten Creas, Dre"llen, und Taschentuchem in alien 
Breiten und Groesseii. 

S. MEYER & CO., A Bielefeld.— Manufacture de devants de chemises 
cousus, brodes d la main et d la mecanique, faux cols et 
manchettes pour hommes et dames; festons et entre deux en toile 
et en cambrique. 

PREUSS ET BRAUNS, Bielefeld (Preussen.)— Fabrikanten von 
Leinen, fertigen Hemden und Hemden Einsatzen (Devants de 

MORITZ ROSENBLUM, Hamburg, Wilhelminenstr 38.— Handlung 
in deutschen Flachsen, feinen und mittel Heeden. 

WILH. FRCEMBLING, Bielefeld.— Maschinen Werkstatt fiir Herstellung 
und Reparatur von Spinnerei Maschinen. 

A. W. KISKER, Bielefeld.— Hoflieferant Sr. Majestat des Deutschen 
Kaisers und Konigs. Fabrik von Drell-Jacquard,-und Damast- 
Tischzeugen und Leinen. 

Digitized by 



ROMMEI^ NAGEL & CO., Coln.— Mechanische Weberei, SpeciaKtat 
Segeltuch Drell und Wagendecken. 

CARL HEIDSIECK, Bielefeld.— Fabrikant von Tischzeugen und Hand- 
tuchem in Drell, Jacquard und Damast, I^incn, Taschentuchern, 
Hemdeneinsatzen und anderen Wascheartikeln. 

S. A. STERN, Senr., Bielefeld.— Leinen, Damast, Drell, und Einsatz, 

OERTMANN & BAUMHOFENER, Bielefeld.— Leinenfabrik und 
Wasche Spezialitat : Hemdeneinsatze in alien Genres. 

GOTTLIEB BRACKSIECK, Bielefeld.— Fabrik von Leinen, Tischzeugen 
und Wasche. 

JULIUS WEISS, Bielefeld. — Fabrikation von Leinen, Einsatzen und 
fertigen Hemdeh. 

HEINRICH LANDWEHR, Civil Ingenieur Bielefeld.— Spezialitat ; 
Anlage von Flachsspinnereien, Webereien, Bleichen und 
Appretur Anstalten. 

GUST HERM SCHMIDT, Bielefeld. — Fabrikation von Bielefelder 
Leinen, Taschentuchern und Hemden, Einsatzen. 


B. BAKKER, BZn., Rotterdam (Late Partner of Paul Gransberg k 

Co.) Formerly Flax Buyer of Messrs. Robert Twiss & Sons. 
Telegraph Address — Bakker, Flax Merchant, Rotterdam. 

PAUL GRANSBERG & CO., Flax Merchants, Rotterdam. Also branch 
house in Friesland. 

P. J. LUCARDIE & SONS, Flax, Tow and Flaxseed, Rotterdam 
(Holland), Leeuwarden, Dokkum, (Friesland.) Agent in 
Belfast— James Beattie. 

ARTHUR MAINGAY & CO., Flax Merchants, Rotterdam and 
Leeuwarden.— Agents in Belfast— Messrs. John Oulton & 
Co., Donegall Street. 

E. & S. A C. St. MARTIN & CO., Flax Tow and Flaxseed Merchants, 
Rotterdam — Branch houses at Leeuwarden and Dokkum, 

C. E. MOLL & CO., Rotterdam, Flax and Flaxseed and General Com- 

mission Merchants. Agents in Belfast — for Flaxseed— Messrs. 
M. J. Fiddes & Co. ; for Flax— Messrs. Reade, Clarke, & Co. 

L. AUG. MULLER k CO., Antwerp, Agents and Commissioners for 
Russian*and Belgian Flax. 

JAN VAN WAGENINGE & ZOON, Flax, Flaxseed, and Hemp Merdiants, 
Zalmhaven, Rotterdam. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



The First Prize Awarded for Flax, Tow & Jute Card Clothing 
and Belting, at the Yorkshire Exhibition, 1875, was given to 



Which from its cheapness and greater durability has for a number of years been 

used by many of the largest consumers in preference to " Leather" Filleting. 


of a Special 


extensively used for 

Every variety of 
Iron & Steel 







(Set with Needle^ Diamond, Sectoral or other Points,) 


Running Board Leathers, and other Loom Furnishings. 

All kinds of Silk Machine Cards with Steel Teeth. 




All BELTS stretched, and made any width to 48 inches, 

stitched with Lace, Wire, or Hemp, as required. 

To insure prompt execution of orders^ a large stock of the above 

always on hand. Samples and List of Prices on application, 



Digitized by 



VIENNA EXHIBITION MEDAL, 1873— First Prize for Card 
Clothing Awarded for Excellence of Manufacture. PARIS, ist Prize, 
SILVER MEDAL, 1875.— Do. do. 






Card Clothing in Leather, Wood, Cloth, &c. — Brass & Iron Faced, 
&c. — for Flax, Tow, Jute, Shoddy, &c. 


Patent Diamond Point Needle Pointed Sectoral Knife Wire, Flat 

Wire, Oval Wire, &c., for Takers in, for Cotton and 

Woollen Carding Engines. 



Single, Double, and Treble, any width up to 48-in., and any strength. A trial 
solicited for these Heavy Main Driving Bands, made from the Best English Butt Leather. 


Awarded Special Prize Medal at the 
L Machinery Exhibition, Manchester. 

The simplest and most durable Pump 
for Boiler Feeding, and Fire Engine 
purposes, at Mills, Chemical, Bleach, and 
Dye Works, Breweries, Collieries, Gas and 
Water Works, etc., etc. 

Makers of Horizontal and Vertical Steam 


Willburn Iron Works, 


Digitized by 





Ij o 2sr 15 o :^T . 


In FRANCE, ... LILLE (Nord.) 




Of all kinds, for Flax-spinners & Linen Manufacturers. 



Child's Patent Measuring Apparatus 


Digitized by 



Albert Pacpne ani C00I SKarfes, 


TOOL MAKERS, &c., &c. 







Flax, Hemp^ Tow, & jfute Machinery , 

A large Stock of which (Second hand) is always on hand. 


Machinery promptly Repaired, and all kinds of Mill 
Furnishings supplied. 

Digitized by 




For Land and Maf^ine jEngines, 


W¥^ latent ^lastk Pttal |at% 

{0/ which 8,583 have been made to December, 1875), 





Salford Iron Works, Manchester. 

B E li T I N O versus O K A R I IV G • 


(Sampson 8f Co.*s Patent, without Cross Joints. ) 

THB Belts are made from the best English Leather, any width, length, or strength 
required, without cross joints, and of eren thickness throughout. For large Main 
Driying Belts running direct from the fly-wheel of engine this Patent Belting is especially 
adapted, and can refer to a great number of firms who are turning from 60 to 350-h.p. 
(indicated) by Belts from 10 to 24 28, 30, 36, and 38 inches wide. 


Vat prices and all information, apply to 

W.J. EDWARDS, 20, Market Place, Manchester. 


For Blowing and Exhausting; Drying by Hot or Cold Air; Drawing off Dust, 
Steam and Heat ; Ventilating Mills and Rooms; Blowing Smithy Fires and 
Cupolas. Full List and details on application. 

THE UNION engineering CO. (C. Schiele & Co.), 

2, Clarence Buildings, Booth Street, Manchester. 


®tl, Iron, anb Steel |tterci)antjS, 

Agent-'Nu. R. REA, Belfast. DALKEITH, N.B. 

PRICES ON application. ' 

Pinion and Cog Wheel Greases ; Iron and Steel Hoops for Baling, &c. 

Digitized by 






6, Lord Street, Liverpool, 


Has Branch Offices or Agents for taking out and selling Patents in 


Note.— Trademarks to be binding must be registered afresh under the Act of 1875, 
Send stamp for Pamphlet " All about Trademarks.'' 
NOTE.— Residents abroad (whether the actual inventors or otherwise) sending a full clear 
description of a new invention (with explanatory sketches or drawings where necessary) can 
have immediate protection and subsequent patent (no oath or power of attorney required) 
cost, £10 (50 dols. Gold or 250 francs) in advance, and £34 (170 dels. Goldpr 860 francs) any 
time before the end of four months from date of application. Search for novelty always 
included. If found clearly old, the money, minus £4 (cost of search) will be returned. 


Published by W. P. THOMPSON, C.E., 6, LORD STREET, LIVERPOOL. Is. post free. 
" The Manual is a very valuable one, and gives evidence of having been prepared with great 
care, and a thorough knowledge of the subject."— i/tntuflr Journal, 

" The pitfalls into which an unwary inventor will run a risk of stumbling are pointed out 
and good advice given. ... A trustworthy guide to Patentees.— i^'ngr/wA Mechanic. 

8^" Mr. Tkoufson frequently visits Belfast and Dublin for the purpose of securing 
Patents, Circular^ viithfull particularSf supplied gratis. 


Thomas Firth, 




T. P. begs to say that he makes these Gold and Silver Embossed and Plain Desigm • 
by a new process of his own, by which he can produce them more expeditely, consequently 
cheaper, than any other house in the trade. 

Manufacturer also of GOLD AND SILVER LETTERS for Manufacturers and Shipping 
Merchants, of WooUen, Worsted and Stuff Goods, Cassinetts. Cassimeres, &c. 

T. P. begs to say that, by his NEW AND IMPROVED MOVABLK-LETTER MACHINE, 
he is in a position at any given time to supply (in 8 or 10 different designs) any word, names 
of firms, Ac, &c., in any language. 

GOLD AND SILVER LETTERING is rapidly taking the place of the old-fashioned 
and slow process of Silk Lettering. The especial advantages in the use of the former are 
their simplicity, cheapness, beauty, and despatch, in which the Silk Lettering cannot 
possibly compete. 

All orders with Private Trade Marks or Names Executed with the Strictest Secrecy. 

Bar Please Note the Address— 




Digitized by 



Cifuncil Medaly i%$i. First Class Medal, Paris ^ 1%$$. Prize Medal, London^ 
1862. Gold Medal, Paris^ 1867. For excellence of their Microscopes and 
cheapness of their Manufactures, 

R. & J. BECK, 


BEG to direct the attention of the Linen Trade to 
the suitability of their new 


which possesses ample power for analysing the 
various Vegetable Fibres :— 


and its use will be found advantageous to 
Manufacturers, by assisting them in determin- 
ing the component materials of 


It is simple in construction ; easily 
adjusted; and anyone unuspd to 
Instruments of the kind can readily 
acquire, in a short time, skill in 
analysing these fibres, which sever- 
ally possess distinct characteristics. 

Explanation.— K, heavy horse shoe base, 
at bend of which is a firm pillar B, having 
at its top a hinge-joint 0, which allows the 
body D to be inclined at any angle. The 
Body is supplied with a drawer or length- 
ening tube B, which must be pulled out zo 
give the full power to the Objett glass F. 
The Quick-foeuuing movement is produced 
by sliding the body D up and down in the 
tube G-, and the $U>w motion is^ven by the 
tube H sliding over the inner stem with a 
spring ioside, and adjusted \>j the milled 
head I . The stage K has two S] )rings L L 
for holding objects. M nurror %vhich can 
be adjusted to any angle to reflect the light. 
S condensing lens for uping with opaque 

For an Instrument of superior [t 
Power and Finish like this the price H 
has been made as low as possible. 

With Two Eye Pieces and Half-inch Object Glass ; Fine Adjustment ; 
Pliers, Forceps, Glass Plate and Condensing Lens, in Mahogany Case, £6 12s 
6d. With Inch or Quarter Inch Object Glass, ;^5 12s 6d. 

F. W. SMITH, 43, Waring Street, Belfast, 


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Contractors for ROOFING FELT to the Inter- 
national Exhibition of Paris, 1867. 

BY HER majesty's Jj^jf J^L ^^ k SEVERAL 






Price Eightpencc per Bannine Yard, or One Penny per Square Foot, making a light, 
clean, ecoaomical and durable Roofing, in Rolls of 23 to 35 yards, 82 inches wide. 

Improved Patent Bituminous Waterproof Felt, Free 
from Unpleasant smell ; for Lining Damp Walls, laying under 
Carpets, Floor-Cloths, <kc. Price 8d per yard, 32 inches wide. 

Iinproved Non-Conducting Hair Felt, for Clothing Boilers, 
Cylinders, Pipes, &c., which effects a saving of one-fourth in Fuel. 
Price, from Seven to Fifteen Pence per Sheet, according to 

Improved Patent Sheathing Felt, for Ships' Bottoms, under 
Copper or Wood. Made in Double Sheets and in Rolls. Price 
Twopence and Twopence Halfpenny per sheet of 32 x 20 inches. 

Asphalte Flagging, recommended for Flooring Cellars, Mills, 
Bams, &c. Price lod to 5 s per Square Yard. 


Refined COAL TAR, at 6d per Gallon ; Prepared COATING 
VARNISH, at 12s per cwt. All in Quantities to suit. 

Samples and InttrueUons sent gratis (o any part of the Town or Country on application to 




Digitized by 







Paris Exhibition 



For Quality and 

General Excellence 

of Manufacture. 






'sole makers of 


Silk Combs, with best tempered Steel Teeth, set in 



Double and Single Leather Driving Straps (Joints 
Sewn or made with Stapples) made from Bark 
Tanned Leather of Superior Quality. Endless 
Leather Sheets, &c. 

Digitized by 







Paris Exhibition 



For Quality and 

General Excellence 

of Manufacture. 

i ESTABLISHED 1800."~t 









Peignes \ soie, k dents d'acier bien tremp6, et months sur cuir ou sur 

caoutchouc survulcanise, pour Tappret de la Soie. 
Toute especes de dents habillees en fer et en acier. Epingles d'acier, &c. 
Courroies, simples et doubles, en cuir tannee de quality sup6rieure. Courroies 
sans fln, &c. 





Patentirten gespitzten Holz-Kratzsectoren zum Jute-Krampeln. 

Gezahnten Seidenkammen, aus dem bisten geharteten Stahl verfertigt, und 

entweder in Leder oder homisirten Kautschuk eingesetzt. 
Allen Arten fein-gespitzten Eisen-und-Stahl-Knltzen. Stablemen Nadeln, &c. 
Einfachen und doppeeten Riemen, aus vorzuglich gegerbten Leder. Endlase 

Gurten, w s. w. 

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o o 



RESPECTFULLY solicits the attention of Merchants to his stock of Books 
adapted to the specialties of the Linen trade. Books not in Stock 
promptly procured (if obtainable) to order. 


The Linen and Linen Yam Trades Ready Reckoner, by Jas. B. White £\ 

The Weight Calculator ; showing at one reference the exact value of 
any weight from i lb. to 15 tons, from id. to 168 shillings percwt, 
by Henry Harben . - . - - 

Laurie's Interest Tables - - - ' - 

Wood's Discount Tables - - - , - 

Page's Fractional Calculator - - . , 

Practical Book-keeping, adapted to commercial and judicial account 
ing, by F. Hayne Carter - - - - - 

Calvert's Pocket Wages Table, 56^ hours - 

Handbook of Dyeing and Calico Printing, by W. Crookes, F. R. S. 

Manual of Colours and Dye Wares, by J. W. Slater 

The Dyers' Handbook, by F. J. Bird ' - - - 

Workshop Receipts for manufacturers and others, by E. Spon 

The Textile Colourist ; a journal of bleaching, printing, djreing, etc. 
by Charles O'Neil, F.C.S., monthly ... 

Select Method in Chemical Analysis, by Wm. Crookes, F.R.S. 
The Art of Weaving, by John Watson 
The Factory and Workshops Act, by G. J. Notcutt 
The Law of Private Trading Partnership, by J. W. Smith, LL.D, 
The Law of Joint- Stock Companies, by J. W. Smith, LL.D. 
Elements of Chemistry, by Wm. Allen Miller, 3 vols. 
Dictionary of Chemistry, and the allied branches of other sciences, 
by Henry Watts, F.C.S., 6 vols, and 2 supplements to 1875 

Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures, enlarged, by R. Hun, 
F.R.S., 3 vols. - - - , . 

Ireland and her staple Manufactures : Sketch of the history and 
progress of the Linen and Cotton Trades 

Flax and its Products, by W. Charley 





12 18 6 


W. H. GREER, k I'honneur d'announcer aux Manufacturiers et aux n^ociants 
en toile a I'etranger qu'il tient en vente les ouvrages ci-dessus nomm^s, et qu'il 
s'empressera de les envoyer, au re9u d'un Bon sur la Poste, soit directement ou 
inclus daus leurs balles de marchandises selon I'ordre qu'il recevra. 

Digitized by 



Imperial Jfire Insurance Cnntpnj, 




District Agents : 


Agents : 


Beg to call the attention of Householders and all Owners of Property to the 
Protection afforded by this Institution against the calamitous ravages of Fire, 
\ehich in a short time may lay waste the fruits of a whole life of Industry. 

Special attention is given to insurances on Flax Mills, 
Flax, Linen, and Yam Warehouses. 

The experience of many years has made manifest to the public the 
promptitude and liberality with which all losses have been adjusted and paid by 
the Imperial Fire Office. The security afforded to the Public comprises that 
of a large and wealthy proprietary, in addition to a Subscribed Capital of 


Steam Thrashing Machines allowed on Farms without extra charge. 
Indemnity for Loss or Damage to buildings, or Property contained therein, 
caused by explosion of gas in such buildings; 

Rates and particulars of Insurance may be had as above, where any order 
or instructions that may be addressed will meet with immediate attention. 
All Policies now .issued free of duty. 

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Royal Insurance Buildings, Liverpool, and 

Lombard Street, London. 

Extracts from the Report for the Year, 1874. 


Pire Premiums for the Year - £774,63110 2 

Losses ----- 402,191 18 11 


lucome from Preminms, after deducting re-assurances £240,635 19 1 

DECLARATION OF BONUS for.the Quinquennium ending 31st Dec, 1874^ 

£1 10s per cent, per annum on Sum assured. 

Upon all policies entitled to participate. 

A valuation of the liabilities has been obtained from an independent actuary, in addition 
to the ordinary valuation by the Officers of the Company. The two valuations are nearly 
identical in their results, but the figures of Mr. Baden, the consulting Actuary, have in every 
instance been adopted. 

The Life Profit for the Five Years was £273,607 


After providing for payment of the Dividend and Bonuses, the funds of the Ck>mpany will 
stand as follows :— 

Capital Paid-up - - - £289,545 

Fire Fund ^l - - - 354,637 10 

Reserve and Profit and Loss - 459,981 O 4 

Life Funds - - - - 1,853,011 2 

£2,957,174 12 4 

The valuation above referred to was made by the Tables of the Institute of Actuaries (HM> 
** We have examined and counted every Security, and have found 
all correct and in perfect order, and that the present aggregate market value 
thereof is in excess of the amounts in the said Balance Sheets." 

"JOHN H. McLaren, Manager. 



WILLIAM MALCOMSON, Esq., Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 

OH AS. B. MARTIN, Esq. (Messrs. T. & C. Martin) North Wall, & 12, Pitzwilliam PI. Dublin 
THOMAS PIM, Jun., Esq., 22, William Street, Dublin ; and Windsor House, Monkstown. 
THOMAS VANCE, Esq., Lower Bridge Street, Dublin ; and Blackrock House, Blackrock. 


Messrs. WILLIAM PINDLaTER & Co., 35, Upper Ormond Quay. 
8, Corporation St.- | ^ Donegall Quay. | Town Hall. 

Digitized by 



Rational ^esurancc Company of Jirelau^. 




Paid-up Capital, £100,000 

Uncalled Capital, 900,000 

Subscribed Capital, £1,000,000 

Accumulated Reserves, 1 r^gg got 

exclusive of Capital. J » »y 

By the last Returns presented to Parliament, in March, 1874, it appeared that the 
accumulated " Life Fimds " of the National Assurance Company of Ireland amounted to 
tnpwards of 85 per cent, of the total sums assured. 

Independent of the " Life Funds" the Company has other large reserves which afford 
A security almost without parallel. 


F. W. SMITH, 43, Waring Street. 




The Belfast Chamber of Commerce, 

Published every Monday Evening at the Offices^ 

P*;v Annum 

Subscription for Great Britain or Ireland, - - £1 2 6 
Foreign, --------150 

F. W. SMITH, Secretary. 




Wochentlich erscheinendes Organ des Deutschen und Oesterreichischen 
Leinen Industrie Vereins 
bringt regelmassige und ausfiihrliche Marktberichte aus alien bedeutenderen 




iiber FLACHS, WERG, HANF, JUTE, GARN und LEINEN und in einem 
zweiten Blatte Abhandlungen iiber Flachsbau, Flachsbereitung und alle die 
Gam, und Leinen Industrie betreffenden technischen und wirthschaftlichea 
Fragen, neue Erfindungen, etc. 

Gegen Zahlung von . 30 Mark pro Jahr wird das Blatt jeden Sonnabend 
franco zugesandt und zugleich das Recht erworben Ankiindigungen in demselben 
Kostenfrei zu erlassen so wie an den Versammlungen des Vereins Theil zu 

Anmeldungen sind zu richten an die Redaction des LEINEN INDUS- 
TRIELLEN zu BIELEFEI^D (Westfalen.) 


The Textile Manufacturer 

A 7 rode Journal /or Millowners^ Machinists^ Dyers ^ Bleachers, &^c, 

THIS Journal embraces every trade of which Cotton,Wool,6iU:,Plax^einp, Jate,or any other 
fibrous material forms the basis, and it is the only publication in the United Kingdom 
devoted to the same industries THM Tbxtilb MANUFACTURBa deals with the Raw 
Materials, with the Machinery, Apparatus, Tools, and Processes (Illnstrate<l) employed in 
their conversion ; with &1 ill Architecture (occasionally Illastrated) with tlie Manufactured 
Goods, and with Chemicals, Dyeing, and DyestufEs. The statistics relating to Imports and 
Bxports, as also the Prices Current of each branch, are carefully collected, tabulated and 
reviewed, and Monthly Lists of British and Foreigq Patents, Bankruptcies, Liquidations, 
Bills of Hale, &c., are also given, tc^ethcr with a mass of other reliable information of great 
value : in fact, no subject of interest to those engaged in any department of Textile 
Manufacture is neglected. The advertisements are strictly confined to announcements of 
Machinery, Steam Apparatus, Fiant^ and oiher material used by Manufacturers, Dyers 
Bleachers, Calico Printers, 6(c. 

London Office— 138, FLEET STREET. 

Published on the \ 5th of each month. Subicriptioru lOs. per year, payable in advance, commencing 
from any date, Postjree to every country in the world. Single Copies, \s . each. 

Textile Manufacturers being greater users of Steam Power and Machinery than any 
other class, the advertisements are strictly confined to announcements of Machinery, Steam 
Apparatus, Plant, and other materials used in the Cotton. Woollen, Worsted, Silk, Linen 
and Jiite Trades, and in Djeing, Bleaching, and Calico Printing. 

By the adoption of this role it is intended that these Advertisements shall form quite an 
Illustrated Catalogue of Plant connected with the Trades, thus becoming a Guide to 
Mumfactnrers before purchasing new appliances. 

All communications must be addressed and remittattoes made payable to W. T. Emmott 
lb. Market Street, Manchester. 

Digitized by 





j&team-$ot»er$rlntei:, |LttI)09rapI)er, Xllumtnator, Pratigl)t!etman, 
ISookbintiec ant) |lccount<r|Sook |naker^ 




highly heated surfaces. 

Much superior to Felt, or any other composition as regards Economy, Lightness, Dura- 
bility, Adhesiyeness, and Effectiveness, to prevent the radiation of Heat, save Fuel, increase 
the power of Steam, and keep the Stoke Hole and Engine Boom cool ; it will at once show 
a Leak ; it cann«t catch or communicate fire. Can be seen in places where it has been on 
for Bight years. 

Agents for E. VoislN's FLAMBLBSS CUPOLA FURNACE, by which Iron is cast with 
a maTJmnm of 180 lbs. of Coke to the ion of iron put into the furnace, or no charge is 
made for Royalty, (General Agents— Jules MAQNY & Co., 1 Langham-pl, London, W.) 
7 Hundreds of references and testimonials^ and all information at 
LEROY & CO., Sole Manufacturers, 12, Gray Street, near Philpot Street Road, Lon- 
don, E.,-and 2, Great Clowes Street, Lower Broughton, Manchester. 



"A peculiarly substantial and elegant description of stationery, on which it is an 
abBolute luxury to write,"— Z>ai/y Telegraph, 

** Precisely the kind of surface which is so agreeable to the ready or unready writer."— 
Morning Post, 

WATERMARK (as above) and "Marcus Ward and Co." in every 
octavo sheet. Watermark in the Second Qualitv, ** Pure Flax.^' 
Sample Packet of all Varieties, 6d. post free. Wholesale of the Manufacturers, 

MARCUS ward & CO., 


Digitized by 





I I ■ <! i I 


Tltrlollzed Bone CompouiidfSuitable for all Crops. 

Potato Maiilirey for raising a large and healthy Crop. 

O^rBSS ]IEaitlire5 for giving a large Crop of Hay and im- 
proving Pasture Land. 

Oraln HEaniiref for increasing Straw and Grain. 
Bone VloiU*9 containing all the elements oi the Plant. 

Bone llea.15 Guaranteed made from Pure Bones. 
Cmsliedl Bones^ of any degree of Fineness. 

tfiilHttlar, si\ Imu mi 


Applicable to all cases where great Economy of Cost, Clear Wide 
Space, without Centre Supports from below, are reqtdi^d. 

ROOFI N Q FEL T.— a Light and Durable Covering for Roofs. 

BLACK 8HEATHINQ FBLT. -For Ships' use. 

'/NO DO ROUS FELT.—^or Lining Damp Walls. 
8ARKI NQ FELT. —For Putting under Slates. 

ASPHALTE. — Eor Flooring Stores, Warehouses, Granaries, 6r*c. 

DRY HAIR FEL T— For Covering Steam BoUers & Steam Pipes. 



Felt Tariilsli« — For Felt Roofs, &c. 

FIRE LIGHTS. — For Kindling and Reviving Fires. 

Prospectuses, with Prices, Free by Post. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 







3 1 


i-/ i 


Digitized by 






This book should be retume' 
the Library on or before the last 
stamped below. j 

A fine of five cents a day is incij 
by retaining it beyond the spec 

Please return promptly. 

Digitized by 




Econ 7725.16 

The Irish linen trade hand-book and 

WIdener Library 006617259